Pentagon chiefs' records reflect modern military
(CNN) -- As they plan a U.S. response to the massive terrorist attacks of September 11, President Bush and his administration will be relying on the advice of military brass with pedigrees that reflect the unconventional conflicts of the past four decades.
The current chiefs of the armed services received their commissions during the conflict in Vietnam, and most saw combat in that war. As senior officers, they played roles in either the 1991 Persian Gulf war or 1999's NATO air campaign against Yugoslavia. Some have experience in the military's peacekeeping and humanitarian missions during the Balkan wars of the 1990s. Only one, Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki, is a graduate of the U.S. military academies.
Here are some short biographical sketches of the Joint Chiefs of Staff:
Gen. Richard Myers
President Bush nominated Myers as chairman of the Joint Chiefs in August. He was confirmed by the Senate on September 14, and took over from Army Gen. Hugh Shelton on October 1.
Myers is the first Air Force officer to lead the Joint Chiefs since 1982. His career has included 600 hours of combat experience as a fighter pilot during the Vietnam War, and stints as commander of U.S. forces in Japan and U.S. air forces in the Pacific. He led the North American Aerospace Defense Command and U.S. Space Command from 1998 to 2000, becoming an ardent advocate of using and protecting satellites as military assets.
Adm. Vern Clark
Clark has served as chief of naval operations since July 2000. He is a former commander of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, destroyer skipper and chief of the Atlantic Fleet's anti-submarine warfare school. During the 1991 Persian Gulf war, Clark directed the Joint Staff's Crisis Action Team; after the war, he commanded a carrier battle group in the region and served as deputy chief of the Pentagon's Joint Task Force Southwest Asia.
Gen. James Jones
Jones, the commandant of the Marine Corps, is a former commander of the 2nd Marine Division, military assistant to the secretary of defense and chief of staff for relief operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia. A graduate of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Jones served in Vietnam as a Marine infantry platoon and company commander and later participated in Kurdish relief efforts in Iraq after the Persian Gulf war. He has led the Marine Corps since July 1999.
Gen. John P. Jumper
Jumper was the commander of U.S. air forces in Europe during the 1999 Kosovo conflict with Yugoslavia. Before becoming Air Force chief of staff in September 2000, he served as chief of the Air Combat Command and as deputy chief of staff for air and space operations. A veteran fighter pilot with combat experience in Vietnam, Jumper has also served as the senior military assistant to two defense secretaries -- Dick Cheney, now vice president, and Les Aspin.
Gen. Eric Shinseki
Shinseki, the Army's chief of staff, spent his career with U.S. armored forces before he assumed the U.S. Army's top post in November 1998. He served two combat tours in Vietnam and commanded the Army's 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas. Before being named chief of staff, he served as commander of Army forces in Europe and as chief of NATO's SFOR peacekeeping mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina.