(CNN Student News) -- January 26, 2011
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CARL AZUZ, CNN STUDENT NEWS ANCHOR: Political protests in Egypt, the aftermath of an attack, and a music megastar who's using his fame to raise awareness about a disease. All of it's coming up in this Wednesday edition of CNN Student News. Hello, everyone. I'm Carl Azuz.
AZUZ: The place: Washington, D.C. The event: An annual address to the nation steeped in history, and the response to it. U.S. President Barack Obama and U.S. Representative Paul Ryan, a Republican from Wisconsin, both took to the airwaves last night. CNN Student News brings highlights tomorrow. If you wanna watch the complete speeches, CNNStudentNews.com! You'll find 'em in the "In Depth" box. Click on "State of the Union."
Now, while we're on the subject of State of the Union, we are breaking down the history of the speech for you right now. First stop: U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 3. "The president shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient."
Now, that's what the Constitution requires; there are a lot of things that are traditions that are not required by the Constitution. For one, this address does not have to be annual, though a yearly speech dates back to George Washington. It doesn't need to be in person. In fact, our third president, Thomas Jefferson, had the speech delivered in writing to Congress. And the State of the Union doesn't need to be made at a congressional session of both Houses, though that's what we see every year, and what we saw last night. Here's why the State of the Union address is delivered in late January or early February: the 20th Amendment. It was ratified in 1933, and it specifies that congressional terms start on January third and presidential terms start on January 20th. So, it's when everyone is seated in office that the speech is given in late January or early February.
A little history for ya: President Coolidge was the first president to broadcast the speech over the radio; that was back in 1923. His nickname was "Silent Cal," but he wasn't silent then! President Truman was the first on TV with the speech in 1947. And this is around the time it started being called "State of the Union" instead of the president's annual message to Congress, as it was known before that. And in 2002, President George W. Bush became the first president to deliver the speech on the web.
AZUZ: The members of Arizona's congressional delegation were all planning to sit together for last night's State of the Union address. But they were going to leave one chair empty in honor of Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords. She was one of the victims of a shooting we told you about earlier this month. She's recovering from her injuries, and she's getting a lot of support.
CLASS, HOUSTON, TEXAS: Get well soon, Ms. Giffords!
AZUZ: Those well wishes came from students in Houston, Texas. A lot of people in that community were sending their best wishes and signing "get well soon" cards for the Arizona representative. She was transferred to a hospital in Houston late last week. Doctors say that Giffords is doing well and showing lots of improvement, but that she has a long road ahead of her.
TOMEKA JONES, CNN STUDENT NEWS: See if you can I.D. Me! I'm an African country that's home to more than 80 million people. My national currency is the pound. I border two seas, the Mediterranean and the Red. I'm Egypt, and my current president, Hosni Mubarak, has been in power since 1981.
AZUZ: After the nearly three decades he's spent in power, thousands of Egyptians are calling for President Mubarak to step down. In the U.S., presidents can only serve two terms. But in Egypt, there are no term limits. That's one reason why Mubarak has been president for so long. But protests in the African nation are taking aim at President Mubarak and his government. This YouTube video shows a crowd of protesters moving through the streets in the Egyptian capital of Cairo. The people who organized the protests said they're trying to catch some of the momentum for political change that they saw in the nearby country of Tunisia. That nation's longtime leader was recently removed from power. During yesterday's demonstrations in Egypt, protesters fought with police. Both sides were throwing rocks and tear-gas canisters at each other. Other countries, including the United States, said they were keeping a close eye on the situation.
Moscow Airport Bombing
AZUZ: Russian President Dmitry Medvedev says that whoever is behind Monday's suicide bombing at Moscow's busiest airport will be found and will be punished. The attack killed dozens of people, injured more than 150 others. And sadly, this bombing isn't an isolated incident. Over the last decade, trains and planes around Moscow have been bombed at least four times. President Medvedev said that part of the blame for Monday's attack is on the people who were responsible for the airport's security.
RUSSIAN PRESIDENT DMITRY MEDVEDEV [TRANSLATED]: What happened at Domodedovo shows that the airport lacked security. It's unbelievable that such a huge amount of explosives was brought into the terminal. Those officials responsible for security at Domodedovo must be punished for their decisions. This is a terror attack, a grief, a tragedy.
START Treaty Ratified
AZUZ: President Obama called President Medvedev yesterday to offer his condolences about the bombing. During that same call, he congratulated the Russian president on the progress toward a new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, or START. This would reduce the number of nuclear weapons in both the U.S. and Russia. Presidents Medvedev and Obama signed the treaty last April. Part of Russia's parliament approved that treaty yesterday. The U.S. Senate did the same thing last month. President Obama calls the START "the most significant arms control agreement in nearly two decades."
JOHN LISK, CNN STUDENT NEWS: Today's Shoutout goes out to Mrs. Sheets' American History classes at Glades Middle School in Miramar, Florida! What part of the human body produces insulin? You know what to do! Is it the: A) Liver, B) Kidneys, C) Pancreas or D) Lungs? You've got three seconds -- GO! Your pancreas makes insulin, which helps control your body's blood sugar. That's your answer and that's your Shoutout!
AZUZ: When someone's body has problems controlling blood sugar, it could mean the person has diabetes. The American Diabetes Association estimates that more than 23 million Americans have some form of this disease. And that includes one member of the Jonas Brothers. Dr. Sanjay Gupta shows us how he's trying to help other people who are living with diabetes.
DR. SANJAY GUPTA, CNN CHIEF MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT: The Jonas Brothers have been one of the most successful young acts for the past several years, having sold millions of records and entertaining audiences all over the globe. They just completed a world tour about a month ago, which took them from the United States to Argentina, Brazil, Europe and the United Arab Emirates. Now, shortly after the group signed their first recording contract, Nick, the youngest Jonas Brother, was diagnosed with Type I, or juvenile diabetes.
NICK JONAS, JONAS BROTHERS: I was diagnosed in November of 2005. So, I was about 13. I lost 15 pounds in a total of about three weeks, which was a bit startling considering I only weighed about 105 pounds to start with.
GUPTA: Nick was told his blood sugar was over 700. A normal level is below 125.
JONAS: My commitment to myself when I was on my way to the hospital was that I would not let this slow me down.
GUPTA: Nick has learned to live with his disease and hasn't let it get in the way of the Jonas Brothers' success. Two and a half years after his diagnosis, on a day when Nick says his blood sugar was a little out of control, he wrote a song about having diabetes. He says writing "A Little Bit Longer" was therapy for him, and fans have told him it's helped them cope as well.
JONAS: I think just the fact that I can say, look, you're just like everybody else, you can do what you want to do, and you can do it with diabetes, that's the best thing in the world.
GUPTA: Jonas says he is thankful to be able to do what he loves and uses his fame to educate people about the disease. With the Jonas Brothers Change for the Children Foundation, Nick has been raising awareness and funds for diabetes research for several years now.
JONAS: What we can do financially is great and I'm always happy to do that, but if there is something that I can do personally to inspire or encourage somebody, that means the world.
Before We Go
AZUZ: Before we go, during a timeout at a women's college basketball game, one of the school's officials was randomly chosen from the audience to try a half-court shot. Mr. Showoff decides he's gonna do it backwards. There's no way this is going to work, right? Bam! Nails it! He won a set of brand new tires in the process. Now, we couldn't make sense of a pun about a backwards basket.
AZUZ: I mean, we gave it a shot, but it just went over our heads. Gosh, we just never tire of this. All right, today's sign-off line comes from Jay at Facebook.com/CNNStudentNews. Signing off for the next 23 hours and 50 minutes, this... is... Carl Azuz. Send us your sign-off line at Facebook.com/CNNStudentNews. I may just read it on the air. Have a great one!