Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI Fast FactsBy CNN LibraryUpdated 1923 GMT (0223 HKT) April 28, 2014Just WatchedPope explains why he's resigningreplayMore Videos ...Pope explains why he's resigning 01:43Here's a look at Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI's life.Personal:Birth date: April 16, 1927Birth place: Marktl am Inn, GermanyBirth name: Joseph RatzingerFather: Joseph Ratzinger, a police officerMother: Maria RatzingerEducation: University of Munich, doctorate in theology, 1953Religion: Roman CatholicOther Facts:The first pope to resign since Gregory XII in 1415. Is a conservative, considered the driving force behind crackdowns on liberation theology, religious pluralism, challenges to traditional moral teachings on issues such as homosexuality, and dissent on issues such as women's ordination, according to CNN's John Allen in "Who is Pope Benedict XVI."Served as chief theological adviser to Pope John Paul II.Positions held: Prefect of Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, President of the Pontifical Biblical Commission and International Theological Commission, and Dean of the College of CardinalsJust WatchedPope cites 'advanced age' in resignationreplayMore Videos ...Pope cites 'advanced age' in resignation 04:29PLAY VIDEOJust WatchedAbuse by priests mars pope's legacyreplayMore Videos ...Abuse by priests mars pope's legacy 04:54PLAY VIDEOJust WatchedPope Benedict's German rootsreplayMore Videos ...Pope Benedict's German roots 02:50PLAY VIDEOJust Watched2005: Pope Benedict's first MassreplayMore Videos ...2005: Pope Benedict's first Mass 05:13PLAY VIDEOAs dean of the College of Cardinals, it was his duty to call the cardinals to Rome for conclave after the death of Pope John Paul II.Is an accomplished pianist and loves Mozart.Timeline:1945 - During World War II, he deserts the German army and is taken prisoner by the U.S. Army. June 29, 1951 - Is ordained as a priest.1959-1969 - Teaches theology at various colleges in Germany.1969 - Vice president and professor of theology at the University of Regensburg in Germany.March 1977 - Is named Archbishop of Munich and Freising and is consecrated on May 28, 1977.June 27, 1977 - Is made a cardinal by Pope Paul VI.November 25, 1981 - Is named Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; President of the Biblical Commission and of the Pontifical International Theological Commission.November 6, 1998 - Is elected vice dean of the College of Cardinals.November 30, 2002 - Is named the dean of the College of Cardinals. April 19, 2005 - Is elected the 265th pope by 115 cardinals.April 24, 2005 - His inaugural Mass takes place.August 19, 2005 - Becomes the second pope in history to visit a synagogue when he speaks at the Roonstrasse Synagogue in Cologne, Germany.January 25, 2006 - Issues his first encyclical, focusing on the subjects of love, eros, charity, and politics.March 24, 2006 - Holds his first consistory and formally elevates 15 men to the level of cardinal. The next day, a ceremony is held in Saint Peter's Square in which the pope presents each of the new cardinals with a golden ring to symbolize their fidelity to the church.May 25, 2006 - Travels to Poland to pay homage to the late Pope John Paul II. He visits John Paul's birth home in Wadowice, and travels to Krakow, the city where John Paul II lived before he assumed the papacy in 1978. Benedict XVI also visits the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.September 12-20, 2006 - Gives a speech in Bavaria, Germany that includes quotes from 14th-century Byzantine emperor Manuel II Paleologus, regarding Islam and the Prophet Mohammed. The speech sparks protests by Muslims around the world and causes the recall of the Moroccan envoy to the Vatican. The pope apologizes for the offense to the Muslim world.November 28, 2006 - Arrives in Turkey for his first visit as pope.May 9, 2007 - Arrives in Brazil for a six day visit, his first as pope.June 9, 2007 - Meets with U.S. President George W. Bush at the Vatican, the first meeting between the two. Their discussions include Iraq, Muslim relations, and AIDS.September 7-9, 2007 - The pope travels to Austria for the 850th anniversary of the Mariazell shrine. October 28, 2007 - The pope beatifies 498 victims of the Spanish Civil War of the 1930s. It is the largest mass beatification in history. November 24, 2007 - Elevates 23 senior clergy to the position of cardinal.April 15-20, 2008 - Visits the U.S. for the first time as pope.April 17, 2008 - Holds Mass at Nationals Park in Washington, D.C. with an estimated 46,000 in attendance. Later in the day, meets with Bernie McDaid, Olan Horne, and Faith Johnston, three victims of sexual abuse by clergymen. April 18, 2008 - Delivers a speech to the United Nations General Assembly.April 19, 2008 - Celebrates Mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral. April 20, 2008 - Prays at ground zero in lower Manhattan, before leading a Mass at Yankee Stadium in front of 60,000 people. October 12, 2008 - Canonizes four new saints, including the first female saint from India. February 12, 2009 - Makes a statement denouncing anti-Semitism a month after a scandal involving a bishop who denied the death toll of Jews killed in concentration camps during World War II.March 17-23, 2009 - Makes his first trip to Africa as pope, traveling to Cameroon and Angola, and reaffirms the Catholic Church's ban on condom use. April 26, 2009 - Names five new saints: Rev. Arcangelo Tadini, Nuno Alvares Pereira, Bernardo Tolomei, Gertrude Comensoli and Caterina Volpicelli.May 8-15, 2009 - Makes his first trip to the Middle East - making stops in Jordan and Israel to meet with Israeli and Palestinian leaders. July 17, 2009 - Has surgery after breaking his wrist in a fall while on vacation.August 3, 2009 - The pope signs record deal with Geffen Records to record his songs and prayers to the Virgin Mary. November 23, 2009 - The pope's new album, "Alma Mater," is released.June 11, 2010 - During a Mass at Saint Peter's Basilica, the pope asks forgiveness for sexual abuse within the church and promises to do more to stop future incidents. July 15, 2010 - The Vatican announces the toughening of its laws on priests involved in sexual abuse. September 16-19, 2010 - The pope travels to England and Scotland, the first official visit to the United Kingdom by a pope. Pope John Paul II made a pastoral visit in 1982. September 16, 2010 - The pope makes a statement that the Roman Catholic Church has not been vigilant enough or fast enough in responding to the problem of sexual abuse by priests. June 28, 2011 - The pope sends his first tweet, via the Vatican's Twitter account, to announce the launch of the new Vatican website. The tweet is prepared in advance for the pope, but he presses the send button. March 26-28, 2012 - The pope visits Cuba. He celebrates Mass in Revolution Plaza and also meets with the country's former leader, Fidel Castro.May 26, 2012 - The Vatican announces that Pope Benedict XVI's butler Paolo Gabriele has been arrested for illegal possession of confidential documents. He is suspected of leaking documents to journalist Gianluigi Nuzzi, author of the controversial book "Sua Santita." October 6, 2012 - The pope's former butler, Paolo Gabriele, is convicted of aggravated theft for leaking confidential papal documents and sentenced to 18 months in prison.October 21, 2012 - Names seven new saints, two of them Americans: 17th century Mohawk Kateri Tekakwitha, the first Native American, and Marianne Cope, a nun who devoted 30 years of her life helping lepers in Hawaii. The five other new saints are 19th century French Jesuit Jacques Berthieu, Pedro Calungsod of the Philippines, Giovanni Battista Piamarta, Maria Carmen Salles y Barangueras and Anna Schaffer.November 21, 2012 - The pope's book "Jesus of Nazareth: The Infancy Narratives" is released. In the book, the pope claims the Christian calendar is based on a mistake by a sixth century monk, who was several years off in his calculation of Jesus' birth date. December 3, 2012 - The pope's Twitter account goes live in seven languages and has thousands of followers within minutes.February 11, 2013 - Pope Benedict XVI announces that he will retire, effective February 28. He cites his "advanced age" as the reason. February 28, 2013 - Pope Benedict XVI leaves the Vatican by helicopter for the papal retreat in Castel Gandolfo. He is expected to remain there while the next pope is chosen. Benedict XVI will then return to the Vatican to live in a former gardener's house. He makes his last remarks as Pope from the balcony at Castel Gandolfo, saying, "I am simply a pilgrim beginning the last leg of his pilgrimage on this earth." At 8 pm local time (2 pm EST) Benedict XVI's reign officially ends.May 2, 2013 - Pope Benedict XVI returns to live in the Vatican alongside Pope Francis. February 22, 2014 - Benedict makes a surprise appearance at St. Peter's Basilica as Pope Francis creates 19 new cardinals. April 27, 2014 - Attends the canonization ceremony of popes John XXIII and John Paul II as a guest.Pope FrancisPope Francis' Christmas messagePope Francis wants to bring hope to Christians and other ethnic and religious groups suffering "brutal persecution" in Iraq and Syria. Pope attacks 'diseases' of VaticanPope Francis has unleashed a blistering critique of the Vatican bureaucracy criticizing its "illnesses."Pope plays key role in Cuba dealPope Francis celebrated his birthday with a major geopolitical wish granted: The end of frozen relations between the U.S. and Cuba.Pope Francis on modern slaveryPope Francis said that modern slavery is a "crime against humanity" and is "unfortunately becoming worse and worse every day."Pope to make first U.S. trip next fallPope Francis is to make his first trip to the United States as the head of the Catholic Church next September.Vatican proposes 'stunning' shift on gays, lesbiansA Vatican report says the church should welcome and appreciate gays, and offers a solution for divorced and remarried Catholics who want to receive Communion.Pope excommunicates Italian Mafia membersUsing his strongest language to date, Pope Francis told Italian Mafia members that they are excommunicated from the Catholic Church.Pope opposes making recreational drugs legal"Drug addiction is an evil, and with evil there can be no yielding or compromise," Pope Francis said.Drugs, capitalism, homosexuality -- no topic off limitsNo topic has been off limits for Pope Francis so far. Francis ditches bulletproof PopemobilePope Francis prefers not to use a bulletproof Popemobile because it is a glass "sardine can" that walls him off from people.Abbas, Peres pray with Pope for Mideast peacePalestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli President Shimon Peres committed themselves to the quest for peace with Pope Francis.Pleasing the Papal palateAs the Holy Land prepares for a papal visit, Ivan Watson speaks to the man preparing to honor the pontiff with his food.How to measure the 'Francis effect' Not a jot of doctrine has changed in the year since Francis became Pope. But there's more than one way to measure his impact. Pope Francis appoints 19 new cardinalsPope Francis created 19 new cardinals in a ceremony in the Vatican's St. Peter's Basilica -- the first such appointments since he was elected pontiff.One year of Pope Francis"The spring evening in which Pope Francis was elected is an apt symbol of the beginning of his papacy and the years that will follow," writes a priest.Photos: Pope Francis' first yearTake a look at Pope Francis' first year in photos with our gallery.Pope embraces disfigured manIt was the embrace that melted hearts worldwide.Pope leaves lasting impressionOn Easter Sunday, Pope Francis kisses and hugs disabled boy lifted up in the crowd.Vatican to reconnect with scienceWith the new pope himself a trained scientist, could the timing could be right for a new era of cooperation between the Vatican and science?Humble pope has complicated past Pope Francis is being painted as a humble and simple man, but his past is tinged with controversy. More from world43 Philippine police killed by Muslim rebels while hunting bomb makersDismissing Hong Kong's disability tabooWho is Sajida al-Rishawi? And why does ISIS care about her?