Skip to main content
Part of complete coverage on

China's great migration from 'Hukou Hell'

By Kristie Lu Stout, CNN
February 8, 2013 -- Updated 1527 GMT (2327 HKT)
A man prepares to take the train at the entrance of Beijing Railway Station on January 28.
A man prepares to take the train at the entrance of Beijing Railway Station on January 28.
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Household registration system "Hukou" behind China's mass migration
  • System divides the population into rural and urban residents
  • Citizens can only access social services where they are registered
  • Migrant workers have restricted access to education, welfare, medical and housing benefits

Are you celebrating the Lunar New Year? Send images and video to CNN iReport and be part of CNN's coverage.

Hong Kong (CNN) -- At this very moment, in a major Chinese city, a worker is boarding a train home.

His journey is just one of 3.4 billion trips that will be taken during China's Lunar New Year.

An unprecedented number of Chinese will travel home this year to be with family and friends during the holiday, making it the world's largest annual migration of people.

Their yearly homecoming has been repeated over and over for the past two decades, reuniting families in the villages with the workers who have fueled China's economic miracle.

But that growth has come at a tremendous personal cost thanks in part to a household registration system called "hukou."

The hukou is akin to an internal passport that divides the population into rural and urban residents. As such, migrant workers are prevented from accessing social services in the city they're working in.

Photos: China's great migration

Year of the Snake: A hit or a hiss?
Millions on the move in China
Feng Shui Index offers 2013 predictions

The deeply discriminatory nature of China's hukou system came into clear focus last month after the fatal collapse of a bridge in Henan. Local media reports said victims' families with an urban hukou would receive 400,000 yuan in compensation compared to 180,000 yuan for those with a rural hukou.

The institutionalized restriction of people's movement in China goes back for centuries, and was re-introduced by the Communist Party after 1949. Labor rights activist Han Dongfang of China Labor Bulletin says China's booming economy in recent years has made many hukou restrictions disappear, especially those that restrict the freedom of movement.

"But restrictions on access to education, welfare, medical and housing benefits still exist and disproportionately affect the poorest and least educated citizens," he says.

"In effect, the hukou system now only targets the poor."

Opinion: Why I dread Chinese New Year

Han was a democracy activist who set up the Beijing Workers' Autonomous Federation during the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. He has spent the last two decades in exile in Hong Kong, defending worker rights in China.

Though not many people outside China have heard of the hukou system, Han says they must for a very simple reason -- the bottom line. Meaningful hukou reform would bring more riches to China's workers and the world.

"If 200 million Chinese workers, which is only about one-third of the total labor force in China, become regular consumers and taxpayers, not only will China's economy benefit, the rest of the world will benefit as well, as China consumes more products and services from abroad."

Rob Schmitz, the China-based correspondent for Marketplace, often reports on labor issues in China. He puts the plight of China's migrant workers under the hukou system in simple and stark terms: "They are treated like illegal immigrants inside their own country."

Today's younger workers... are much more likely to express their discontent with the system
Han Dongfang, China Labor Bulletin

And these "illegals" make up a major portion of the urban populace. Beijing may have a population of over 20 million, but migrant workers make up a third of its residents. Thanks to the hukou system, one-third of the population of the Chinese capital are without access to basic services like health care and education.

"One of the biggest issues within the hukou system is the children," says Schmitz. "Many children are born in the large cities where their parents have moved to. This is their hometown, as far as they know it... but once they turn a certain age, and if they want to go to college someday, they will have to move to where their household registration is in their 'lao jia' or home village."

It's no surprise that many migrant workers choose to leave their children behind in their hometown to be raised by their grandparents. They are called "liu dong er tong" or "floating children."

China Labour Bulletin estimates there are some 16 million children "floating children" in China. The group says they have a substandard education. They're more prone to violence and crime. They are more vulnerable to sexual abuse.

What fortune will the Year of the Snake bring you?

Beijing has vowed to reform the hukou system as part of a greater urbanization drive -- encouraging more Chinese to move to cities where they can earn more and spend more.

And China's newest generation of migrant workers are pushing -- and protesting -- for that reform to come quickly.

"Today's younger workers, who have greater aspirations and expectations than their parents, are much more likely to express their discontent with the system, especially the way it restricts their access to public schooling for their children, subsidized housing, health care, etc.," says Han.

They are treated like illegal immigrants inside their own country
Rob Schmitz, Marketplace

"They see themselves as urban residents and believe more that they should have equal access to such services."

Suki Chung of Labour Action China adds that China's latest generation of workers are more rights-aware and willing to challenge the long-held registration system.

"For the first generation of migrant workers, their hometown subsidized them and their children could go to school at home. But the new generation want their family to stay in the city."

After two decades of the "Great Migration," China's latest generation of workers simply want to stay put.

To hell with the hukou.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
August 19, 2014 -- Updated 0513 GMT (1313 HKT)
Chinese are turning to overseas personal shoppers to get their hands on luxury goods at lower prices.
August 15, 2014 -- Updated 0908 GMT (1708 HKT)
Experts say rapidly rising numbers of Christians are making it harder for authorities to control the religion's spread.
August 11, 2014 -- Updated 0452 GMT (1252 HKT)
"I'm proud of their moral standing," says Harvey Humphrey. His parents are accused of corporate crimes in China.
August 6, 2014 -- Updated 1942 GMT (0342 HKT)
A TV confession detailing a life of illegal gambling and paid-for sex has capped the dramatic fall of one of China's most high-profile social media celebrities.
July 31, 2014 -- Updated 0410 GMT (1210 HKT)
President Xi Jinping's campaign to punish corrupt Chinese officials has snared its biggest target -- where can the campaign go from here?
July 30, 2014 -- Updated 0712 GMT (1512 HKT)
All you need to know about the tainted meat produce that affects fast food restaurants across China, Hong Kong, and Japan.
July 18, 2014 -- Updated 0230 GMT (1030 HKT)
Some savvy individuals in China are claiming naming rights to valuable foreign brands. Here's how companies can combat them.
July 16, 2014 -- Updated 0911 GMT (1711 HKT)
Is the Chinese president a true reformist or merely a "dictator" in disguise? CNN's Beijing bureau chief Jaime FlorCruz dissects the leader's policies
July 8, 2014 -- Updated 0344 GMT (1144 HKT)
With a population of 1.3 billion, you'd think that there would be 11 people in China who are good enough to put up a fight on the football pitch.
July 4, 2014 -- Updated 0631 GMT (1431 HKT)
26-year-old Ji Cheng is the first rider from China to compete for competitive cycling's highest honor.
July 7, 2014 -- Updated 1124 GMT (1924 HKT)
China's richest man, Wang Jianlin, may not yet be a household name outside of China, but that could be about to change.
July 3, 2014 -- Updated 2357 GMT (0757 HKT)
When President Xi Jinping arrives in Seoul this week, the Chinese leader will have passed over North Korea in favor of its arch rival.
July 1, 2014 -- Updated 0656 GMT (1456 HKT)
The push for democratic reform in Hong Kong is testing China's "one country, two systems" model.
June 30, 2014 -- Updated 1156 GMT (1956 HKT)
Along a winding Chinese mountain road dotted with inns and restaurants is Jinan Orphanage, a place of refuge and site for troubled parents to dump unwanted children.
June 26, 2014 -- Updated 0836 GMT (1636 HKT)
CNN's Kristie Lu Stout invites Isaac Mao, Han Dongfang, and James Miles to discuss the rise of civil society in China and social media's crucial role.
June 26, 2014 -- Updated 0334 GMT (1134 HKT)
Chen Guangbiao wants rich people to give more to charity and he'll do anything to get their attention, including buying lunch for poor New Yorkers.
June 26, 2014 -- Updated 1144 GMT (1944 HKT)
Architects are planning to build the future world's tallest towers in China. They're going to come in pretty colors.
ADVERTISEMENT