Skip to main content

Do violent video games play a role in shootings?

By Brad Bushman, Special to CNN
September 18, 2013 -- Updated 1704 GMT (0104 HKT)
Twelve people were killed in a shooting rampage at the Washington Navy Yard on September 16. Here are photos of some of the victims: Vishnu Bhalchandra Pandit, 61, of North Potomac, Maryland. Twelve people were killed in a shooting rampage at the Washington Navy Yard on September 16. Here are photos of some of the victims: Vishnu Bhalchandra Pandit, 61, of North Potomac, Maryland.
HIDE CAPTION
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
Navy Yard shooting victims
<<
<
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
>
>>
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Aaron Alexis killed 13 people at Washington Navy Yard on Monday
  • Brad Bushman: Does playing violent video games contribute to aggression?
  • He says violent games alone may not push people to kill, but they aren't harmless
  • Bushman: Playing video games can make players more aggressive

Editor's note: Brad Bushman is a professor of communication and psychology at Ohio State University.

(CNN) -- In the wake of the shooting rampage at the Washington Navy Yard on Monday that left 13 dead, we have seen the resurrection of an all-too-familiar debate: Did violent video games make the killer do it?

Reports suggest that the gunman, Aaron Alexis, played quite a bit of violent video games. Friends have said to reporters that his heavy game use, described as up to 16 hours at a time, may help explain his actions.

Just as quickly, video game fans have jumped to defend the violent first-person shooting games. "Don't Blame Violent Video Games for Monday's Mass Shooting" said the headline of an Atlantic op-ed.

Brad Bushman
Brad Bushman

The problem is that people are looking for a yes-or-no answer about the role of video games in violence, when there is none. Violent video games alone likely didn't cause Alexis to go on his rampage. But these games aren't harmless, either. Recent reports suggest he may have been mentally ill and had anger control issues. But it isn't hard to believe that video game use may have been a contributing factor.

My colleagues and I found that typical college students who played violent video games for 20 minutes at a time for three consecutive days showed increasingly higher levels of aggressive behavior each day they played. If that's what happens to typical college students, how might someone like Alexis react to playing for 16 straight hours? What if he does this for months or years?

Other researchers have found similar results. My colleagues and I conducted a comprehensive review of 136 articles reporting 381 effects involving over 130,000 participants around the world. These studies show that violent video games increase aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure), and aggressive behavior. Violent games also decrease helping behavior and feelings of empathy for others. The effects occurred for males and females of all ages, regardless of what country they lived in.

Despite the evidence, many people still deny violent media effects for a variety of reasons that I summarized in a Psychology Today piece.

Alexis was not the first mass killer to have an obsession with violent video games. Adam Lanza, who killed 26 children in an elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, was also said to be a fan of first-person shooting games. Other killers have been found to be avid players.

The effects of these games go beyond making players more aggressive. In our research, we found that people who played first-person shooting games were more accurate than others when firing a realistic gun at a mannequin -- and more likely to aim for and hit the head.

Who was the Navy Yard shooter?
Police: Navy Yard shooter heard voices

Police haven't released details of the Navy Yard shootings, but it is possible that Alexis was a more accurate shooter because of the time he spent playing video games. That's an inconvenient fact that you don't often hear defenders of the games talk about.

But the argument I hear most often is that video games can't be dangerous because millions of people play these games without becoming violent. No doubt, most players don't become violent. That's because they come from good homes, aren't victims of bullying, don't have mental health issues, and don't have many of the other risk factors for violence.

But what about players who already are predisposed to violence? Killers like Aaron Alexis aren't typical. They have a lot going against them, such as mental illness. Violent video games are just one more factor that may be pushing them toward violence.

We don't have a lot of control over many of the factors that can contribute to violent behavior. But we have some control over violent video games. We can make it more difficult to get access to them. We can strengthen our laws against teens acquiring these games. Parents can keep the games out of their homes and help their children avoid them at friends' houses.

As a society, we should do all we can to make violent rampages like the one in Washington less likely, even if we can't stop them entirely. Controlling the use of violent video games is one step we can take to help protect our society from violence.

Follow us on Twitter @CNNOpinion.

Join us on Facebook/CNNOpinion.

The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of Brad Bushman.

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 2047 GMT (0447 HKT)
Jim Bell says NASA's latest discovery support the notion that habitable worlds are probably common in the galaxy.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1817 GMT (0217 HKT)
Jay Parini says even the Gospels skip the actual Resurrection and are sketchy on the appearances that followed.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1752 GMT (0152 HKT)
Graham Allison says if an unchecked and emboldened Russia foments conflict in a nation like Latvia, a NATO member, the West would have to defend it.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1311 GMT (2111 HKT)
John Sutter: Bad news, guys -- the pangolin we adopted is missing.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1252 GMT (2052 HKT)
Ben Wildavsky says we need a better way to determine whether colleges are turning out graduates with superior education and abilities.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1026 GMT (1826 HKT)
Charles Maclin, program manager working on the search and recovery of Malaysia Flight 370, explains how it works.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1250 GMT (2050 HKT)
Jill Koyama says Michael Bloomberg is right to tackle gun violence, but we need to go beyond piecemeal state legislation.
April 17, 2014 -- Updated 1845 GMT (0245 HKT)
Michael Bloomberg and Shannon Watts say Americans are ready for sensible gun laws, but politicians are cowed by the NRA. Everytown for Gun Safety will prove the NRA is not that powerful.
April 17, 2014 -- Updated 1328 GMT (2128 HKT)
Ruben Navarrette says Steve Israel is right: Some Republicans encourage anti-Latino prejudice. But that kind of bias is not limited to the GOP.
April 16, 2014 -- Updated 2323 GMT (0723 HKT)
Peggy Drexler counts the ways Phyllis Schlafly's argument that lower pay for women helps them nab a husband is ridiculous.
April 16, 2014 -- Updated 1642 GMT (0042 HKT)
Rick McGahey says Rep. Paul Ryan is signaling his presidential ambitions by appealing to hard core Republican values
April 16, 2014 -- Updated 1539 GMT (2339 HKT)
Paul Saffo says current Google Glasses are doomed to become eBay collectibles, but they are only the leading edge of a surge in wearable tech that will change our lives
April 15, 2014 -- Updated 1849 GMT (0249 HKT)
Kathleen Blee says the KKK and white power or neo-Nazi groups give haters the purpose and urgency to use violence.
April 16, 2014 -- Updated 1156 GMT (1956 HKT)
Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse and Rep. Henry Waxman say read deep, and you'll see the federal Keystone pipeline report spells out the pipeline is bad news
April 16, 2014 -- Updated 1153 GMT (1953 HKT)
Frida Ghitis says President Obama needs to stop making empty threats against Russia and consider other options
ADVERTISEMENT