Skip to main content
Part of complete coverage on

The girl with no identity: Being a second child in China

By Feng Ke and Katie Hunt, CNN
November 11, 2013 -- Updated 2346 GMT (0746 HKT)
Li Xue sits with her parents at their Beijing home.
Li Xue sits with her parents at their Beijing home.
STORY HIGHLIGHTS
  • Twenty-year-old Li Xue has a passion for learning but has never spent a day at school
  • A second child born under China's one-child policy, she says she was not entitled to a state education
  • China's family planning laws have been in place for three decades
  • China may soon ease some restrictions, state media have said

Beijing (CNN) -- Twenty-year-old Li Xue has a passion for learning but has never spent a day at school.

The only way she could study was by borrowing books with her elder sister's library card and begging her for lessons.

As a second child born under the strictures of China's one-child policy, she was not entitled to a state education.

Nor did she have access to subsidized health care that most city dwellers enjoy. She used her mother's and sister's identity cards to buy medicine when she fell ill.

Unhappiness over China one-child policy
Chinese skirt one-child policy
What in the world?

"She kept asking me why she can't go to school, why she can't while all others do, and I had no idea how to respond her except repeating that she is a second child," her mother Bai Xiuling, a former factory worker, told CNN from her modest bare-brick home.

Li says she was not jealous of her 28-year-old sister, but grateful because she tutored her in her spare time.

"I want to learn as much as she does but it's different because she can go to school and I cannot."

Her mother fell unexpectedly pregnant in 1993. Despite the risks, she went ahead with the pregnancy. A childhood bout of polio damaged her leg and she wanted to have another child to take care of her in old age.

China's family planning laws require most families living in urban areas to have one child. The policy is looser in rural areas and can also be skirted by those who can afford to pay the eye-watering fines.

But Li's parents could not pay the 5,000 yuan ($820) penalty and authorities denied Li her household registration documents, or "hukou," which entitle city residents to subsidized health, housing and education.

Reform?

The one-child policy, though applauded by many for slowing down China's population growth, has been widely criticized for resulting in forced abortions and hefty fines that are sometimes used to enforce it.

Some critics say the law hurts China's elderly, who typically rely on their children for support in old age, and even constrains economic growth as the working age population begins to decline.

READ: Forced abortion sparks outrage, debate in China

In August, Xinhua, China's state news agency, said China was deliberating relaxing the policy to allow couples, where one parent is an only child, to have two children. Currently, both parents must be sole children to be eligible for a second child.

The government is also debating a two-child policy after 2015, according to state media.

"We are optimistic that an end to the one-child policy will soon be confirmed," economists Ting Lu and Xiaojia Zhi wrote in an August report for investment house Bank of America Merrill Lynch.

Li Xue, right, and her sister Li Bin.
Li Xue, right, and her sister Li Bin.

They said that reform of the three-decade old policy could happen after a key four-day gathering of China's top leaders -- the Communist Party's third plenum -- which began on Saturday.

But even if the policy is eased, it is unlikely to make life easier for Liand others like her.

Her family have campaigned relentlessly for her to have the "hukou" documents they believe she is entitled to in order to live a normal life.

They have petitioned local and national authorities and are pursuing their case through the legal system, but, so far, to no avail.

Instead, her mother and father said they have been beaten and harassed by the local police.

"Li Xue's father and I were beaten brutally in 2001. I couldn't get out of bed for almost two months, and her sister had to take care of me," said Bai.

Local police declined to comment when contacted by CNN.

Chinese newborn, allegedly sold by doctor, is returned to parents

'Never give up'

In September, the family received notice that their case would be heard by the Beijing High People's Court but they are not optimistic that the case will be resolved in their favor.

A spokesperson for the court told CNN that the case is now being examined and an announcement will be made in due course. There were two possible outcomes; either the case would be retried or the original verdict affirmed, the spokesperson said.

"The only thing we want is an explanation of why our daughter has no "hukou", and no more," said Li's father, Li Hongyu.

In 2011, Li started a microblog on Weibo, China's equivalent of Twitter. She hopes her online presence will help draw attention to her plight, and she wants to use the platform to initiate more positive change for people in her position.

When asked what she would major in if she had a chance to go to university, Li says she would like to become a lawyer.

"I do enjoy studying law and hope I could use this to help other people, but right now, I have to be practical and solve my most urgent problem -- becoming a legal second child," she said.

"Sometimes I doubt whether what I do will change anything, but I think I'll carry on," she said, echoing the name of her blog -- Little Xue never give up.

China's only children less trusting, avoid risk, study finds

Katie Hunt wrote and reported from Hong Kong

ADVERTISEMENT
Part of complete coverage on
December 22, 2014 -- Updated 0551 GMT (1351 HKT)
David McKenzie meets some American teenagers who are spending a year in China to be fully immersed in the culture.
December 22, 2014 -- Updated 0259 GMT (1059 HKT)
Chinese students show a handmade red ribbon one day ahead of the the World AIDS Day, at a school in Hanshan, east China's Anhui province on November 30, 2009.
The Chinese government pledges to protect a boy with HIV, who was shunned by his entire village in Sichuan, state media reported.
December 15, 2014 -- Updated 1144 GMT (1944 HKT)
A Chinese couple allegedly threw hot water on a flight attendant and threatened to blow up the plane.
December 15, 2014 -- Updated 0503 GMT (1303 HKT)
China's 1.3 billion citizens may soon find it much harder to belt out their national anthem at will.
December 10, 2014 -- Updated 0021 GMT (0821 HKT)
Los Angeles in the last century went through its own smog crisis. The city's mayor says LA's experience delivers valuable lessons for Beijing.
December 6, 2014 -- Updated 0542 GMT (1342 HKT)
At the height of his power, security chief Zhou Yongkang controlled China's police, spy agencies and courts. Now, he's under arrest.
December 5, 2014 -- Updated 0826 GMT (1626 HKT)
China says it will end organ transplants from executed prisoners but tradition means that donors are unlikely to make up the shortfall.
December 5, 2014 -- Updated 0648 GMT (1448 HKT)
China's skylines could look a lot more uniform in the years to come, if a statement by a top Beijing official is to believed.
December 3, 2014 -- Updated 0855 GMT (1655 HKT)
Despite a high-profile anti-corruption drive, China's position on an international corruption index has deteriorated in the past year.
November 26, 2014 -- Updated 1201 GMT (2001 HKT)
A daring cross-border raid by one of Russian President Vladimir Putin's associates has -- so far -- yet to sour Sino-Russian relations.
November 24, 2014 -- Updated 0051 GMT (0851 HKT)
A 24-hour bookstore in Taipei is a popular hangout for both hipsters and bookworms.
November 25, 2014 -- Updated 0153 GMT (0953 HKT)
China is building an island in the South China Sea that could accommodate an airstrip, according to IHS Jane's Defence Weekly.
November 19, 2014 -- Updated 1057 GMT (1857 HKT)
North Korean refugees and defectors face a daunting journey to reach asylum in South Korea, with gangs of smugglers the only option.
November 21, 2014 -- Updated 2319 GMT (0719 HKT)
China and "probably one or two other" countries have the capacity to shut down the nation's power grid and other critical infrastructure.
ADVERTISEMENT