Skip to main content

'War on Boko Haram': African, Western nations unify in hunt for Nigerian girls

By Michael Martinez, Pierre Meilhan and Faith Karimi, CNN
May 17, 2014 -- Updated 2302 GMT (0702 HKT)
  • NEW: France will not intervene militarily in Nigeria, president says
  • Cameroon soldier killed, 10 Chinese missing, one injured after Boko Haram attack
  • Boko Haram acts as an al Qaeda operation in central Africa, Nigeria says
  • "We're here to declare war on Boko Haram," Cameroon leader says at summit

Full coverage of CNN international correspondent Nima Elbagir's Chibok journey will screen on CNN International on Saturday 17 May at 2100 CET, Sunday 18 May at 0030 CET, 0400 CET and 1200 CET and Monday 19 May at 0730 CET.

(CNN) -- Nigeria and four neighboring countries will share intelligence and border surveillance in the hunt for more than 200 Nigerian girls still held by Boko Haram, and Western nations will provide technical expertise and training to the new regional African effort against the extreme Islamists.

The plan was announced Saturday at the conclusion of a security summit in Paris hosted by French President François Hollande.

Hollande described Boko Haram as now a bigger terror threat than first portrayed -- beyond Nigeria and even Africa.

"Boko Haram is an organization that is linked to terrorism in Africa and whose will is to destabilize the north of Nigeria, certainly, and all the neighboring countries of Nigeria and beyond that region," he said.

Frustrations build after Boko Haram attack
Nigeria: A stolen education
Boko Haram negotiator shares insights
Nigeria: 54 girls ID'd in Boko Haram tape
Police in riot gear block a route in Abuja, Nigeria, on Tuesday, October 14, during a demonstration calling on the Nigerian government to rescue schoolgirls kidnapped by the Islamist militant group Boko Haram. In April, more than 200 girls were abducted from their boarding school in northeastern Nigeria, officials and witnesses said. Police in riot gear block a route in Abuja, Nigeria, on Tuesday, October 14, during a demonstration calling on the Nigerian government to rescue schoolgirls kidnapped by the Islamist militant group Boko Haram. In April, more than 200 girls were abducted from their boarding school in northeastern Nigeria, officials and witnesses said.
Nigerians protest over kidnapped schoolgirls
Photos: Nigerians protest over kidnapped girls Photos: Nigerians protest over kidnapped girls

Cameroon President Paul Biya was more forceful in describing how partnering countries will "take stronger measures to eradicate" the extremist Islamist group.

"We're here to declare war on Boko Haram," Biya said.

As the summit took place Saturday, reports emerged about the latest apparent Boko Haram attack, this one in Cameroon.

Hollande said one Cameroonian soldier was killed in the Friday night attack against Chinese nationals in northern Cameroon, which is known as a stronghold for the Islamic extremists.

Ten Chinese nationals are missing after the attack, a Chinese official said Saturday. One injured person was being treated by a Chinese medical team in the Chadian capital of N'Djamena, said Lu Quinjiang, first counselor of the Chinese Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon's capital.

Nigerian military

France "will not intervene" militarily in Nigeria because Nigeria "has military forces that are available and efficient," Hollande said during an interview with France 24 that aired late Saturday.

The Nigerian military suffered an embarrassing setback in April when it retracted a report that nearly all the kidnapped girls were released. In fact, the girls, taken from a boarding school in Chibok, were still missing.

Nigeria now has 20,000 troops, plus aircraft and intelligence sources, in parts of its nation where Boko Haram is active, said President Goodluck Jonathan.

"Boko Haram is no longer a local terror group," Jonathan said. "It is clearly operating as an al Qaeda operation" in central Africa, he said.

"The major challenge that we have faced in our search and rescue operation so far has been the deluge of misinformation about the whereabouts of the girls and the circumstances of their disappearance," the President added.

Boko Haram's guerrilla campaign has claimed 12,000 lives, with 8,000 people injured or maimed since 2009, Jonathan said.

Nigeria will coordinate patrols, pool intelligence and exchange weapons and human trafficking information with Benin, Cameroon, Chad and Niger, according to the agreement reached at the summit.

France, the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union "will coordinate their support for this regional cooperation" through technical expertise, training programs and support for border-area management programs, a summit statement said.

The participants agreed that the United Kingdom will host a follow-up meeting next month to review the action plan.

In the meantime, participants committed to accelerating international sanctions against Boko Haram and its leaders through the United Nations.

Boko Haram translates as "Western education is a sin" in the Hausa language. The militant group says its aim is to impose a stricter enforcement of Sharia law across Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation, which is split between a majority Muslim north and a mostly Christian south. Boko Haram's attacks have intensified in recent years.

The summit

The Nigerian President joined Saturday's summit of African presidents and U.S., UK and EU representatives on the growing threat from Boko Haram as American officials expressed concerns about his military's ability to rescue hundreds of schoolgirls abducted last month.

The terror group abducted an estimated 276 girls on April 14 from a boarding school in Chibok in northeastern Nigeria.

Dozens escaped, but more than 200 girls are still missing. Nigerians have accused their government of not acting swiftly or efficiently enough to protect the girls seized in the dead of night.

And the criticism shows no signs of abating, even from allies who've pledged to help in the rescue mission. The United States, China and Britain are among a handful of nations providing advice.

The United States is using drones and manned surveillance aircraft in the search, but has said Nigeria is reluctant to use the information provided.

"The division in the north that mainly is engaging with Boko Haram, the 7th Division, has recently shown signs of real fear," said Alice Friend, African Affairs director for the Department of Defense. "They do not have the capabilities, the training or the equipment that Boko Haram does, and Boko Haram is exceptionally brutal and indiscriminate in their attacks."

"I would say an even greater concern is the incapacity of the Nigerian military and the Nigerian government's failure to provide leadership to the military," Friend said Thursday at a hearing of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

For now, the United States is not sharing raw intelligence from its surveillance aircraft with Nigeria's armed forces because the countries have not established the intelligence-sharing protocols and safeguards needed for such an agreement, Pentagon spokesman Col. Steve Warren said Wednesday.

There's also concern about how the information will be used by a military that's been accused of human rights violations itself.

"We have sought assurances from them... that they will use any information that we pass to them from this (intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance) support in a manner consistent with international humanitarian and human rights law," Friend explained.

Nigeria has been accused of not doing enough to protect the girls abducted from a militant hotbed that was already under a state of emergency.

But a spokesman for the military defended the nation's response.

"Borno State is under a state of emergency, over 90,000 square kilometers," said Maj. Gen. Chris Olukolade. "Are you saying we should deploy ... soldiers in over 90,000 kilometers -- one soldier per kilometer? You can imagine that expense for one of the states under a state of emergency."

CNN's Mariano Castillo, Nana Karikari-apau and Christabelle Fombu contributed to this report.

Part of complete coverage on
October 9, 2014 -- Updated 1653 GMT (0053 HKT)
Arwa Damon meets two young orphans, now in Niger, whose mother died years ago -- and whose father was killed in a Boko Haram attack in Nigeria.
June 10, 2014 -- Updated 1041 GMT (1841 HKT)
A small river marks the border between Niger and Nigeria -- a shallow divide between security and the horrors of Boko Haram.
June 10, 2014 -- Updated 0959 GMT (1759 HKT)
CNN's Arwa Damon reports that U.S. sources now believe Boko Haram insurgents may be hiding on the islands of Lake Chad.
June 5, 2014 -- Updated 1915 GMT (0315 HKT)
Isha Sesay talks to journalist Aminu Abubakar who says approximately 500 people have been killed in northeastern Nigeria.
June 4, 2014 -- Updated 1007 GMT (1807 HKT)
A policeman stand beside children holding as members of Lagos based civil society groups hold rally calling for the release of missing Chibok school girls at the state government house, in Lagos, Nigeria, on May 5, 2014. Boko Haram on Monday claimed the abduction of hundreds of schoolgirls in northern Nigeria that has triggered international outrage, threatening to sell them as
Police in Nigeria's capital Tuesday made a U-turn, saying a ban on protests in support of the more than 200 girls kidnapped in April does not exist.
May 27, 2014 -- Updated 0636 GMT (1436 HKT)
A top Nigerian official claims to know where the missing schoolgirls are located, as Arwa Damon reports.
May 26, 2014 -- Updated 2100 GMT (0500 HKT)
Arwa Damon reports on Nigerian schools sitting empty as residents live in fear of Boko Haram.
May 21, 2014 -- Updated 2311 GMT (0711 HKT)
A large part of northern and central Nigeria is now at the mercy of intensified attacks by Boko Haram, and the group seems to be embarking on a new phase of its campaign.
May 21, 2014 -- Updated 1402 GMT (2202 HKT)
Half of a yellow sun poster
It's one of the most important Nigerian stories to hit the big screen -- yet the director says Nigeria's bureaucracy is purposely preventing its release.
May 19, 2014 -- Updated 1151 GMT (1951 HKT)
Opinion: The media turns Boko Haram into 'superstar monsters' -- which is exactly what they want.
May 13, 2014 -- Updated 1224 GMT (2024 HKT)
CNN's Nima Elbagir speaks with the mothers of two missing Nigerian schoolgirls.
May 12, 2014 -- Updated 1318 GMT (2118 HKT)
With fear in her eyes, a young woman tells CNN's Nima Elbagir, the first journalist to visit Chibok, how she fled gun-toting Islamic extremists.
April 11, 2014 -- Updated 1039 GMT (1839 HKT)
Over the last 20 years, the narrative on the African continent has shifted from Afro-pessimism to Afro-optimism.
May 8, 2014 -- Updated 1125 GMT (1925 HKT)
Women in repressive countries are fighting back against injustice, writes Frida Ghitis.
March 4, 2014 -- Updated 1346 GMT (2146 HKT)
Biyi Bandele, who recently directed Oscar nominated Chiwetel Ejiofor in "Half of a Yellow Sun," discusses his remarkable journey.
October 22, 2014 -- Updated 1024 GMT (1824 HKT)
From regular people to celebrities, here are some of the people participating in the movement.
April 11, 2014 -- Updated 0933 GMT (1733 HKT)
Nigeria woke up to a brand new economy, apparently. But the country are suffering and its people responded with a hiss.
April 7, 2014 -- Updated 0900 GMT (1700 HKT)
At 23, many people around the world are still at university -- at that age, Gossy Ukanwoke had already started one.
April 18, 2014 -- Updated 1623 GMT (0023 HKT)
Oprah, if you're reading this, for goodness sake return this woman's calls.
Are you in Nigeria? Share your thoughts on the schoolgirls' kidnapping, but please stay safe.