The home team's sluggish start was punished in emphatic fashion, as first-half goals from Dejan Lovren and Jordan Henderson established a commanding lead at Stamford Bridge, before Diego Costa reduced the deficit with half an hour to play.
"It was satisfying of course, the first half especially was brilliant -- we played football like hell," Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp told UK broadcaster Sky Sports after his side went level on 10 points with third-placed Chelsea.
"Everybody that has played against Chelsea knows it's difficult -- they are organized.
"We were quick of mind after set pieces and deserved our lead. Before halftime we had moments where Chelsea played better, but because we stopped playing football.
"The second half we did well after they scored the goal, it was deeper passionate defending."
Liverpool was dealt a substantial blow before the match, as Roberto Firmino -- its star of the season so far -- was ruled out with a groin injury.
But with one Brazilian down, another stepped up to create the first goal.
As Chelsea's players switched off after conceding a foul, James Milner and Philippe Coutinho combined down the left, before "The Magician"
conjured up a pinpoint cross to find Lovren at the far post.
Without a goal since his winning header in last season's epic Europa League comeback against Borussia Dortmund
, the Croatian defender cushioned the ball on the half volley to guide it into the far corner and past the despairing dive of Thibault Courtois.
If the home fans hoped that goal would be the moment to spark a subdued Chelsea side to life, then they would be doubly disappointed not long later.
The Blues remained disorganized, slow to react and were second to every ball -- so unlike the teams former Juventus and Italy coach Conte has molded over the years.
With just 10 minutes of the first half remaining, the ball fell at Henderson's feet 30 yards from goal; a seemingly harmless position.
However, the England midfielder coolly shifted the ball onto his right foot and proceeded to curl an exquisite strike past Courtois' outstretched arm and into the top corner.
With a stony-faced Conte stood on the touchline, a halftime scolding was undoubtedly on the cards -- and Chelsea did start the second period much brighter.
Despite an increase in possession, Chelsea had few -- if any -- clear-cut chances to speak of, until Nemanja Matic took the game by the scruff of the neck.
After a powerful, surging run from midfield, the Serbian exchanged passes with Eden Hazard and delicately picked out Costa inside the six-yard box.
The Premier League's top scorer, who had the fewest touches of any player in the first half, duly obliged and prodded the ball over the line to halve the deficit with his fifth league goal of the season.
With that, Chelsea's confidence began to grow.
A change in tactics gave Conte's team a more direct approach, with Hazard knocking down a long pass into Costa's feet. The Spain striker adjusted smartly, but fired his shot straight into the grateful arms of Simon Mignolet.
Roared on by a home crowd sensing a comeback, Chelsea continued to press forward but found no way past Liverpool's resolute defense.
For all the Blues' dominance, Liverpool had the chance to re-establish a two-goal lead.
Despite referee Martin Atkinson's best efforts to knock Coutinho off the ball, the Brazilian picked out Milner, whose deflected cross found substitute Divock Origi at the far post, but Courtois got down sharply to push the ball behind for a corner.
"It's a big victory, it keeps momentum going," Henderson said. "We've been brilliant the last few games, training has been good all week, and we had a good feeling.
"We knew it would be difficult, they're a good side with good players but we defended well and deserved the three points."
Lovren, whose vital opening goal ended his 64-game drought in the Premier League, was quick to praise the atmosphere in the dressing room.
"We're acting like a team and the spirit around the club is perfect."
The result means only Everton and Pep Guardiola's Manchester City still boast unbeaten records.
Table-topping City hosts Bournemouth Saturday, while Everton -- above Chelsea and Liverpool on goal difference -- is at home to promoted Middlesbrough.
Meanwhile, Edinson Cavani scored four goals as reigning Ligue 1 champion PSG beat Caen 6-0.