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SCIENCE
MAY 17, 1999 VOL. 153 NO. 19


Who Got There First?
George Mallory's frozen corpse turns up 75 years after his last climb--a fresh clue in Everest's greatest mystery
By FREDERIC GOLDEN

The story has assumed mythic proportions, like the sinking of the Titanic or Robert Falcon Scott's doomed race to the South Pole. Shortly after noon on June 8, 1924, the 38-year-old English schoolmaster and Alpinist George Leigh Mallory, along with a young companion, an Oxford engineering student and oarsman named Andrew ("Sandy") Irvine, 22, vanished into the mists surrounding the summit of 8,848-m Mount Everest, the world's highest mountain, never to be heard from again.

For 75 years their disappearance has loomed, like Everest itself, as both a challenge and a mystery, made all the more memorable by Mallory's classic retort when asked why he wanted to risk all to climb the far-off mountain: "Because it is there." But did he make it to the top? Or did he falter just short of his goal? Last week an expedition led by veteran American climber Eric Simonson, retracing Mallory's old route on Everest's Tibetan, or north, face, seemed to be tantalizingly close to some definitive answers.

On a rocky, windswept slope some 600 m below the summit, expedition member Conrad Anker spotted "a patch of white"--brighter, he says, than any of the snow or rocks around it. Sprawled facedown on the mountainside, with arms outstretched and hands dug into the frozen ground, lay the bleached, mummified remains of a man. It was Mallory, his body almost perfectly preserved in the thin, dry air, a safety rope around his waist, and still partly clad in remnants of his tattered cotton, wool and tweed climbing clothes, the ragged collars stitched with markings G.L. Mallory. He had apparently tumbled wildly down the slope, tried to arrest his descent with his hands, then died shortly thereafter--"still fighting, still gripping the rock to the end," says climber Jake Norton.

Mallory's leathery skin gleamed so brightly that climber Dave Hahn likened it to "a Greek or Roman marble statue." Mallory's face was the only part of his body unexposed. He had a broken right arm, trauma to his shoulder and fractures of both leg bones just above the top of his single surviving hobnail boot. Even so, the climbers were awed by the physical specimen before them. "We each noticed the muscular arms of the climber," says Hahn. "After all these years, George Mallory still cut an impressive figure."

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