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TIME 100: AUGUST 23-30, 1999 VOL. 154 NO. 7/8

When Deputies Were Doomed


Visiting China in 1965, British World War II general Lord Montgomery asked Mao Zedong with characteristic abruptness, "If you died today, who would take over?" Mao named Liu Shaoqi, then head of state. Montgomery recounted this anecdote to the press, and word promptly went out: Liu Shaoqi was the No. 2 man in China. The good Lord might as well have signed Liu's death warrant. The headlines convinced the paranoid Mao that Liu was scheming to take over. In response, the Great Helmsman unleashed the Cultural Revolution and jettisoned his comrade-in-arms. Liu, pilloried as the "No. 1 capitalist roader," died in 1969 in prison, deprived of food and medical attention.

m o r e
Mao Zedong: Red Emperor
The storms he unleashed both re-made and ravaged China

No job in the People's Republic is as dangerous as that of No. 2. Playing second fiddle to modern-day emperors like Mao can be a political trap. For decades, Mao was preoccupied with the issue of succession, apparently to avoid the emergence of a Khrushchev-like revisionist after his passing. But Mao could never trust a deputy for long. By the time he died in 1976, half-a-dozen heirs apparent had risen and fallen.

The man with perhaps the strongest claim to be Mao's deputy escaped that fate--but only because he never sought the job. Zhou Enlai, the popular but self-effacing Premier, always positioned himself as No. 3. Other politicians were not as subtle. Lin Biao, a brilliant Red Army commander, was designated Mao's successor after he had done the dirty work of sweeping away "capitalist roaders" like Liu Shaoqi. By 1969, Lin was a rising star--the Ninth Congress even named him as Mao's successor. But Mao's favor soon ebbed. In September 1971, Lin died in a plane crash in Mongolia; he was later accused of plotting to assassinate Mao and take power.

Lin's replacement was Wang Hongwen, a handsome Shanghai factory worker and Red Guard rabble-rouser. Too incompetent for affairs of state, the poster-boy for the radicals did not last long. When the graying Zhou Enlai fell ill with cancer in 1972, he persuaded Mao to bring Deng Xiaoping back from exile to take his place. Deng was soon being talked of as Mao's successor--only to be purged again in 1976. On his deathbed, Mao anointed Hua Guofeng, the moon-faced former party secretary of Hunan, as his de facto successor. Hua survived Mao but not his Politburo peers. National Defense Minister Ye Jianying led a coup that eventually put the country in Deng's hands.

In 1987, Deng followed Mao's example by sacking a likely successor, General Secretary Hu Yaobang. Hu had only been in the job two years, but his freewheeling approach had scared hardliners. Premier Zhao Ziyang was made general secretary--only to be removed in 1989 as a scapegoat for the Tiananmen protests. Next, Deng picked Jiang Zemin, the unheralded Shanghai mayor, to become China's putative No. 1. For years until Deng's 1997 death, Jiang operated meekly under his shadow, parroting Deng's words and offering few ideas of his own. This prompted critics to dismiss him as a pushover who would not last beyond Deng's demise. But Jiang has survived. His secret? He behaved as No. 2--until No. 1 passed away.

The Most Influential Asians of the Century

Asians of the Century
A cavalcade of towering individuals and a newly awakened populace

Why Adam Smith Would Love Asia
Asia has been the proving ground for global capitalism

Ending Silence
Asian women are celebrating hard-won triumphs

Embrace the wisdom of democracy and capitalism

t h e  l i s t

Ho Chi Minh
Pol Pot
Issey Miyake
Daisuke Inoue
Rabindranath Tagore
Sun Yat-sen
Mohandas Gandhi
Mao Zedong
Lee Kuan Yew
Deng Xiaoping
Corazon Aquino
Park Chung Hee
Eiji Toyoda
King Rama
Akira Kurosawa
Dalai Lama
Akio Morita

This edition's table of contents



U.S. secretary of state says China should be 'tolerant'

Philippine government denies Estrada's claim to presidency

Faith, madness, magic mix at sacred Hindu festival

Land mine explosion kills 11 Sri Lankan soldiers

Japan claims StarLink found in U.S. corn sample

Thai party announces first coalition partner


COVER: President Joseph Estrada gives in to the chanting crowds on the streets of Manila and agrees to make room for his Vice President

THAILAND: Twin teenage warriors turn themselves in to Bangkok officials

CHINA: Despite official vilification, hip Chinese dig Lamaist culture

PHOTO ESSAY: Estrada Calls Snap Election

WEB-ONLY INTERVIEW: Jimmy Lai on feeling lucky -- and why he's committed to the island state


COVER: The DoCoMo generation - Japan's leading mobile phone company goes global

Bandwidth Boom: Racing to wire - how underseas cable systems may yet fall short

TAIWAN: Party intrigues add to Chen Shui-bian's woes

JAPAN: Japan's ruling party crushes a rebel at a cost

SINGAPORE: Singaporeans need to have more babies. But success breeds selfishness

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