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Environment
Most scientists believe that a rise in the Earth's temperatures is worsened by the effect of greenhouse gases. The debate centers on how much government should regulate industry and whether that will affect climate change or be an expensive boondoggle. Read the stances of the presidential candidates below. The views of the vice presidential candidates are shown where available.
REPUBLICANS
John McCain
Introduced the Climate Stewardship and Innovation Act of 2007 with Sen. Joseph Lieberman (I-CT). The legislation is designed to significantly reduce the nation's greenhouse gases, accomplished through a combination of trading markets and the deployment of advanced technologies. Would propose use of alternative energy sources, including nuclear.
 Watch McCain speak about the environment
Sarah Palin
Asked by ABC News in September, 2008, whether she believes global warming is the result of a natural cycle or human activity, Palin said, "I'm attributing some of man's activities to potentially causing some of the changes in the climate right now." However, around the same time, she was quoted by conservative Newsmax magazine, as saying, "A changing environment will affect Alaska more than any other state, because of our location. ... I'm not one though who would attribute it to being man-made."
DEMOCRATS
Barack Obama
Would implement an economy-wide cap-and-trade program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the level recommended by top scientists. Would make the United States a leader in the global effort to combat climate change by leading anew international global warming partnership. Would establish a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to speed the introduction of low-carbon non-petroleum fuels. Would create a Technology Transfer program within the Department of Energy dedicated to exporting climate-friendly technologies to developing countries. Would offer incentives to maintain forests globally and manage them sustainably. Would develop domestic incentives that reward forest owners, farmers and ranchers when they plant trees, restore grasslands or undertake farming practices that capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
 Watch Obama speak about the environment
Joe Biden
Co-sponsored a 2006 Senate bill that said global warming "was a threat to international stability as well as a risk to the environment and our economy." In a statement released by Biden's Senate office in May, 2006, he said, "The scientific evidence is clear: We need to take significant steps toward worldwide reduction of greenhouse gases to avoid permanently altering our climate."
Obama and McCain: Key Senate Votes from 2005 through 2008

Greenhouse Gases

June 6, 2008 -- The U.S. Senate refuses to limit debate -- by a vote of 48-36 -- on an amendment for a bill that called for the Environmental Protection Agency to establish a program to decrease emissions of greenhouse gases.

McCain: Did not vote
Obama: Did not vote

Drilling in Alaska's Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)

December 21, 2005 -- The U.S. Senate rejects, by a vote of 56-44, a motion to limit debate on fiscal 2006 Defense spending bill that would open Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and gas exploration.

McCain: Yea
Obama: Nay


Global Warming

June 22, 2005 -- The U.S. Senate rejects -- by a vote of 44-53 -- a motion to table a resolution sponsored by Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.) that expressed the opinion of the Senate on climate change legislation. The legislation addresses the need to control the emission of greenhouse gases. The resolution was then adopted by a voice vote.

McCain: Nay
Obama: Nay

(Sources: CQ Weekly; U.S. Senate Legislation Database)
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Resources
The issues that make up American politics have many voices. Here are a few governmental organizations, interest groups and companies from across the political spectrum that are actors in the environmental debate. * CNN does not endorse external sites.
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