Film restoration more than 'Rear Window'-dressing
December 11, 1997
From left, Wendell Corey, Grace Kelly and James Stewart star in "Rear Window"
Web posted at: 5:34 p.m. EST (2234 GMT)
By Bill Desowitz
First "Vertigo" was brought back from oblivion; now the
ever-popular "Rear Window" is the latest Alfred Hitchcock
classic starring Jimmy Stewart being saved from the ravages
To enhance its image quality, the restored version will be
among the first films printed in Technicolor's new
dye-transfer process (so far used only experimentally with a
few prints of Warner Bros.' "Giant" reissue and "Batman &
This marks the third Universal Pictures restoration by the
team of Robert Harris and James Katz, following "Spartacus"
and "Vertigo." The "Rear Window" fix-up is less expensive the
other large-format projects -- "Vertigo," for example, cost
$1.3 million -- but no less intensive.
"Like 'Vertigo,' we can make 'Rear Window' look like it's
never looked before, with rich colors to show off the new
process," says Katz, who produces the restorations. "This
serves the future without forgetting the past."
Indeed, as Technicolor gears up for next year's high-tech
return of dye transfer (abandoned since the mid-1970s) --
which has suddenly become cost-effective in the current
"event" film market -- the "Rear Window" announcement proves
that the process can also accommodate special reissues as
According to Frank Ricotta, Technicolor's senior vice
president of worldwide technical and engineering operations,
the new process yields sharper, less grainy prints than
conventional color positive prints, as well as "an extended
tone scale resulting in blacker blacks, whiter whites and
improved color rendition."
The restorers concur that the results are impressive.
"'Rear Window' is a dark-looking movie," Katz says. "And in
the tests, we've been getting a lot of detail in the blacks
you don't ordinarily see. There's also increased sharpness.
You can see it in the bricks on the buildings (in the
courtyard) and in the patterns on the dresses."
Movie's best face has never been seen
Actually, "Rear Window" has never looked as good as it could
have, according to Harris, even during its initial release in
1954. That's because the first dye-transfer prints weren't
made until the 1962 reissue, when they were badly timed and
came out beige. "So this will be the first time we see the
film's full-color spectrum," he says.
But first the restorers must clean up an extremely dirty
negative, abused from the very beginning. "It's a mess,"
Harris says. "There were 400 runs off the camera negative
before the end of 1954. We don't know why they didn't do it
dye-transfer, which would have saved printing off the
negative. This was reasonably unusual for the period. And
we're missing 1,000 feet of negative."
It is ironic that "Rear Window" has suffered this fate,
considering it was one of Hitchcock's personal favorites and
his most successful film of the '50s. It was also the first
movie from his peak Paramount period, which he eventually
owned outright and later withdrew for a decade. When last
reissued, in 1983, "Rear Window" grossed another $9.1 million
for Universal, which acquired it from Hitchcock's estate.
Inspired by Cornell Woolrich's cunning short story about
murder, voyeurism and confined spaces, the director was
obviously at his crafty best. He had all the technical toys
he desired at his disposal, plus two of his favorite stars,
Jimmy Stewart and Grace Kelly. "Rear Window" was Stewart's
favorite of the four films he made with the director.
Breakthrough made restoration possible
Yet were it not for a recent technological breakthrough
conceived by the restorers and developed by Phil Feiner,
executive vice president of Pacific Title film lab, a
complete restoration of "Rear Window" would not have been
Besides the accumulation of dirt, pieces of the original
Eastman color negative that were dupes (titles and optical
effects) have faded in the yellow layer of emulsion due to
aging and improper storage -- a malady that sooner or later
strikes all color negatives from the early '50s through the
'80s, when a more stable stock was introduced. This first-
layer deterioration includes loss of contrast, blacks and
shadows going blue and facial highlights turning, in the
words of the restorers, "a lovely shade of crustacean."
Compounding "Rear Window's" problem is an additional reel of
negative that had its yellow layer stripped off the emulsion
when a lacquer that was applied and reapplied over the years
to cover scratches was eventually removed.
"No one was malicious here," Katz says. "The film was a
victim of its environment over the years. It doesn't stand
alone. There are thousands of films out there like this. No
one knew enough about the properties of emulsion or
temperature control for color negatives."
The restorers were first stymied by the yellow-layer problem
last year when trying to correct the revelatory flashback in
"Vertigo." Frustrated by their inability to restore the
sequence, they later approached Feiner about devising a
solution for subsequent restorations.
Using test footage from "Rear Window" and the 1956 remake of
"The Man Who Knew Too Much" (to be restored at a later date),
Feiner spent six months implementing a cost-effective photo-
To bring "Rear Window's" colorful brilliance back to life, an
interpositive, an extremely fine-grain, low-contrast color-
duplicating element, will be made from what survives on the
original negative and combined with what survives on the
yellow separation master.
"This is something that's going to benefit all of these
pictures," Katz adds. "All the damage seems to be in the
'That shot is going to be breathtaking'
The most important moment in "Rear Window" to benefit not
only from the yellow-layer breakthrough but from the new dye-
transfer process is Kelly's seductive entrance -- which over
the years has developed a yellow-green tint. Stewart, the
aloof photographer confined to a wheelchair because of a
broken leg, is awakened in his apartment by her tender kiss.
To prolong the kiss and make it appear more sensual,
Hitchcock shot it in close-up and then double-printed each
frame in slow-motion.
"That shot is going to be breathtaking in Technicolor," Katz
predicts. "When people first see her, they'll understand why
everyone who came into contact with her fell in love with
The main title sequence, another casualty of yellow-layer
fading, has already been repaired. "We used five different
formulas to get the precise color for the main titles,"
Harris says. "There's a kind of Chinese red drop shadow that
was difficult to reproduce. We finally got one that was
acceptable using the yellow-layer method."
The original Paramount logo, incidentally, will return to the
film's beginning and end, linked, of course, with the rising
and falling bamboo shades in Stewart's apartment.
While "Rear Window" lacks the stunning visual reputation of
"Vertigo," its technical virtuosity is legendary, boasting
Hitchcock's most elaborate set to re-create the Greenwich
Village apartment complex where Stewart spies on his
neighbors with his telephoto lens. The effect, as Francois
Truffaut first observed, is like viewing ambiguous scenarios
of love and marriage from tiny movie screens or TV sets.
It was all part of Hitchcock's famous "pure cinema" scheme:
creating tension between Stewart observing and being observed
-- and involving us in the suspense of waiting for him to get
caught. In fact, the way he introduces Stewart and his
neighbors through a series of serpentine camera movements is
as succinct an example of visual exposition ever filmed.
"People don't ordinarily think of 'Rear Window' as a stylish
movie," Katz says. "But what we're discovering is that there
is a style in the way Hitchcock used color. With Miss
Lonelyhearts, we can now see the mauve in her apartment and
the green in her dress. Each apartment has its own color
Harris and Katz expect the restoration to be completed next
spring. However, Universal's distribution plans could be
complicated by a blackout in place until 1999,
coincidentally, the centenary of Hitchcock's birth. Sheldon
Abend, who owns the copyright on the Woolrich short story
from which the film is based, won a landmark U.S. Supreme
Court decision in 1990 declaring his copyright renewal was
"The important thing is, we're saving another Hitchcock,"
Katz adds. "And we have a whole new audience right now for
Copyright 1997, Bill Desowitz. Distributed by Los Angeles Times