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America's New War

Aired September 15, 2001 - 02:00   ET


JIM CLANCY, CNN ANCHOR: Investigators in the United States claim progress to discovery of clues from the cockpits and one significant arrest. All the while, exhausted workers at ground zero in New York get a boost from the president, turned motivator and chief.

COLLEEN McEDWARDS, CNN ANCHOR: As in moments of silence, in moments of song, the world takes time to remember.

CLANCY: Hello and welcome. I'm Jim Clancy.

McEDWARDS: And I'm Colleen McEdwards, at CNN Center. This is CNN's continuing coverage of America's new war. We've had a couple of late developments to tell you about right now.

In the ongoing investigation into the terrorist attacks against the United States, search crews have recovered the cockpit voice recorder from the hijacked United Airlines' flight that crashed in Pennsylvania on Tuesday. Authorities are hoping that the device will shed some light on what happened in the moments just before the crash.

The recorder is said to be in "fairly good shape," and in another development as well, authorities made their first arrest in direct connection to the terrorist attacks. The Justice Department says the man is a material witness in the case.

Well, it has been nearly four days since the attacks now, and around-the-clock rescue operations have continued despite some rainy weather Friday. You're looking at a live shot of the scene in New York right there.

Workers still digging through that mountain of destruction. They say they're hoping for miracles. And for the rescue workers, the continued operations are physically draining, as you can imagine. And on Friday, rescuers in New York got a huge morale boost and a bit of a break from U.S. President George W. Bush. Mr. Bush got a first-hand look as well at the devastation, and afterwards, thanked the rescuers for all their efforts.


GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: I'm shocked at the size of the devastation. And it's hard to describe what it's like to see the gnarled steel and the broken glass piercing the buildings, silhouetted against smoke. I said that this was the first act of war on America in the 21st century, and I was right, particularly having seen this scene.


McEDWARDS: Friday, also, a day of prayer and remembrance. Four former American presidents joined Mr. Bush in prayer at the National Cathedral. Similar scenes of prayer and candlelight vigils were played out across the country and around the world all throughout the day.

CLANCY: Let's take a look now at the rapidly moving investigation. The FBI saying it now has 36,000 leads in this case. At least 27 people have been detained by the U.S. Immigration Service, and within the past few hours, the first arrest.

CNN Justice Correspondent, Kelli Arena, following that story.

KELLI ARENA, CNN JUSTICE CORRESPONDENT: The first arrest has been made in direct connection to Tuesday's terrorist attacks, that according to law enforcement officials. Now an individual that was detained at JFK Airport in New York is in custody on a material witness warrant. Now we don't have anymore specifics at this point, but a material witness warrant is issued when it can be demonstrated that there is information that's highly relevant to a criminal investigation, and when there is a risk of flight. Law enforcement sources say to expect much more such arrests in coming days.

Now sources say that at least two people in custody have provided what they describe as very useful and helpful information in moving this investigation forward. The FBI says that it has issued 35 search warrants, hundreds of subpoenas. It has seized computers and other material, and it's following up thousands of leads, both in the U.S. and abroad.

Sources also say that there are currently 27 individuals in custody on immigration violations, who may or may not know anything about the incident. Investigators have also put out a so-called watch list, informing various authorities -- including border patrol and the FAA -- about 150 individuals the FBI says may have information that could be helpful in the investigation. Now if those people are found, they will be detained for questioning.

CLANCY: A senior Defense official has told CNN two of the names of suspected hijackers matched the names of people who attended U.S. military schools. Now the schools are The Defense Language Academy, at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas, and the Air War College, in Montgomery, Alabama. Pentagon officials caution the matching names could be just a coincidence.

CNN National Correspondent, Mike Boettcher, has the details of what else investigators are learning about the moments that were leading up to the attacks.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) MIKE BOETTCHER, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Four thousand special agents chasing 36,000 leads, and circulating through 18,000 law enforcement agencies a growing list of people they want to question.

JOHN ASHCROFT, ATTORNEY GENERAL: The Federal Bureau of Investigation has also forwarded a list of more than 100 names to numerous law enforcement organizations. These are the names of individuals the FBI would like to talk to, because we believe they may have information that could be helpful to the investigation.

BOETTCHER: Another FBI list, this one made public. The 19 men, who the FBI says were the hijackers of the four aircraft. Seven of the men were pilots, according to CNN terrorism analysis Peter Bergen. Thirteen of them have recognizable Saudi tribal names from the west and southwest of Saudi Arabia, an area where bin Laden has recruited.

PETER BERGEN: According to a source familiar with the bin Laden organization, men returning from Afghanistan who had trained with bin Laden arrived in Saudi Arabia in recent weeks and were talking about some kind of big operation that was imminent.

BOETTCHER: The FBI searched this apartment in San Diego, where in those final stages, Monday before the attack, three men left town in a hurry.

FREDDIE EVANS: You had a truck right here that was moving out. They moved it out.


FREDDIE EVANS: Yeah, I had never seen nobody move after midnight.

BOETTCHER: The trail of another accused hijacker, Mohamed Atta, in the months before the attack led from Hamburg, Germany to Florida, and a series of flight schools, rental car agencies and apartments, then got to Hamburg, a return to Florida and a final trip to New England, where he boarded a Boston to Los Angeles flight that eventually crashed into the World Trade Center.

U.S. intelligence sources tell CNN the entire terrorist operation required so many people and special skills that they believe several terrorist groups had to be involved. Egyptian Islamic Jihad, led my this man, Iman Zoari (ph) -- a close bin Laden associate -- is one of the groups getting close scrutiny by U.S. analysts. They were photographed together about three years ago in Afghanistan.

A second man, who has not been seen in more than 20 years, is also being scrutinized. Imad Mugniyeh, who was suspected by U.S. officials of masterminding a string of terrorism attacks against Americans -- including the 1983 suicide bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut that killed 241 -- has had numerous contacts with bin Laden since 1994, including face-to-face contact in the Sudan at an Islamic conference. This, according to western and mid-east intelligence sources. A founding member of Lebanese Hezbollah, Mugniyeh is believed living in Iran.

U.S. officials remain convinced that bin Laden was behind Tuesday's attack, but believe the day's mega-terrorism marked the debut of a new, larger and more dangerous organization. A group with many heads and many faces.

Mike Boettcher, CNN, Atlanta.


McEDWARDS: On Friday, President Bush led a day of prayer at the National Cathedral in Washington. Mr. Bush then traveled to New York City, touring the wreckage that was the World Trade Center.

CNN Senior White House Correspondent, John King, recaps the president's emotional day and looks at some of the tough decisions that are still ahead of him.


JOHN KING, CNN SENIOR WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A first-hand look at the worst of the devastation and the pep talk that included a promise to those pulling the dead from the rubble.

BUSH: I can hear you. I can hear you, the rest of the world hears you, and the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon.


KING: After his emotional tour of New York, Mr. Bush was asked if he knew who was responsible.

BUSH: We know we've got a suspect.

KING: But lead suspect, Osama bin Laden, is an elusive target. And aids say one of the president's greatest challenges is convincing an angry nation to be patient.

BUSH: This conflict was begun on the timing and terms of others. It will end in a way and at an hour of our choosing.

KING: Mr. Bush declared a national emergency and authorized a call-up of the National Guard and reservists. And Congress passed a resolution authorizing the president to use all necessary and appropriate force to retaliate.

Senior officials say they do not rule out a first wave of military strikes in the near future. But Mr. Bush is asking his national security team and other world leaders to develop a long-range plan. For example, sources tell CNN the president is asking the leaders of Canada, France, Germany, Britain and other nations to do more to break up terrorist cells in their countries; and asking Saudi Arabia and other moderate Arab nations to crack down on bin Laden's financial supporters and to take a tougher line with the Taliban in Afghanistan. COLIN POWELL, SECRETARY OF STATE: In our response, we will have to take into account not only the perpetrators, but those who provide haven, support, inspiration, financial and other assets, to the perpetrators.

KING: Mr. Bush also led the nation in a day of prayer of remembrance with former presidents, the cabinet and the Congress joining in.

BUSH: Grief and tragedy and hatred are only for a time. Goodness, remembrance and love have no end. And the lord of life holds all who die and all who mourn.

KING: Consoling the nation is another role for a president at times of crises. And a father who knows the strains of the job well, gave his son a supportive tap.

Administration sources say weekend national security meetings will focus on options for responding. And senior officials tell CNN they enter those talks with one encouraging development: Pakistan, which borders Afghanistan, has now promised to fully cooperate in any U.S. operations.

John King, CNN, the White House.


McEDWARDS: Well, the U.S. Congress has taken quick action on a number of issues arising out of all of this. Some of that action, actually, just a short time ago.

So let's turn now to CNN's Major Garrett, in Washington, for the very latest -- Major.

MAJOR GARRETT, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well, Colleen, the United States Congress, House of Representatives and the Senate, today, passed nearly unanimously -- it was unanimously in the Senate, only one no vote in the House of Representatives -- resolutions authorizing the use of force, giving the president full legal authority to prosecute any military campaign against those thought to be responsible and found to be responsible for the terrorist attacks on September 11.

In the negotiations with Congress, the Bush White House had pressed for wider authority to deal with and to obtain that legal authority to prosecute any war against future attacks against the United States of a terrorist nature. Congress decided not to give the president that wide authority. What they wanted to do was maintain their congressional prerogatives to maintain a legal authority declaration only for those thought responsible for the attacks on September 11, telling the White House if there are more attacks and you need more authority, come back and we'll talk to you about that then -- Colleen.

McEDWARDS: And what does that say, Major, about the process here? GARRETT: Well what it says is that Congress, even in a time of national crisis such as this, wants to maintain its prerogatives outlined in the constitution. The president, as commander in chief, of course has the legal authority to prosecute a war, but only with congressional approval. The Congress has been very aggressive in protecting that constitutional prerogative, and was so in this case.

There was a good deal of it, back and forth negotiating between the White House and Congress over the exact wording of this use of force resolution. As I said, the White House wanted broader authority, Congress said, no, we will give you full authority to use whatever military means you deem necessary to deal with those who perpetrated the attacks on September 11. If, in fact, there are additional attacks, we'll discuss and provide you with authority to deal with those, but we do not want to give you the power to anticipate those types of attacks and use authority we're not prepared yet to grant you.

McEDWARDS: Understood. CNN's Major Garrett in Washington for us. Thanks -- Jim.

CLANCY: Well, Colleen, back in New York, the images coming in continue to increase the sense of surrealism around the site of this attack. These latest pictures were shot Friday by an amateur photographer. Now he was led through the area near the World Trade Center.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Everyone just grabbed their kids and ran. Left their goddamn carriages.


CLANCY: Crews are working all around this area, taking a look at what is going on. They're trying to find, of course, any survivors. Residents are there still struggling to comprehend what happened in downtown Manhattan.

Well, CNN's Garrick Utley is in New York. He is joining us once again now with a view from there -- Garrick.

GARRICK UTLEY, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Thank you, Jim. And also joining you with a question about vocabulary about the words we use in our life. And the question is: what is the most attention-grabbing three letter word in the English language? And many people would say, "Obviously, it's sex." But we're not talking about sex right now, because the close runner up is no doubt war, w-a-r. This word war is in the air all the time right now, in our broadcasts and Congress, the president's visits in New York today.

The reservists are being mobilized, tens of thousands of them. Congress has passed a resolution authorizing President Bush to take whatever needed action he deems fit. But what is this war going to really be?


(voice-over): For a president who would lead a new war, what happened here was more important than any congressional resolution. The voice of the people giving George W. Bush a mandate to do whatever is necessary to avenge what happened here.

BUSH: I can hear you.

UTLEY: No leader can take a nation into war without the backing of its citizens. That backing is there.


UTLEY: Still, a CNN Time poll released Thursday shows the dilemma facing the president and the people. When asked whether Congress should declare war, 62 percent said, "Yes." But then, when asked against whom Congress should declare war, 61 percent said they weren't sure.

That uncertainty gives President Bush flexibility and time to determine what kind of a war he intends to wage. The obvious victory in this war would be to capture or kill Osama bin Laden. Of those asked of the CNN Time poll, 81 percent said they supported the assassination of terrorist leaders. But bin Laden is a moving, hidden target, as was seen following the involvement of his terrorist organization in the bombing of two American embassies in East Africa three years ago.

Cruise missiles were dually launched against terrorist camps in Afghanistan. They hit their targets, but not bin Laden. Which raises the prospect that what may start as a war against Osama bin Laden will evolve into something similar to the war on drugs. As with terrorism, it's not a war against the country, but rather a fight against shadowy individuals and their networks.

The United States sends financial support and agents to South America to fight drugs at their source. It tries to guard its borders at home. Occasionally, a leader of a drug cartel is captured and extradited to the United States. Still, it is a war with neither victory nor defeat. It just goes on.

In the wake and grief of Tuesday's trauma, it is too early to see clearly where, when and how this war will be fought. That decision is up to the president, backed by the nation, to choose not only the time and place of the next battle, but also the weapons.


UTLEY: Those weapons, no doubt, will include guns, cruise missiles, airplanes, but also the latest technology to intercept communications among terrorist groups, intercept their phone calls, they love to use cell phones, for example. There will be the weapons of economic sanctions to be imposed against those countries which have supported or at least sheltered terrorists like bin Laden. Also, the weapons of diplomacy to create alliances and coalitions put political pressures on these nations. It all adds up to a very large arsenal, and the question, of course, is when will it be used and how will the weapons of this arsenal be used -- Jim.

CLANCY: What is your sense there, Garrick, of the patience that the president talked about? Of choosing the time and the place to act?

UTLEY: Obviously, I think a lot of slack is going to be cut by the American public. They know the president has now committed himself to really carry out what public opinion wants, that we want action here in the United States. The polls show that quite clearly.

But there's a very interesting and very delicate balancing act. On the one hand, as we said, the president has to have the support of the people. He has that. At the same time, that support can put pressure on the president to act before he is ready to do so. So my guess -- it's only a gut feeling, I think other people who have been studying this situation might share this -- we're probably talking about a few weeks, perhaps a month or so at the most, before some kind of initial sharp action is taken. Probably using -- in the military -- weapons, themselves. But then this war is going perhaps become a longer campaign, the long (INAUDIBLE) that they never end in a victory or defeat. It will simply go on -- Jim.

CLANCY: All right. Garrick Utley, there in New York. And we'll be back with Garrick a little bit later.

Here is an update now on some of the latest developments. A man has been arrested in New York in connection with Tuesday's attacks. This is the first arrest directly connected to the ongoing investigation. The Justice Department saying the man is a material witness in the case.

In Pennsylvania, search crews recover the cockpit voice recorder from the hijacked United Airlines' flight. Authorities are hoping it will reveal key details about the plane crash. The recorder is said to be, in the words of one official, "fairly good shape."

U.S. President George W. Bush thanked rescuers in New York for their continued efforts. Mr. Bush got a first-hand look at the destruction for himself on Friday. Rescuers have been working non- stop since the attacks. About 4,700 people are still believed to be missing since the World Trade Center collapsed.

McEDWARDS: And across America and overseas, Friday was a day of mourning. CNN's Bruce Morton has more on our collected grief.


BRUCE MORTON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Church services everywhere. America's leadership was in Washington's National Cathedral while services everywhere. Cleveland, Ohio...

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We mourn for the many lives lost in a tragedy that remains etched in our minds forever. MORTON: Boston, Massachusetts...

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Look with compassion on the whole human family, and especially on those who lost their lives this week.

MORTON: At the Pentagon, where many lost fellow workers and friends...

MAJ. GENERAL ROBERT VANANTWERP, U.S. ARMY: May god comfort all of you that are in loss today, and may we wait on him and renew our strength.

MORTON: Manchester, New Hampshire...

Islamic service in Sterling, Virginia, near Dulles Airport.

DR. AHMED TOTUNJI: If there are people that accuse you of being terrorists, this is because this is what they were told.

MORTON: Austin, Texas...

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: That is the violence that has been in our midst. That the evil that exist around us...

MORTON: Back at Washington's National Cathedral, the Commander and Chief...

BUSH: This conflict was begun on the timing and terms of others. It will end in a way and in an hour of our choosing.

MORTON: That service ended with a hymn, a battle hymn.

Bruce Morton, CNN, Washington.


McEDWARDS: And you know, we keep hearing accounts of acts of bravery, acts of astounding bravery, in some cases. On Friday, our Larry King spoke to U.S. Solicitor General Ted Olson about the loss of his wife, Barbara. She was on board the plane that crashed into the Pentagon. She made two telephone calls to her husband.


TED OLSON, U.S. SOLICITOR GENERAL: I think she must have been partially in shock from the fact that she was on a hijacked plane. She absorbed the information. We then -- both reassured one another this plane was still up in the air; this plane was still flying and this was going to come out OK. I told her it's going to come out OK, she told me it was going to come out OK. She said, "I love you."


McEDWARDS: And he said that at one point Barbara asked him what she should tell the pilot of the doomed plane to do. Olson was a 45- year-old lawyer, who often appeared on CNN and other networks as a commentator, known for her conservative views and her big, big heart.

Well Larry King also spoke to Michael Hingson, a blind man who worked on the 78th floor of the first World Trade Center tower that was hit. He paid tribute to his guide dog, Rozel (ph), for saving his life.


MICHAEL HINGSON, WTC SURVIVOR: She did a tremendous job. She's from Guide Dogs for the Blind, which is one of the largest schools in the country that trains these dogs. They do an incredible job of selecting the animals, doing the best that they can to acclimatize them to a lot of adverse conditions. This clearly can't be one of them, but she knows how to cope with noises; she knows how to cope with a lot of different stressful things. So she played guide down the stairs.


McEDWARDS: She did on that day. Hingson and his dog actually escaped through the lobby and then they took shelter in the subway just as that building started to collapse -- Jim.

CLANCY: If you're in a military family -- at this time, if you are in the military reserves in the United States -- there is a lot of discussion underway right now about the U.S. Defense Department and its decision to call up tens of thousands of reservists. Let's get more on that by going to the Pentagon, where our Mark Potter is standing by -- Mark.

MARK POTTER, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Well, Jim, as that reserve call- up is being put into place, workers here at the Pentagon building itself are still out there tonight, as they have been for several nights, working under floodlights, in the rubble, going through the debris, looking for the remains of victims, trying to shore up the building, looking for evidence that can be used by the FBI as it tries to build its case.

The toll now -- the estimated death toll here -- is 189 people, including the 64 who died on the plane that hit the building on Tuesday. Officials say a third of the Pentagon has been knocked out of commission by the blast, the fire, the smoke and the water damage. And what we are seeing here are some pictures that were shot earlier in the day of the damage -- the very extensive damage -- to this building.

Officials say the repair to this building could take years; the cost, anywhere between 100 million dollars and a billion dollars. And some of the people working on the scene have been talking about what they have been seeing in there, and it's been quite disturbing.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Think of your worst nightmare of a building that's been pummeled. Just complete destruction, everything is just knocked down, torn apart, ripped up, the casualties are in there. It's pretty much the worst thing you can imagine to see.


POTTER: Now the Pentagon says it will soon activate some 35,000 reservists to help shore up defenses at the nation's ports, and also to assist the fighter pilots who have been flying combat air patrols, or who have been on standby at 26 bases around the country. The reservists will be called up from their civilian jobs, and among those who will be called, we are told, will be engineers, doctors, military police, air defense and intelligence specialists.

Now at a news briefing earlier, the Army Secretary said that after the terrorist attack, Americans emerged from that experience a stronger, and with a greater resolve to fight back.


THOMAS WHITE, ARMY SECRETARY: Tuesday, September 11, has already been described in various newspapers and publications as the darkest day in American history. I would only say to our adversaries that I would warn to watch carefully, for you are about to see our finest hour in the future.


POTTER: Now Pentagon sources say on the day of the terrorist attacks at least four Air Force jets scrambled to try to intercept some of the hijacked passenger jets that crashed into the World Trade Center and into the Pentagon, but we were told that the jets just never got there on time. Air Force officials say that there was never any discussion about actually shooting down those civilian jetliners. Again, they pointed out that the fighter jets were never in close enough proximity to actually do that.

Jim, back to you.

CLANCY: All right. Mark Potter, the latest there from the Pentagon.

Well, Washington is seeking international help, of course, as it considers how best to retaliate for Tuesday's terrorist attacks. In particular, the U.S. government focusing on Islamic nations with links to the prime suspect, Osama bin Laden. We get more on that now from Andrea Koppel.


ANDREA KOPPEL, CNN CORRESPONDENT: If, as the U.S. suggests, that Osama bin Laden was the mastermind behind Tuesday's attacks, going after him and shutting down his Al Qaeda terrorist network will require more than just a military assault on Afghanistan. That's because over the years, A Al Qaeda has become an international network, with cells routed in almost every region of the world.

That's why Secretary of State Colin Powell has put the world on notice: the United States needs help. COLIN POWELL, SECRETARY OF STATE: I am not threatened so much as I am saying this has become a new benchmark, a new way of measuring the relationships and what we can do together in the future and what...

KOPPEL: Since Tuesday, Powell has had the world on speed dial. In particular, reaching out to countries where the U.S. says Islamic militant groups have links to bin Laden's network.

PETER BERGEN, CNN TERRORISM SPECIALIST: Once these people have been trained in Afghanistan, we know that they've gone to Africa, we know that they've gone to Asia, we know that they've gone back to the Middle East, and it's clear now that they've also come to the United States.

KOPPEL: People like Achmed Rason (ph), the man charged with attempting to bomb the United States over the millennium, he's a member of Algeria's armed Islamic group, but was trained by bin Laden. So were members of Pakistan's Haroc Ol Mujahaddin (ph) group, which hijacked an Indian jetliner to Afghanistan in December, 1999.

On Friday, Pakistan's president informed the U.S. his country is prepared to take specific steps to help the U.S. wage its campaign against bin Laden. And, in the Arab world, Powell has asked countries like Saudi Arabia to cut off the flow of money and resources to bin Laden.

For Secretary Powell, who led allied troops to victory in the Gulf War, this war against terrorists will be fought on an entirely different battlefield.

POWELL: And so you have to design a campaign plan that goes after that kind of enemy. And it isn't always blunt force military, although that is certainly an option.

KOPPEL: But diplomatic sources say whatever option the U.S. chooses to take, it will need the support of Islamic countries. Such support would send a strong message to bin Laden and his Islamic extremist supporters around the world. They'd have nowhere to hide.

Andrea Koppel, CNN, at the State Department.


McEDWARDS: Well the U.S. request for support from Pakistan has left that country's president caught in the middle. Tom Mintier is in Islamabad and tells us that if Pakistan doesn't cooperate, it runs the risk of angering the western world. But if it does help, it's going to face problems at home.


TOM MINTIER: Inside the mosques of the Pakistani city of Islamabad, on this Friday day of prayer, special prayers were said for the Americans killed by the terrorist attacks on the United States. A few miles away, at the president's house, the government of Pakistan was also looking for guidance. The U.S. has presented not only a new ambassador to Pakistan, but at the same time, a wish list if military action is launched against Afghanistan.

Senior U.S. administration officials tell CNN that Pakistani leaders were asked to close the border with Afghanistan, stop buying fuel for the Taliban, and provide intelligence on Osama bin Laden. At this meeting of Pakistan's top military leaders, the only item on the agenda was how to assist the United States. The decision to help America goes against long-standing ties to the Taliban and assistance by some in the Pakistani military to bin Laden's cause. The help for the United States could carry political risk at home.

LT. GENERAL AHMID GUL, FMR. PAKISTANI INTELLIGENCE CHIEF: The consequences of it could be disastrous for Pakistan. And if there are American interests in Pakistan in the long run, then those interests will also suffer.

MINTIER: Many in Pakistan have supported Osama bin Laden's efforts in the past. Now some political analysts are saying the Taliban needs to oust bin Laden before it's too late.

SYED RIFAT HUSSEIN: Unless the Taliban are willing to be bombed back to the stone age and cease to exist as an entity, I think, you know, some of it is in the larger interest to get rid of Osama bin Laden, who has become a strategic liability for them.

MINTIER: The United States has made it clear to Pakistan that it is either with America or against America. Publicly, it has announced support, but what is certainly not clear at this point is how extensive that support will be.

Tom Mintier, CNN, Islamabad, Pakistan.


McEDWARDS: While the leader of Afghanistan's ruling Taliban addressed his country about possible attacks, in a national radio address, the Taliban supreme leader, Mullah Mohammad Omar, told citizens not to be afraid, but to prepare for a holy war. He said the attack would not be because of suspected terrorist Osama bin Laden, but called it a demonization of Islam. The Taliban has said that bin Laden could not have been involved in these attacks.

Meanwhile, many residents and international aid workers have already fled the capital city of Kabul -- Jim.

CLANCY: If you're just joining our coverage of America's new war, we want to bring you up to date on the latest developments now.

Against the backdrop of billowing smoke, rescuers are once again digging through the pile of destruction in New York City. It has been nearly four days since the attacks, and rescue operations have been ongoing ever since. No survivors were found in the last two days. Rescuers say they are still hopeful. Meantime, search crews in Pennsylvania recover the voice data recover from the hijacked United Airlines' flight. Authorities are hoping it will reveal details about the plane's crash on Tuesday. Voice recorders on both planes that struck the World Trade Center are still missing.

Now authorities have made their first arrest in direct connection to the attacks. The Justice Department says the man is a material witness in the case. He was one of the people who was detained Thursday at JFK International Airport in New York. Thus far, in the investigation, 35 search warrants and hundreds of subpoenas have already been issued.

McEDWARDS: And, you know, we saw those moving pictures earlier from the National -- the prayer ceremony at the National Cathedral in Washington. A candlelight vigil going on on the west coast of this country right now. But, you know, many countries around the world join the American people in a day of mourning. And for more on this, let's join Jane Dutton in London -- Jane.

JANE DUTTON, CNN LONDON: Thanks, Colleen. And, indeed, there were vigils around the world Friday. Canada offered its prayers to the victims and it support to all Americans. Prime Minister Jean Chretien said his country's friendship with the United States has no limit.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We're here today to honor the memory of those who lost their lives on Tuesday with the National Anthems.


DUTTON: Three minutes of silence in memory of those who died. And Britain, and the rest of Europe, came to a stand-still in the middle of the day. Millions stood in silence, united in their support and sympathy for America.

In Germany, thousands gathered for a ceremony of remembrance. After it, there was a march for peace in the streets of Berlin.

And in Iran, an unprecedented show of sympathy. The national soccer team and 60,000 spectators observed a minute of silence at the Tehran soccer stadium before a world-cup qualifying game. Iran has strongly condemned the attacks against the U.S. After two decades of enmity between the two countries, that's a gesture Washington is welcoming.

The mood was also somber at NATO's headquarters in Brussels. There, too, it was a day of mourning, but also of hard reflection. The alliance's position is clear: the attacks were an assault against all of its members. But some may not be willing to join the U.S. on the battlefield. Diana Muriel reports.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) DIANA MURIEL, CNN BELGIUM (voice-over): A time for respect and remembrance. The 19 ambassadors to NATO, shoulder to shoulder, observing three minutes of silence at midday on Friday, along with millions of other Europeans.

They stand in readiness, following Wednesday's affirmation of Article V of the Washington Treaty. The first time a commitment has been given to a collective descent against an attack on an alliance member. Quite what that commitment will enfold is less clear.

Some alliance members, like Britain, have promised strong support for any NATO effort. Even Norway, reported to be less enthusiastic, said its commitment is firm.

JAKKEN BJORN LIAN, NORWEGIAN AMB. TO NATO: Our resources are more limited, of course, than the United States' resources, but we will certainly put major resources at the disposal of any operation that the alliance would decide. There should be no doubt about that. Special forces, or whatever we could bring to bear on the situation.

MURIEL: The British and the French could also provide elite troops to any operation if required. But support from others, like the Netherlands, appears more muted.

NICOLAAS BIEGMAN, NETHERLANDS AMB. TO NATO: We will be with you mentally, morally and possibly, also in concrete terms. But what it will be at that stage, I can't answer today.

MURIEL: Former NATO Chief Willy Claues believes some members of the NATO alliance would be unwilling to participate in direct military action. Particularly, if that involved attacks on countries that have shown to have harbored or supported the terrorists responsible for Tuesday's acts of terror.

WILLY CLAUES: It depends what countries and what will be -- what could be -- the consequences of the military actions against those countries. Are we speaking about countries that control nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, biological weapons? Yes or no? It's a big difference, you know?

MURIEL: Until a terrorist targeted is identified, NATO allies are understood to be providing military intelligence to assist the United States in their investigation.

As the 19 national flags of the NATO alliance fly at half staff. The time for action could be approaching. The United States has yet to make specific demands for NATO assistance, but that is expected here in the coming days and weeks.

Diana Muriel, CNN, at NATO Headquarters in Brussels.


DUTTON: That's it from Jane Dutton in London. For now, back to you, Jim, in Atlanta.

CLANCY: All right, Jane, thanks for that.

Well, Tuesday's attacks have led three of America's largest companies to issue profit warnings now. General Electric says its insurance business expects claims of some 600 million dollars, as a result of the attacks. And then another insurance company, MetLife, says it stands to lose between 250 and 300 million dollars. However, it says that it will do everything possible to pay claims promptly.

And car maker, Ford, reports that it will cut through quarter production by some 110,000 vehicles. That is because transport problems have held up the delivery of needed components.

McEDWARDS: Well, the New York stock exchange is scheduled to reopen Monday, after four days without the familiar opening bell and, these days, the ups and downs of the Dow Jones and the Nasdaq. Greg Clarkin reports on what's being done to ensure an orderly resumption of trading.


GREG CLARKIN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): They washed away the dirt and the grime, hoping to cleanse Wall Street of the remnants of the attacks on the World Trade Center. But inside the New York stock exchange, the challenges to restoring trading ran deeper. There are monumental telecommunications obstacles, including making sure electric and phone service will be intact. And then there was the main issue, making sure the sophisticated network that handles the trades for the NYSE can be processed.

RICHARD GRASSO, NYSE CHAIRMAN: The challenge is recreating the network, the interconnected infrastructure, that brings 85 million investors individually and another 10,000 institutions from all over the world.

CLARKIN: The New York Board of Trade was located in the World Trade Center Complex, but will have a new facility come Monday.

MARK FICHTEL: Well the major issue is we have to make sure that all of our clearing members are able to receive the trades and to clear them. It's one thing to trade, but if you don't match them and clear them, you've got a serious problem.

CLARKIN: All of the trading exchanges will be undergoing extensive testing this weekend to spot potential problems.

HARDWICK SIMMONS: I mean, we've got to make sure we have adequate power, we have adequate access to downtown, and that we have the telecommunications capability necessary to carry all of this.

CLARKIN: The NYSE, and other exchanges, will be working through the weekend, testing and re-testing computer and telecommunication systems all in an effort to make sure that Monday morning's trading goes smoothly.

Greg Clarkin, CNN financial news, New York.


CLANCY: Now the international financial community is waiting with some trepidation, we should say, for Monday's opening bell on Wall Street. Robert Miller is an associate editor at Sunday Business, that's a British financial magazine. He's joining us now from London.

Thanks so much, and I want to begin just by asking you the bottom line: are we worried about the technical end of it or the psychological end?

ROBERT MILLER, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, SUNDAY BUSINESS: It's a bit of both, I think, Jim. Good morning from here. I think that, first of all, it would be wrong to assume that it will be anything like a full trading session. Many of the people with the disaster recovery -- as we've heard earlier on your reports -- it's operating perhaps on a quarter strength. So there will be some nervousness; there's definitely: will the system hold up? And, certainly, the regulators from this end -- the equivalent of your SEC -- the Financial Services Authority and the Bank of England are standing by, if necessary, to help out.

The psychological, of course, no one can tell, except that it will be absolutely huge. And in many ways, it's perhaps a symbolic opening, rather than expecting huge volumes, from this end anyway.

CLANCY: All right. When we look at the situation that's facing the market here, we have to also look at the way that people expect things to go. Now we watched the dips in Europe and Asia after this disaster. The U.S. markets have been closed. And they actually do provide quite a bit of leadership, don't they?

MILLER: I think perhaps if anything has been born home in market terms since Tuesday's awful events, it is that the world markets certainly do still take their lead from Wall Street. We all need Will Street, if you like, as a totem pole as to what's happening. Obviously, individual markets were a reaction to individual events. But, clearly, Wall Street, or perhaps -- I'm talking collectively about all the different exchanges in America -- are very much the lead as we do take our lead. And, obviously, as you say, they've been closed.

CLANCY: Has this terrorist attack, risking, pushing the U.S. economy into a full-fledged recession, and thereby risking the wider global economy?

MILLER: I think the likelihood -- it was there before; I think American consumers realized that before the -- perhaps the Mitegan Confidence Index (ph) which showed an eight time low in consumer confidence. And what we perhaps forget in all this is that the American economy -- large though it is -- is roughly two thirds consumer spending. The consumers -- certainly from our point of view over here, and in other worlds markets -- consumers have been the spenders of last resort.

We're now asking them to sort of gourd up their loins after this to go at it again. I think that's possibly a very tall order. And I would suspect, anyway, for perhaps this quarter and the next quarter that the American economy will straight into recession. How it comes out of that and how quickly, I think, will depend on perhaps the earnings season coming up. The companies traditionally in America, as you know, look at their forward investment plans around about this time of year. Just they've been down recently in the last couple of years.

CLANCY: Just because of the politics involved, the prestige involved, do you think that the federal government, the Fed, is going to act more quickly, perhaps cutting rates by a full 50 points?

MILLER: Certainly, that is the rumor over here, that either at eight thirty, nine o'clock, Monday morning New York time, or perhaps during the week -- and perhaps a symbolic, but forward opening is saying, "Here's a cut." Whether that will be concerted across the other major -- the European Central Bank and The Bank of England -- I think remains to be seen. But if things did look like they needed a helping hand, I'm sure that is the possibility. I wouldn't rule it out.

CLANCY: Robert Miller, our thanks to you, and good day to you there in London -- Colleen.

McEDWARDS: Well, the whole worlds will be watching New York's open on Monday, that's for sure.

But let's return you now to New York and a man who's keeping his own nightly vigil over scene for us, for you. That's our Garrick Utley -- Garrick.

UTLEY: Yes. Thank you, Colleen. One little item, perhaps that doesn't loom that large compared to all of the other things that have happened in New York City, the indication about the level of anxiety and where this anxiety comes from.

It's reported now that among those who feel most vulnerable about going to their place of work are those New Yorkers who work in the Empire State Building. Why? Well, perhaps you'd understand this common logic. It is now the largest standing -- the tallest building -- in Manhattan. Once that the World Trade Center is no longer there. Perhaps it's certain perverse, pessimistic logic at work there.

Let's go down now to Gary Tuchman, who is in lower Manhattan. And he's going to bring us up to date on what's happening where the -- close to where the disaster occurred -- Gary.

GARY TUCHMAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Garrick, you just brought up a sad, but a very interesting point: for 28 years, the World Trade Center has been the largest building in New York City. As a matter of fact, for a short time, it was the tallest building in the world. Then the Sears Tower in Chicago was built and it became the second tallest building in the world.

So New Yorkers have known this to be the tallest building in New York City for so many years. The Empire State Building, which used to be the tallest building in the world -- it used to be the tallest building in New York City, obviously -- is once again the tallest building in New York City because of this diabolical reason.

Now it's been exactly 90 hours since all hell broke loose here in lower Manhattan. This is where the World Trade Center used to stand. Now, fire continues to burn, smoke continues to rise, and workers continue to be on the scene trying to find survivors. But the search is not really bearing fruit. Not one survivor has been found over the last two days; terribly disappointing to the rescue workers who are on the scene. And totally heartbreaking to the family members who are waiting for any news whatsoever. Four thousand seven hundred people are still missing.

We come to you, right now from Greenwich Street. And this street is only open to emergency workers. So all through the evening, and all through these early morning hours, cars have been coming down, fire trucks, ambulances, sanitation trucks, everyone participating in this search. This area is a ghost town, totally closed to the public. There isn't even electricity in many of these buildings right now. It's just open to the emergency workers and to members of the news media, like us.

Once again, it was 90 hours ago that terrorists commandeered two planes. One hit Number One World Trade Center, the other one hit Number Two World Trade Center. Number One World Trade Center, by the way, the first one hit, was the same World Trade Center tower that was bombed back in 1993. Testimony came out during that trial of the bombers of the World Trade Center that they wanted to knock down the entire building. And sadly and tragically, that's what happened this time.

We want to talk about one other thing before we go back to you, Garrick, the workers who are on the scene. It's between 1,000 and 2,000 at all times. It is a very dangerous job. And the reason we can directly tell you it's so dangerous is because during the Oklahoma City bombing, one of the emergency workers who went in there was Rebecca Anderson (ph), she was a nurse. And she was hit in the head by a chunk of steel while she was in the building. She later died in the hospital. She is one of the 168 victims of the Oklahoma City bombing.

Garrick, back to you.

UTLEY: Gary, one quick question here. It's something that I think may be baffling some of our viewers. We saw on a shot, just a moment ago, that the smoke is still rising there over the site of the attack last Tuesday. Several days later there, why are -- how is it possible these fires are still burning? Where are they? Are they so hidden that the fire department can't get to them or are they simply not that important? They're being ignored, there we see the smoke.

TUCHMAN: Garrick, there is just so much rubble. I mean, keep in mind, Mayor Giuliani said today that over 10,000 tons, which is 20 million pounds of rubble has been taken away. But it's barely making a dent. The pile, the rubble, looks almost exactly the same as it did a few days ago. And that gives you an idea of how much rubble is there. So the rubble is 75 feet high at points. It is so deep and so wide that fires just break out in all different areas. And it's a lot of work to try to put them out, and once they put them out, another one sprouts up. And that's what happens. There are constantly fires, and that's creating all the smoke behind me that hasn't gone away in the 90 hours since this tragedy occurred.

UTLEY: Thank you very much. Gary Tuchman on the scene there.

Now back to Colleen in Atlanta.

McEDWARDS: All right, Garrick, thanks very much. Over to Jim.

CLANCY: Well, all across the United States, Colleen, flags popping up everywhere. You can see them in cars; you can see them outside homes. They are prominently displayed as a show of support for the victims and a sign of unity among Americans.

Professional athletes also doing their part. Major League Baseball busy adding flags to the sides of baseball caps. They'll be worn by all players on Monday, when the games will be played for the first time since the attack.

Well, from Miami to Minnesota, from Burbank to Boston, the people of the United States have been lighting candles to remember those who perished. Let's take a glimpse at just a few of those vigils.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think is just one sign of the unity and the solidarity. And it's nice to know that what you feel -- the pain and the hurt -- is shared by a lot of people. There's a lot of people that are trying to make some good out of this. So I think it's important to share that with everybody.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's young and old and people of all persuasions. And it's fantastic to see that we all have one thing in common and we love this country.

MARIA D'ANGELO: It was really horrible, the whole situation. And I think it was a big shock to everyone and I think everyone was stunned at first, and I think we're all doing the best we can.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think it's absolutely amazing that the government is taking such a unified stance towards all of this. I mean, seeing Mayor Giuliani, Hillary Clinton and Governor Pataki all standing side by side in unity, I truly that they and President Bush are giving this city a strength it has never seen before.


McEDWARDS: It has been an anxious time, now, for many Arab Americans and Muslims in the United States. Many of them adding their voices to the national chorus. Muslims have been gathering in mosques and community centers, offering prayers and raising money for victims as well. But some people, including many Afghans, worry about becoming targets for Americans' anger. CNN's Rusty Dornin has that story now from California.


RUSTY DORNIN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Arif Armaf (ph) sold every American flag in his store in Freemont, California. A source of pride for him, right now. Armaf (ph) led Afghanistan when the Soviets invaded. He believes his native land is being unjustly blamed for terrorism the U.S. increasingly believes was the work of a man from Saudi Arabia.

ARIF ARMAF, STORE OWNER: No, I don't believe it is Afghani people, it is just this terrorism of Osama bin Laden.

DORNIN: Others came here when the Taliban regime took over. Some say the world turned its back on Afghanistan when that happened. That that isolation allowed the regime to harbor Osama bin Laden.

STEVE FARYABI, AFGHAN AMERICAN ASSOCIATION: Seeing this terrorist group that are terrorizing the world has been torturing and victimizing, massacring our people in Afghanistan. We have asked numerous times for international help, and we got none.

DORNIN: Mohammed Khomosh worries that Afghanis here will be blamed for the Taliban's actions. The day of the attacks, someone through a rock at his store front.

MOHAMMED KHOMOSH: Maybe something happened to us, something -- like, my kids, they go to school, they are under stress. People look at them that he's Afghan, you guys are doing that.

DORNIN: Friday, a holy day for Muslims. This Friday, a feeling of vulnerability.

Outside the only Afghan mosque is extra security local police patrols. While the threats have been relatively minor, there is uncertainty and unease among the Afghan community.

Afghani businesses line the streets in downtown Freemont. Many here say those left in Afghanistan are, for the most part, the poor, brutalized by the war with the Soviets, and now the repressive policies of the Taliban. Afghans here fear the talk of war.

ZERMINA ANDESHA, RESTAURANT OWNER: Innocent people get killed. They should do something, they should talk with the Taliban to get that guy. You know? They shouldn't kill these people, the innocent people.

DORNIN: People here worry that revenge for Tuesday's attack may mean an all-out strike against a nation they feel has suffered enough.

Rusty Dornin, CNN, Freemont, California.

(END VIDEOTAPE) CLANCY: It has been said many times in the last few days that New York is the city that never sleeps. But these days, it may be truer than ever. People have been glued to their television screens all day and all night.

Our Jeanne Moos has more.


JEANNE MOOS, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): If you're watching this story, you may already be hooked, horrified, yet mesmerized by planes aimed at buildings, buildings that collapsed before our very eyes, over and over.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I can't really take my eyes off the TV.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: And I also couldn't stand to watch TV one more minute.

MOOS: "Attack on America," "Attack on America," "America Under Attack," whatever the networks call it.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's addictive. I think it's addictive partly because we don't want to miss something.

MOOS: Even if that something makes me sad.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I cry a lot when I hear the stories and see all the people.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: ... if anybody see my daughter.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think people feel guilty if they're not watching it. You know, that they feel in some way that they're betraying those that have really suffered.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: You feel like you're participating because you're watching, but it's an illusion.

MOOS: What's not an illusion is the way the coverage tends to unite viewers in a shared experience, even if what's shared is sorrow. It's easy to OD on crisis TV.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I don't want to watch it all the time, just because it kind of deadens the mind.

MOOS: So how much is too much? We asked Dr. Jimmie Holland, head of the Department of Psychiatry at Sloane (ph) Kettering (ph).

JIMMIE HOLLAND: Everybody should ask themselves, "Is this making me feel better or feel worse?" And if it's making you feel worse, you probably should limit. I'm going to watch an hour in the morning and an hour in the afternoon.

MOOS: And turn it off...

HOLLAND: When you get a feeling of being unable to think about anything else.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: You know what I felt when I saw the smoke coming around the building? I thought this is a movie.

MOOS: But these are no special effects.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: That's the image. That's the image that's going to be burned into our brains for the rest of our lives.

MOOS: Burned into our brains from every angle.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: And there's this guy standing there and then all of a sudden it just rips right through it. Absolutely powerful.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: But I could look at that image a million times and I still find it mesmerizing.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I know. It's an intimacy with disaster.

MOOS: Disaster seen from the safe side of the screen.

Jeanne Moos, CNN, New York.


McEDWARDS: And those images going through a lot of people's minds today. We're going to actually leave you this hour with some of the images from today's memorial service at the National Cathedral in Washington D.C.

CLANCY: Better images of the many services on this day of prayer and remembrance in the United States and around the world.


UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Those of us who are gathered here: Muslim, Jew, Christian, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, all people of faith want to say to this nation and to the world that love is stronger than hate. And that love without injustice will in the end prevail.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Today, we gather to be reassured that god hears the lamenting and bitter weeping of mother America, because so many of her children are no more.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: In broken and humble hearts, and with tears in our eyes, we come to you, our lord, to give us comfort. Help us in our distress. Keep us together, as people of diverse faiths, colors and races. Keep our country strong for the sake of the good and righteousness.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: My prayer today is that we will feel the loving arms of god wrapped around us, and we'll know in our hearts that he will never forsake us as we trust in him.

BUSH: On this national day of prayer and remembrance, we ask almighty God to watch over our nation and grant us patience and resolve in all that is to come as we have been assured...


CLANCY: On the front lines in the search for survivors rescuers digging through a mountain of destruction.

MCEDWARDS: Handshaking and backslapping, President Bush tours the ruins of lower Manhattan and vows the attackers will hear all of us soon.

CLANCY: And the flicker of candles illuminate Central Park. Americans gathering to share their grief.

MCEDWARDS: Hello. You're watching CNN's continuing coverage of America's new war. I'm Colleen McEdwards at CNN Center.

CLANCY: And I'm Jim Clancy. We're going to begin our report with the latest developments in the aftermath of Tuesday's catastrophe.

Well, down in a canyon of mud and rubble the search for life and for the dead goes on at ground zero. Workers are inspecting tons of debris left from the collapse of the World Trade Center Towers. Anything that could be evidence is being sent to a joint terrorist task force.

At the Pennsylvania crash site an encouraging word -- just hours ago searchers found the cockpit voice recorder from the hijacked United 757. Authorities in Washington will study that recorder to see what it reveals about the final minutes before impact.

President George Bush left New York after meeting with rescue workers. Authorities made their first arrests in connection with the hijacking. It is a man they say is a material witness taken into custody at John F. Kennedy Airport.

While in Congress, the House has joined the Senate in passing a resolution that authorized the President to use all necessary force in retaliation for the attacks. Mr. Bush meantime says the search goes on for the mastermind behind the plot.


BUSH: We're gathering all the possible evidence. At the appropriate time we will let America know what the evidence is.

QUESTION: Do you feel like you know who did it?

BUSH: We've got a suspect.


MCEDWARDS: Well, in New York, these are moments to mourn and moments to remember but not yet a time to give up hope. While workers sift through those still smoking ruins, survivors and loved ones keep a vigil for the more than 4,700 people who are missing at this point. And keeping it all in perspective for us is Garrick Utley. He is in New York and joins us now. Garrick.

UTLEY: Good morning, Colleen. Well, given all that's transpired in New York City, particularly in Manhattan, this week New Yorkers can be grateful for small blessings. And one of those small blessings was not just that President Bush came here but more important than that from a New Yorker perspective is how he came here. Usually a president visits New York City, lands at JFK, the presidential motorcade comes and snarls up traffic and New Yorkers and their cars fume.

There's not much we can do about it. This time, though, because of security reasons, the plans were different. The president landed at an Air Force base outside of New York, helicoptered in, caused very little disruption in life here. There's been enough disruption, as we know since Tuesday. And he visited the rescue operations down there in lower Manhattan. We have some pictures of that.

The president was there talking with firemen, all the other rescue participants -- the mayor. The governor was there. And then at the -- what turned into an extraordinary communing with the workers. And there are about 1,000 workers at any given time there on the site. He had this to say.


BUSH: I want you all to know that America today -- America today is on bended knee in prayer for the people whose lives were lost here, for the workers who work here, for the families who mourn. This nation stands with the good people of New York City and New Jersey and Connecticut as we mourn the loss of thousands of our citizens.

I can hear you!


I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people...


And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon.



UTLEY: The atmosphere as we can see there was quite warm and emotional. Although the weather has turned cooler, the first few days it was summerish here in New York City. That helped the workers down there. But now we've had rainstorms and autumn is in the air. And Alessio Vinci is there on location. Alessio.

ALESSIO VINCI, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Good evening, Garrick. Well, there was rain yesterday and today it's very cold. Bitterly cold, I would say. And we have report of many incredible stories in the past few days. It seems those two jet liners crashed into the twin towers of the World Trade Center and what we are seeing now behind me is perhaps one of those incredible stories.

As you can see from these live pictures that we are providing to you now, there is still smoke rising on top of that pile of rubble almost four days, as I said, after the crash. The rescue operation is continuing on a 24-hour operation. There was a brief interruption today and earlier yesterday due to the rain. But now the rescue workers are back at work on their 12-hour shift. The weather, as I said, is very cold. The rain yesterday making the site a little bit more slippery and more dangerous for the rescue workers but as I say now, it's been dry for the last 12 hours or so. Yet the operation is continuing quite speedily.

Chances to find somebody alive at this time are growing dim as people begin to speak about any kind of miracle if anybody is found alive underneath that rubble. However, there are still 4,717 people missing. And the rescue workers with whom we were able to speak earlier today must believe that somebody underneath that pile of rubble still must be alive. The latest numbers, however, speak for themselves -- 185 people have been found dead, 408 body parts so far, and Mayor Rudolph Giuliani saying that there still was hope that some survivors could have been found.

However, some of the engineers there on site also are saying that it was quite possible that many of those 4,000 people still missing that their bodies will never be found because when the jets crashed into those two towers, of course, there was a lot of fuel. The fire was extremely intense and many of those bodies were burned completely.

More than 13,000 tons of debris has been recovered from the site and been mainly taken to Staten Island. There the FBI is sifting through the debris and trying to get any kind of clues from the debris to find out if perhaps any of those evidence of who the hijackers may be. We have a list of names but perhaps in that debris the FBI can find some more clues.

Back to you, Garrick.

UTLEY: Yes. Alessio, it's a rather sensitive point, of course. You touched on it, though. I think we should follow up on it. The rescue workers there -- they're not finding survivors. They don't really believe they're going to find survivors, but still city officials aren't' saying that all hope is lost. But tell us a bit about the atmosphere and what you're hearing from those workers there. I mean, are they -- do they hold out any hope still?

VINCI: They do not give up on hope, especially because they can hear on television perhaps and on the radio every day that the people up at the Armory are still hoping to be able to find their people alive. And therefore the rescue workers here perhaps believe that it is up to them to meet some of those hopes and see if perhaps somebody in an air pocket or perhaps underneath a large piece of concrete may still be alive. And also, Garrick, it is important to know that underneath that rubble there are still three hundred firemen, thirty police officers, thirty Port Authority officers, with all the people -- some of the people who are there they knew.

They were some friends, some comrades. And therefore perhaps that particular element also is giving the rescue operation here another boost in trying to find perhaps one of their comrades still alive. So there is still not only the fact to find people who were working in there but also some of their comrades who rushed into the building soon after the plan crashed into it before it collapsed.

UTLEY: Thank you, Alessio. Certainly a very strong motivating force to keep on digging, keep on working.

Now back to Jim and Colleen in Atlanta.

CLANCY: All right. Garrick, thank you for that. Well, moving now from rescue and recovery toward retaliation, something that may also be in the future -- a sure sign of America's resolve -- President Bush authorizing the Defense Department to call up as many as 50,000 military reservists for homeland defense. With the latest from the Pentagon we're joined now by Mark Potter live.

POTTER: Well, there are a couple of issues going on here at the Pentagon. There is the reserve call up and there is taking care of the Pentagon building itself. About a third of the complex remains closed after being hit by the hijacked jetliner on Thursday. Intense flames and smoke and water contributed to the extensive damage to the area, which, ironically, had just finished being renovated. Officials estimate it could take -- it could take several years to rebuild this area and could cost anywhere between a hundred million and one billion dollars to do that.

Now as we can see here in this live picture the workers continue to pour through the building, to sift through the rubble. They're still trying to find victims. They're trying to shore up the building so that they can work more safely there. The safety is an extreme consideration here. There are some very dangerous conditions. Occasionally fires break out also. They are also looking for evidence to help the FBI with its criminal case.

The estimated death toll now stands at 189, that's 125 Pentagon personnel and about 60 -- and 64 passengers from the American Airlines jet.

Now today the Pentagon is putting together plans for the activation of the reservists that you were talking about -- some 35,000 reservists. The military says it will first ask for volunteers and it already seems that there are a lot of those.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We've had people who are knocking on the doors. They want to serve. They want to be a part of this. They're very emotional. We've had to say, "Wait a little bit. We've only had a matter of hours since this all began." We're proceeding along our way and now we have the authorization to bring those people on board.

(END VIDEO CLIP) POTTER: The reservists will be used to help with the disaster relief efforts and also to support the National Guard pilots who have been seen particularly seen over the skies over Washington DC and New York, flying the combat air patrols as we can see here. They are also on standby -- a 15-minute standby -- at a number of bases around the country.

This call up would involve also the Coast Guard reservists who had been involved in shoring up the defenses along the nation's -- at the nation's seaports. The call up will begin in the next few days and we will see people leaving their families and their civilian jobs. Among those who are likely to be activated -- engineers, doctors, military police, air defense and intelligence specialists, and chaplains.

Jim, back to you.

CLANCY: All right, Mark Potter. Reporting there live from the Pentagon. From coast to coast on Friday, the Americans paused. They paused to mourn. The National Day of Prayer and Remembrance inspired candlelight vigils for the victims and their families.

CLANCY: In Providence, Rhode Island, thousands of people went to the State House to hold candles in memory of those who lost their lives. They listened to state leaders speak to unite as a nation.

In Boston, some 3,000 people set candles afloat in a reflecting pool beside a church as the Boston Symphony Orchestra played hymns and patriotic songs. And in Denver, Colorado, the mile-high city, people held candles in Washington Park just as dusk began to fall across the Rockies. New arrivals at the vigil lit their candles held by mourners already there. On the West coast in Seattle, Washington, thousands of candles flickered on the harbor steps across the Seattle -- from the Seattle Art Museum. Just a few of many ceremonies held all across the United States -- Colleen.

MCEDWARDS: And, Jim, people gathered in churches, synagogues, and mosques around the country as well to remember the victims. The National Cathedral in Washington was the site of a solemn and quite an emotional mid-day prayer service. Past presidents, current leaders, all attended this service. In a display of America's religious diversity, prayers at the Cathedral were offered by Protestant, Catholic, Jewish and Muslim clergy. One of the country's preeminent religious figures, the Reverend Billy Graham, gave the sermon.


REVEREND BILLY GRAHAM: Yes, our nation has been attacked, buildings destroyed, lives lost. But now we have a choice whether to implode and disintegrate emotionally and spiritually as a people and a nation, or whether we choose to become stronger through all of the struggle to rebuild on a solid foundation.


MCEDWARDS: And Friday was prayer day for the Muslim community. In Brooklyn, New York, a couple of miles from the World Trade Center, US officials say evidence suggests that those behind the attacks were fanatical Muslims bent on a holy war against America. But still some Arab-Americans are finding themselves the target of violence.

Here's CNN's Richard Blystone with that.


RICHARD BLYSTONE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A community rich in immigrants sharing the time-honored aim of making it in American. Still on good terms with their old cultures, still strong in their faith, Islam.

Atlantic Avenue, they proudly say, is the oldest Arab community in New York, and as stunned as anyone by Tuesday's carnage.

AHMED RHANDOR: It's shocking, it's horrible. We feel very bad, you know.

BLYSTONE: What's different here is fear of taking the blame.

ABDUL MUBAREZ: All Arab-Americans and Muslims in this country that reside and make their living in this country are as good as an American as anyone else that came from all over the world, and they love the American flag just like anyone else. And they have nothing to do against this country. And this is one of the reasons we are living in this country.

BLYSTONE: Nonetheless, Atlantic Avenue today is keeping a low profile, lest the rash of slurs and slights and insults get more serious. Akmed Morsey (ph) is passing out a letter in Arabic from the New York District Attorney telling Arabs and Muslims where to call if harassed or attacked, like his own mother on Tuesday.

AKMED MORSEY (ph): She was spit at, "Go back to your country." "Die." All these different slurs and different -- you know -- my mother.

BLYSTONE: Islam is a religion of tolerance, says the Imam of the Rachman Taffa (ph), a religion that forbids ignorant wars between nations. Muslims from 22 nations come to pray here. "We all feel the pain of what happened", says the Imam, and he asks, "Please give blood, money, whatever you can to help victims of the disaster." But if the attackers were Muslims pursuing what they saw as a holy war, did Islam attack America?

"Jihad is for defense and defense only," he says. "And anyone who preaches otherwise doesn't know Islam. The Koran says that if a man murders another human being, it is as though he killed all humanity."

This Friday's service ends with special prayers for all those who were killed, including at least 50 Muslims.

Richard Blystone, Brooklyn, New York.


MCEDWARDS: Well, many countries around the world join the Americans people in a day of mourning and remembrance -- people from all backgrounds.

CLANCY: And for more on that let's cross over now and with Jane Dutton, a good morning there in London, Jane.

DUTTON: Good morning. Now there's been an overwhelming show of emotional and political support. A number of heads of state have already pledged their country's support for the US government and are urging others to do the same. As a memorial, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien made it clear his country is behind President George W. Bush, no matter what. Describing Canada's relationship with the US, he said, "Our friendship has no limit."

And in Berlin hundreds of thousands Germans lit candles as they gathered to mourn America's loss. After the ceremony, they held a march for peace on the streets of Berlin.

Some Africans are among those who are mourning. At least nine South Africans are missing after the attacks. In Pretoria, residents waited in line Friday to sign books of condolence at the US Embassy. Charlayne Hunter-Gault has this report.


CHARLAYNE HUNTER-GAULT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A somber service, no singing. Highly unusual in a country where singing is a staple of any gathering, but on this day only words -- sad words from Christians.

PAUL VERRYN: ... humanity lies in dust and ashes around us.

HUNTER-GAULT: Words of reconciliation from Muslims.

EBRAHIM BAHM: He who forgives and makes reconciliation his reward is due from the Almighty.

HUNTER-GAULT: Words of condolence from Christians, Muslims and Jews, after words from the worried.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I am a Christian woman married to a Muslim husband. And the need for the world to unite is for me the most important thing right now. Force could lead to war, intolerance of each other -- it could destroy families, it could destroy nations.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I do feel that it might spread to the whole world, the evil that is taking place.

HUNTER-GAULT: Words of hope.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: And I wish that the rest of the world would follow the South Africans position with dialogue with the chief peacemakers (UNINTELLIGIBLE).

HUNTER-GAULT: Not far away at the US Consulate, South African visitors bearing gifts and more words.

LULU MORTOU: ... the American people that are here that I love, that the day ends and just hopefully (UNINTELLIGIBLE).

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I'm from Morocco, you know, and it does not matter (UNINTELLIGIBLE) Jewish, doesn't make a difference (UNINTELLIGIBLE).

HUNTER-GAULT: At the airport where flights to America remain on hold, words of frustration.

HEIDE DUCKETT: Like I'm a nurse so you just hear like, "Oh, you could help out in some way." But your hands are tied stuck here.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We stand ready to extend such humanitarian assistance as may be requested to extend. This is the least we can do.

HUNTER-GAULT: South Africa's political history as diplomatic friend to all, and most recently host to the world racism conference where it insisted the Palestinian issue deserved a hearing, raised concerns as the US contemplates its response.

BOY GULDENHUYS: Hopefully, South Africa will end up on the right side of the fence, even it means that we will have to say goodbye to many of the rogue states we are currently embracing.

JACOB ZUMA, S. AFRICAN DEPUTY PRESIDENT: And we are part of the world that is saying perpetrators of this must be found and must face the weight of the law.

EBRAHM EBRAHIM, AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS: We must implore the United States in order to avoid the same level of indiscriminate action when meting punishment to the guilty parties.

HUNTER-GAULT: No one is sure exactly how long the American flag will fly at half staff here, but as long as it does, South Africans say they want Americans to know they're with them in their hour of sorrow and grief.

Charlayne Hunter-Gault, CNN, Johannesburg.


DUTTON: People in China are showing their support for the victims. Students at a private elementary and middle school in Beijing held a memorial on Friday. A representative from each grade level offered a bouquet of flowers to a wreath for the victims of the attack. Students and teachers observed a moment of silence. People have also been placing flowers outside the US Embassy in Beijing.

In Iran, where the United States has long been considered the enemy, an unprecedented show of sympathy. Sixty thousand spectators and soccer players observed a minute of silence at the Tehran soccer stadium before a World Cup qualifying match. Iranian leaders have strongly condemned Tuesday's attack, a gesture a US State Department official has said Washington would like to build on in the future.

That's a look at how the world is reacting. I'm Jane Dutton in London. Now back to Jim at CNN Center.

CLANCY: All right, Jane. Thanks for that. One of the 64 people who was aboard the American Airlines Flight 77 -- that's the one that crashed into the Pentagon Tuesday -- was a woman named Barbara Olson, a television commentator and the wife of US Solicitor General Ted Olson. She managed to make two cell phone calls to her husband in the minutes before the plane crashed. Mr. Olson says now he's coping by taking it one day at a time.


OLSON: I left the home a little before six, as I said and Barbara left not long thereafter to catch the plane. And it was my birthday. And when I got -- when I finally went to bed it was after one o'clock on -- now it was September 12th. There was a note that Barbara had written to me on the pillow saying "I love you." When you read this I will be thinking of you and I will be back on -- I will be back Friday."


CLANCY: Olson says his wife was aware of the World Trade Center attacks. He says her last words to him were, "What do you want me to tell the pilot to do?"

Now, during Larry King's program he also spoke to a remarkable survivor of all of the death and destruction at the World Trace Center Towers, Michael Hingson, who is blind, worked on the 78th floor of the first tower to be struck by a hijacked plane. His guide dog helped him begin his escape.


LARRY KING, HOST: You're walking down 78 floors and you got your friend with you and you got your dog. Are you scared?

HINGSON: No question. I was very concerned. I didn't hear the second plane hit but we knew at that time something had happened. We figured that a plane had hit the building because I could smell and we all could smell jet fuel fumes. So we knew there was something going on.


CLANCY: Hingson and his dog made it to the lobby, left the tower, and took shelter in a subway just as the building started to collapse.

MCEDWARDS: Well as people struggle with the aftermath of these attacks, the entertainment community has begun to show its support as well. Lauren Hunter has more on that.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) LAUREN HUNTER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The scenes are grim, the mood somber. People throughout the country struggle to deal with their grief and search for ways to show their support days after the devastating terrorist attacks in New York and Washington.

KIRSTIE ALLEY, ACTRESS: Our country is now facing a national emergency...

HUNTER: In the entertainment community, artists are standing in solidarity and sympathy with Tuesday's victims and their families with both their time and their money.

JULIE THURMOND WHITMER: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) has been a tremendous support of the Red Cross, particularly in the areas of disaster relief and mental health services. And yesterday she made a $1,000,000 donation to support the American Red Cross in their efforts.

HUNTER: Jennifer Lopez also gave, writing a $25,000 check to the relief effort, as did Earth, Wind and Fire. Rob Lowe gave in a different way, donating blood while Kathleen Turner volunteered at St. Vincent's Hospital in New York. And Edward James Olmos spoke out for tolerance at the Islamic Center in Los Angeles.

EDWARD JAMES OLMOS, ACTOR: We are one race and that's the human race, period.

HUNTER: Madonna resumed her tour in Los Angeles, dedicating proceeds from the remaining shows to a fund to honoring those affected by the tragedy.

Clear Channel is the world-wide concert promoter for Madonna and scores of other artists and has created its own relief fund.

BRIAN BECKER, CLEAR CHANNEL: The Lynyrd Skynyrd and the Backstreet Boys have stepped up immediately and they have already made significant contributions to the fund and I'm sure that either with us or in their own way, the live entertainment industry and the members of the industry will come to the table.

HUNTER: The Screen Actors' Guild did, donating $50,000 to a special New York state fund for families of victims.

MITCHELL RYAN, PRESIDENT, SAG: We're only too glad to do it and I think it's our duty to help and the duty of all Americans to help.

HUNTER: Though life in the United States will never be the same, entertainers from Hollywood to Broadway are uniting with their countrymen to weave a national tapestry of humans.

BUSH: And may God bless America.

HUNTER: Lauren Hunter, CNN, Los Angeles.


MCEDWARDS: We want to pay tribute now to the first victims of that terrible Tuesday. The passengers and the crew of that first jet liner that crashed into the World Trade Center. Frank Sesno looks at some of them as America remembers.


FRANK SESNO, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Lost on American Flight 11 from Boston, headed to Los Angeles, Carol Brushard (ph), an emergency room secretary. She was on her way to Los Vegas with her friend Rene Newell (ph). Rene worked for the airline and gave Carol a buddy pass so the two could vacation together.

Tara Cramer (ph) was on a business trip to Los Angeles and worried about leaving her two children, Colin, four, and Nora, one. Her husband John called her a kind and loving wife and mother. Seventy-one year old Thelma Cusanello (ph) was on her way to visit older sister Grace and her brother-in-law in Los Angeles. Thelma did not get to see her sister often and was overjoyed when her daughter found her a discount cross-country fare.

Nelly Casey (ph) was on her first business trip since coming back from a six-month maternity leave. She would have celebrated her fifth wedding anniversary with husband Michael on September 21st.

Linda George, 27, was on a buying trip for an apparel company. She and her fiance were planning their wedding. It was scheduled for next month.

American Flight 11 crashed into the World Trade Center at 8:45 a.m. Eastern Time on September 11th, 2001.


CLANCY: Colleen, that certainly puts a face on it and brings it into focus just -- you know -- the terrible loss that thousands, perhaps tens of thousands, of families, relatives, everyone...

MCEDWARDS: Well, because we do talk about the numbers. Because of the scale of it it's natural to do so, but you're quite right. It's a human toll and that says it, doesn't it?

CLANCY: And people all around the country want to know what is going on in the story, the latest news. That's why so many people are watching right now in the middle of the night in the United States and we want to keep you updated with our coverage of America's new war.

The work is slow and tedious. The workers continue to dig away at the massive mounds of debris that have been left by the collapse of New York's Twin Towers. Anything that might yield evidence is being sent to a joint task force for review.

MCEDWARDS: Searchers at last make a key find in Pennsylvania -- the cockpit voice recorder from the downed United 757. It may yield clues to the plane's final moments.

And the House has joined the Senate in giving President George W. Bush new power to wage war. The measure allows Mr. Bush to use force against whoever is deemed responsible for the hijacking. Congress is also appropriating $40 billion for recovery and military efforts.

Well, one branch of the investigation into Tuesday's attack led authorities to Hamburg, Germany where German police have searched four apartments at the request of the FBI. Bettina Luscher has more.


BETTINA LUSCHER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Technical University, Hamburg Harbach (ph), a campus where German prosecutors say two of the alleged hijackers study. Mohamed Atta is believed to have studied here for eight years under the name of Mohamed El-Amir. A professor still cannot believe his former student could have been a terrorist.

"Mohamed El-Amir was an extremely nice, very religious, helpful, active student," says Professor Dich Mahuller (ph). "There was no indication that he would be involved in such a horrible crime." Professor Mahuller (ph) teaches urban planning and the student in question wrote his thesis for him in 1999. "There is a strong similarity to the photo in the media, but I have to say I'm not totally certain."

Mohammed Atta started an Islamic prayer group at the University.

HANNES KEILE: The Islamic group was founded by him. He was the founder and they had received a praying room from the Oser (ph), which is the students union.

LUSCHER: That group has now been shut down and the prayer room sealed by authorities. The second student whom authorities believe was aboard the hijacked plan is Marwan Al-Shehhi, who was enrolled here from October '99 until September 2000.

TRISTAN NEDESS, PRESIDENT, TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY: I think we did never see him in the lectures. And even as we tried to send him his documents, we couldn't reach him.

LUSCHER: A third student is believed to have been part of an alleged terrorist group here in Hamburg, but German authorities have released few details. For students and professors the accusations have come as a shock.

"There were people who started crying when they saw Mohamed."

Bettina Luscher, CNN, Hamburg.


MCEDWARDS: And people wondering what shape the fight against those responsible, the response, the retaliation -- whatever word you choose -- against those responsible for the attack. People think it will be -- most likely will be more than a military undertaking, analysts are saying that it could be a concerted effort to weed out the shadowy groups that may have been involved. Counter-terrorism expert, Lee Weavers, joins us now from London with more on this. Mr. Weavers, thanks so much for being here. You know, a lot of people are saying that this has to be several groups. What do you think of that?

LEE WEAVERS, COUNTER-TERRORISM EXPERT: Well, I think it's always very difficult to decide exactly which organization is working with the other terrorist organization at any one time. I think it's likely in these circumstances that there is an alliance of groups and, certainly, when you look at what has occurred and suspicions that we still have that there are a number of groups or terrorists still awaiting perhaps the opportunity to launch further attacks. I think we have to keep an open mind as to precisely who will be cooperating with whom.

MCEDWARDS: And when you say there's a chance of further attacks, what sort of form do you think those would take? I mean, is there any chance that this group or these groups would try to use the same tactics twice?

WEAVERS: I think that's probably unlikely. The essence of a terrorist attack, of course, is based upon the element of surprise. And in the circumstances very many measures have now been put in place. I suspect, though, that there may be opportunities in other areas that could be exploited. At the same time, it's likely, we think from our analysis, that the probable position at this time is that the terrorists will await a response first of all to these last attacks.

MCEDWARDS: Well, what are the risk inherent in a response? I mean, if the US and whatever coalition it's built, decides to go ahead and use force, does that only guarantee more retaliation from the terrorists?

WEAVERS: Well, I think -- and you mentioned earlier -- the response would come from more than one area. I think any form of response would need to be balanced and it would almost certainly involve a number of countries. I also feel quite strongly that this will require not just a military response. This, as I believe one of your ladies has already mentioned, is likely to be a campaign over a lengthy period.

In our experience, certainly, in the UK has taught us that we need to use every opportunity to develop good intelligence capabilities and ensure that we have a good frontline capability in trying to ensure that we not only can respond to any attack that takes place on our soils but that we're also capable of reacting in a proportionate and legitimate way in order to firstly, identify evidence, and secondly bring those responsible to justice.

MCEDWARDS: Well, you know, there's a lot of debate about how best that would be done. Is it necessary for intelligence to actually infiltrate these groups -- get dirty, as people are saying, in a way that perhaps the international community hasn't been willing to in the past?

WEAVERS: Well, I think that's highly problematic. Because of the nature of the groups, infiltration is an extremely difficult thing to affect. It's more likely that using intelligence sources of our own and really trying to improve our capacity, not just in any one country, but across the world that will likely be more effective. The lesson certainly for the UK is that we have become, and we've been forced to become, far better coordinated in the last 15 to 20 years and we now act very much as one integrated body.

And we are, unfortunately, one of the leading nations in this sense. Many others have lots of disparate agencies working in particular areas of their own. I think probably the biggest opportunity here is for us all to integrate their capability, thereby ensuring that we do maximize both our intelligence capability and the ability to monitor those who are plotting attacks at this time.

MCEDWARDS: You know, my colleague, Jim Clancy, and I were talking just a short while ago, but a question we don't hear being asked and that is in terms of preventing these attacks in the future, how important is it for the international community to try to help get the conflict in the Middle East resolved?

WEAVERS: Well, I think when we look at the political developments of recent years and the general scenario that exists around the world, terrorism generally emanates from places where there are conflicts, disagreements and large disaffected groups. I think in the longer term, no matter what law enforcement and security agencies do, we have to look at this wider picture and consider what can be done from a policy standpoint to try and actually remove the root cause.

MCEDWARDS: Lee Weavers, we have to leave it there. Thank you so much for your time. Appreciate it. Lee Weavers joining us from London. Jim?

CLANCY: Interesting interview. Well, Congress showing a united front in granting President Bush the authority to retaliate against terrorism, but as Jonathan Karl tells us, some lawmakers still have concerns about just how far those powers should go.


JONATHAN KARL, CNN CONGRESSIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): With virtually no descent, Congress authorized the president's use of "all necessary and appropriate force against all those tied to the attacks."

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: For constitutional purposes it's the same as the declaration of war. There is no constitutional difference between authorizing the President to use this kind of force and saying, "We declare war."

KARL: The hurried vote united conservatives and liberals who usually disagree about military intervention. Paul Wellstone whose first significant vote as Senator a decade ago was against the use of force against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War was one of the few to speak before the vote. SEN. PAUL WELLSTONE (D), MINNESOTA: It's going to be a long, difficult struggle, but I believe people in our country and people in Minnesota are united in this. But we need to do this the smart way.

KARL: Despite the lack of debate, members of both parties had privately objected to a White House request for a more open-ended authorization of force against terrorists. As a result, the resolution passed authorizes the President to use military actions specifically quote "against those nations, organizations or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11th, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons."

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It relates to the incident -- and it is a broad authority-related incident -- it does not relate to all terrorism every place.

KARL: Several key leaders hope to avoid a repeat of the 1964 Tonkin Gulf resolution in which Congress, after North Vietnam allegedly attacked US warships, almost unanimously granted President Johnson the authority quote, "to take all necessary measures to prevent further aggression by North Vietnam." Many in Congress came to regret that as the Vietnam war escalated and grew increasingly unpopular.

While only Congress has the power to declare war, the President, under the Constitution, has the power to repel invasion. And if a war drags on, Congress, with its power of the purse, can ultimately bring an end to it by refusing to pay for it. Jonathan Carl, CNN, Capitol Hill.


CLANCY: US officials say Osama bin Laden is the prime suspect behind these terrorist attacks, but as David Ensor tells us, getting at the suspect may be more complicated than it appears.


DAVID ENSOR, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The nation is angry about the thousands of innocent deaths. US officials say the evidence so far points to Osama bin Laden's group. And the Bush administration is talking tough.

POWELL: We will go after that group, that network and those who have harbored, supported and aided that network to rip the network up. And when we're through with that network, we will continue with a global assault against terrorism in general.

ENSOR: But if it is bin Laden, how to get at him and his top lieutenants? Some argue for giving Afghanistan Taliban government an ultimatum, "turn him over, or else."

PETER BERGEN, TERRORISM EXPERT: We know where your ministries are, we know where your houses are. We're simply going to obliterate them from the face of the planet. GEN. WILLIAM ODOM (RET.): Bouncing that level with a lot of B-52 loads of bombs I don't think is going to change Afghanistan all that much.

ENSOR: No, say most analysts in and out of government. If you want to roll up bin Laden and Al Qaeda, it is going to take more than bombs. It takes ground troops.

SEN. JOHN MCCAIN (R), ARIZONA: In order for us to preserve America and our way of life, we're going to have to sacrifice American treasure and unfortunately in some cases perhaps some American blood.

ENSOR: It is not just a question of grabbing or killing one man or even 20. There are a dozen or more training camps, US intelligence says, producing more terrorists dedicated to killing Americans.

MJ GOHEL, SECURITY AND TERRORISM EXPERT: Revenge alone is not an answer. There has to be a complete eradication and elimination of all the training camps.

ENSOR: And much of bin Laden's base of support is in neighboring Pakistan through which money from around the Arab world is funneled to the Al Qaeda coffers, a treacherous and dangerous area, indeed.

ODOM: If you start moving in ground troops and you're willing to occupy countries for long periods of time, you do change things rather significantly for terrorists. I'm not sure this country is ready to do this even if it does have a fit of passion right now. And it may or may not make sense for the US to do that in its larger interest.

ENSOR: David Ensor, CNN, Washington.


CLANCY: More streets of lower Manhattan are going to be reopening in the coming hours. But at the site, at the World Trade Center rescue operators are very much still underway. For the past few days, Garrick Utley has been updating us from New York. Let's join him once again now. Garrick.

UTLEY: Thank you, Jim. As you know, we're into the first weekend here in New York City following last Tuesday's -- what do you want to call it -- grotesqueness and tragedy. And New Yorkers like people elsewhere have to decide "What am I going to do this weekend?" "Well, do I go to a baseball game? No. There's no baseball game. They've been canceled." "Go to a pro-football game, the NFL on Sunday. No, they've been canceled, too." "Maybe go to a movie. Who needs to see an action movie with cars and buildings exploding?" "Well, then go to a comedy. Are we really ready to laugh yet?"

Well, we're running short of possibilities now but there is one new destination in Manhattan that a number of people are going to visit and spend some time there. And our Jodi Ross is live on the location to tell us why they're going there. Hi, Jodi.

JODI ROSS, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Hi, Garrick. They're coming here to register names of missing persons and family members. And this is also a place -- sort of a gathering spot for people now who are trying to find some comfort and solace. The Armory behind me actually closed tonight at midnight but the Salvation Army will provide food and supplies throughout the night. And the crowds of people looking for these missing family members and friends have, of course, dispersed at this late hour. But earlier tonight we heard another story. This one from Hassan Chowdury, a man looking for his friend whose wife just gave birth to a baby boy.

What's the hardest part for you, Hassan, day to day not knowing where he is?

HASSAN CHOWDURY: Well, gradually the feelings are going away because the horrible thing has happened and it's absolutely impossible -- he was working on the 102nd floor and there's a very, very slim chance, as far as my opinion. But any miracle could happen. So we hope for the best. And if he's alive, that's great. It'll be excitement, especially for his family, wife and the kids. And besides, it's my community. You know, we all from Bangladesh send our condolence to his family. And besides that, too, all the other American peoples and each of them our best sympathy and condolence to each of the employees that lost their lives.

ROSS: The people may be gone, but the one thing that remains here are the hundreds of posters plastered literally everywhere on every surface. And the people who continue to come by even at this late hour to take a look, maybe read a statistic, maybe reflect for a moment. Candles remain lit from the vigil -- the nationwide vigil that started tonight at 7:00 p.m. And when a candle does go out here it seems like there's always somebody around to re-light it.

So on a day when no survivors were found at the disaster site, there is a small glimmer of hope here in New York City at this very dark hour.

Garrick, I'll throw it back to you.

UTLEY: Thank you very much, Jodi, there on location at the Armory. An incidental point right here -- there are certain dates, which you have to mention when the whole event comes to light. Such a traumatic event -- December 7th -- for Americans, of course, that means Pearl Harbor. What could be the lasting impact in our memory of September 11th, which was the day, the date on Tuesday when this tragedy occurred? Will that resonate like a December 7th? Well, perhaps yes, perhaps not.

I did a little research to see what competition September 11th, the last Tuesday, will have in that department. Came up with a couple of little interesting tidbits. On September 11th, 1941 -- does that say anything to you? Probably not. Well, on September 11th, 1941, was the groundbreaking for a new building in our nation's capital here in the Untied States. The government felt it needed more space for this particular department so it built it just across the Potomac from Washington DC. It had five sides to it, so they called it the "Pentagon." Sixty years to the day before that plan flew into the Pentagon last Tuesday. Item number 2: September 11th, 1609. What happened on September 11th, 1609? Well, there wasn't much here in New York City, but an explorer named Henry Hudson sailed into the Bay, set foot on an island which would become called "Manhattan," 1609 September 11th. And, of course, September 11th, 2001.

Back to you now in Atlanta.

CLANCY: All right, Garrick. Thanks for pointing that out. We want to remind all of our viewers that you can e-mail photos of missing friends and relatives to Or just to CNN dot com and click the link. The pictures will be posted on our web site along with emergency contact phone numbers. So make sure that you do send along a contact number with that picture.

MCEDWARDS: With 189 people presumed dead in the attack on the Pentagon, military experts still involved in an all out effort to find and identify the remains of each victim. Jeff Levine now has more on their meticulous and possibly dangerous task.


JEFF LEVINE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A final farewell from the Army's Old Guard unit. And a burial in Arlington National Cemetery is an honor that always comes from making the ultimate sacrifice for your country. Now it's the job of military experts to dig through the ashes of the Pentagon doing the grim but essential detective work that they hope will put a name on every tombstone of the victims of Tuesday's blast. As of Thursday, Pentagon officials say 126 people are still unaccounted for.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: When there's been a massive explosion, an accident like this, we're not finding intact people.

LEVINE: The search for more Pentagon attack survivors continues. But now the focus is on identifying the victims, a task that is both scientifically challenging and emotionally draining.

Captain Scott Graham, a local rescue official assisting federal authorities says even intense training doesn't blunt the impact.

SCOTT GRAHAM: We had an aircraft crash. We had a building collapse. We had a structure fire. We had a mass casualty event, and we had a hazardous materials incident, all in one location.

LEVINE: The victims are being transferred to a military morgue at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware, where the military, the 70 pathologists there can make a positive ID with as little as an inch of remaining tissue that can be compared to some 3.2 million DNA samples in the Pentagon's files.

CHRISTOPHER KELLY, ARMED FORCES INS. OF PATHOLOGY: If we have a fairly good idea of who the individuals are in an accident or in an incident, we'll be able to utilize the blood stain card and utilize a small piece of tissue to get a positive DNA match. LEVINE: Meanwhile, the rescue and recovery efforts continue but not without the considerable risk of exposure to disease from human tissue.

ED PLAUGHER, ARLINGTON CO. FIRE CHIEF: We have victims that could be coughing. Fluids could be airborne and that sort of thing. So we're worried about the full spectrum and that's why universal precautions are critical.

LEVINE: For now those precautions have worked and experts say those inside the stricken structure are also save.

Jeff Levine for CNN, Washington.


MCEDWARDS: Well, the horror of last week has had huge emotional effects on millions of people. And in times of tragedy there's an overwhelming desire to be with your family and friends sharing tears, fears with the people you love somehow has to make it easier to cope. But as Beth Nissen reports now travel restrictions have prevented many people from getting together.


BETH NISSEN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): For most New Yorkers it doesn't seem much like the start of a weekend. Still, in a week when so many people who went to work on Tuesday never came home, it was good to see the work week end. Many headed out of town for hastily arranged family gatherings. Jason Spewack (ph) was taking Amtrak to his parents home in Pennsylvania.

JASON SPEWACK (ph): I've just been stirred up all week by the goings on and I just want to be close to family and friends.

NISSEN: Marie McCallup (ph) was going home to Florida.

MARIE MCCALLUP (ph): I live by myself and I really just don't want to be here right now. I just don't feel comfortable being here. I don't want to stay.

NISSEN: Almost everyone understood the desire to get away and the unrelenting anguish and distress and fear to read about and think about something else, anything else.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You'd almost want the new fall season on TV because -- you know -- it's an escape. Everywhere you look is just inundated with the pictures you've seen over and over and over and it's 24-7. And you have to switch to something like Cartoon Network just to escape from it.

NISSEN: In Times Square, hundreds of people lined up in the rain to buy half-price tickets to Broadway shows. Patricia McClellan (ph) is trying to get tickets to "Beauty and the Beast" for her two school age children. PATRICIA MCCLELLAN (ph): Trying to pick up their spirits and get them together and get them away from viewing everything they've been looking at for the last week.

NISSEN: After four days of almost unbearable real-life drama, many wanted to see a stage story with a clear resolution, a happy ending.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The theater provides for us a little bit of release, a little bit of relief from what's going on. We can't ever forget what's going on here in New York -- a great tragedy. But it gives us a little bit of a mental vacation.

NISSEN: Those who went to New York City movie theaters seemed in search of the same thing.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's quite ironic that I'm choosing to go to the movies for two hours considering this is like being in the movies. It's like a Hollywood horror film and yet I'm looking for a film to kind of just take my mind away from it, you know.

NISSEN: Legions of others just wanted to stay home. Some rented half a dozen videos.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I've never rented a movie before. I just got a membership today because I plan on staying in the house the whole weekend. I'm not going to do anything because of the incident.

NISSEN: Because of that horrible incident, NFL and college football games, a usual weekend release for thousands of sports-mad New Yorkers, were canceled.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I wish I had the distraction so the release of the football season, but I understand in training in football as myself, the tension of what happened in the World Trade Center, I wouldn't have wanted to play as a player.

NISSEN: Not everyone wanted distraction. Some wanted a few hours of quiet to try to cope with the stun and the sorrow.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: To me it broke my heart. It literally broke my heart. And I feel like crying right now.

NISSEN: Millions of New Yorkers still need comforting. Many of them plan to attend religious services this weekend, go to temple tonight, mass tomorrow, or church on Sunday. The Marble Collegiate Church on Fifth Avenue has added a second service Sunday to accommodate what senior minister Arthur Caliandro (ph) expects will be standing room crowds.

ARTHUR CALIANDRO (ph): I think what people are looking for is sanctuary, a place to be where they're safe emotionally and physically, but that we are also spiritually.

NISSEN: But feeling safe again seems such a long way off for most New Yorkers. So much loss still uncounted. And for most people nothing they can do except try their best to make it through tomorrow and the next day and a long succession of days after.

Beth Nissen, CNN, New York.


CLANCY: Well, in business developments related to the attacks, General Electric says it expects $600 million in claims from the destruction of the World Trade Center. MetLife, America's second largest life insurer, says it expects up to $300 million in claims. Standard and Poors estimates life insurers will pay out between two billion and four billion dollars in all. Property and liability insurers could be hit with claims totaling at least twenty billion dollars.

Well, Ford Motor Company is sharply cutting its production for the third quarter and warns earnings for that same period are going to be weaker than it originally forecast. The world's second largest auto maker said it will stop production at five North American assembly plants next week. Heightened security at US borders and the clampdown on airfreight service due to Tuesday's attacks have disrupted auto makers. The industry relies on tight schedules for parts deliveries.

The loss of the World Trade Center wipes out a huge amount of office space in lower Manhattan. That means companies already coping with human losses have to scramble now for new places to reopen their businesses. Peter Viles reports.


PETER VILES, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): I think what we can simply do there is if we have space is just put two people in the same room temporarily.


UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Or in cubicles. Yeah.

VILES: CEOs do not typically worry about who shares a cubicle, but these are not typical times. This is the old American Express headquarters, structurally sound but damaged. (UNINTELLIGIBLE) is moving 5,000 workers, some to this new headquarters in Jersey City, others into two larger leased spaces in the Jersey suburbs.

KENNETH CHENAULT, CEO, AMERICAN EXPRESS: Fortunately, all of our core operations and processing are outside of our New York headquarters building -- all around the world. So we have had virtually no interruption of service for any of our businesses across American Express.

VILES: 15.5 million square feet of office space was destroyed, another 12 million damaged, meaning the city's businesses are now looking for 27 million square feet of space. American Express has already located nearly a million square feet for itself.

When you include suburban office space, metropolitan New York has 46 million square feet of vacant space available. The problem is finding enough large spaces to replace what has been lost.

STEVEN SWERDLOW: It is a game with musical chairs right now where the major companies are out really in a frenzy looking for the larger blocks of space. And commitments are already being made as we speak. So we will be, essentially, out of large blocks of space by next week.

VILES: In the weeks ahead this area will be known as the new and temporary world headquarters of American Express. Today it has a much more important designation. It is a staging area for supplies to be ferried across the Hudson River to those thousands of rescue workers who are still working in lower Manhattan.

Peter Viles, Jersey City, New Jersey.


MCEDWARDS: And still working at this hour. Stay tuned to CNN for the latest coverage of America's New War. Jonathan Mann and Zane Virgy (ph) will be here next. I'm Colleen McEdwards at CNN Center.

CLANCY: And I'm Jim Clancy. We want to leave you now and take a look at those live images from the scene of the tragedy.



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