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International Community Holds Fund-Raiser for Afghanistan; Two Marines Killed in Helicopter Crash; Bush Enters Second Year in Office

Aired January 20, 2002 - 22:00   ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.


THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
JUDY WOODRUFF, CNN ANCHOR: It is 10:00 p.m. on the East Coast, 7:00 p.m. out West. This is CNN special report. I'm Judy Woodruff in Washington. Thank you for joining us.

We begin with the latest developments this hour. The international community is being called on to show its commitment to Afghanistan. At a conference aimed to raising money to rebuild the war-ravaged nation, the country's interim leader says he hopes to go home with his hands full.

The Pentagon has identified the two Marines killed when their helicopter crashed on a resupply mission in Afghanistan today. 26- year-old Staff Sergeant Walter F. Cohee III and 24-year-old Sergeant Dwight J. Morgan crashed in a crash of a CH-53e super stallion transport helicopter like this one. Five other Marines are injured.

Government officials say John Walker, the American who has admitted to fighting alongside the Taliban, will be transported to the U.S. in a matter of days. Walker was charged last week with conspiring to kill Americans outside the U.S. and with helping terrorists. He is currently being held aboard a Navy ship in the Arabian Sea.

Newly released photos from the Department of Defense are raising questions about the treatment of war detainees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The spokesman for the U.S. Southern Command says the prisoners are blindfolded, shackled and made to wear masks only when they are being moved.

Establishing a foundation for the future of Afghanistan is the goal of representatives from more than 60 countries who are gathered for a conference that is refocused on rebuilding efforts for the war- ravaged country. CNN's senior U.N. correspondent Richard Roth is following developments at the meeting in Tokyo, and he joins us now with more.

Good morning, Richard. I know it's morning where you are.

RICHARD ROTH, CNN SENIOR U.N. CORRESPONDENT: Yes, good morning, and good evening, Judy. The conference is well under way, a two-day affair here in Tokyo; more than 60 countries and 20 international organizations trying to put Afghanistan back together again after 20 years plus of war and conflict. Distinguished delegates gathering from all over the world in a conference hall, the U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan one of those making earlier speeches at the event, but the features attraction, no doubt, was Hamid Karzai, the new interim government leader of Afghanistan. Very determined remarks to this audience here. It is his coming out party, so to speak, though not much of a party on the international political stage.

Before starting his official speech, Karzai tried to make the case for money by persuading those in the audience about the personality nature of this crisis at the conference, the problem of what the people in his own land are going through, and trying to explain that to all of these delegates gathered in a developed Western capital such as Tokyo.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

HAMID KARZAI, AFGHAN INTERIM GOVT. CHAIRMAN: Without a full partnership with the international community, Afghanistan may falter again. And I believe that's the reason we are all here today, not to let Afghanistan go back to the days of the past 20 years or so, to help it stand back on its feet, to help it secure its borders, secure its own unity, secure the institutions that will make Afghanistan strong and self-reliant, so we do not see the presence of terrorism or violence or that such a situation would emanate to the region and the international community.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

ROTH: Karzai telling the delegates at the beginning of his remarks that everyone had a nice breakfast at the conference and everyone is nicely dressed, but that's not the case back home in his country. He says his people are ready to work with the international community to try to change that, but they need money.

U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell began his remarks by saying, let's go to the bottom line.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

COLIN POWELL, SECRETARY OF STATE: On behalf of the United States, I'm pleased to announce that the American people will give $296 million in this fiscal year to the Afghan people for the reconstruction of their society and their nation. President Bush, the Congress of the United States, the American people fully recognize that this is the first contribution to what must be and will be a multi-year effort.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

ROTH: Japan offered $290 million, a similar sum from Saudi Arabia, one of four co-chairs of this conference. Europe in total more than a billion. However, U.N. Secretary General Annan representing the U.N. and the World Bank still want perhaps 15 billion over the next 10 years. At the moment, it doesn't look like they are going to get it, but many delegates are happy that the money is starting to come in -- Judy. WOODRUFF: Richard, are the delegates looking for assurances from Karzai that this money is going to be well spent, and if they are, is he giving those assurances?

ROTH: They are getting assurances, and in his remarks Mr. Karzai made it clear -- he said that we are going to have auditing, accounting, a review of how the money is spent. It almost sounded like a page out of the recent Enron scandal, but Afghanistan needs the money. They didn't have anything to waste right now. He was making assurances to the delegates here that their money will not get poured into, as one delegate a few days ago said, just some sand and have it disappear.

The U.N. has learned something from other experiences in trying to help this country get off the ground. Some people say that too much money too soon will overwhelm the Afghanistan government, but there are concerns on all sides right now. They are trying to come together for the benefit of the Afghanistan people.

WOODRUFF: All right. Richard Roth, joining us from that conference on aid for Afghanistan. He's in Tokyo. Thank you, Richard.

Well, for more insight into what it will take to rebuild Afghanistan and to help the people who have suffered so much during years of war and deprivation, we are joined now by Peter Tomsen, a former U.S. envoy to Afghanistan, and he's with us tonight from Omaha, Nebraska.

Mr. Tomsen, how real is the need for this much money?

PETER TOMSEN, FORMER ENVOY TO AFGHANISTAN: Well, it's very real. In fact, what has been pledged so far -- I guess it will reach two to three billion -- but they are hoping for five billion to be pledged to cover the first five to six years, and of course over the next 10 years end up with 15 billion, 1.8 billion for the first year. I think they will reach that first-year goal.

But look at Afghanistan -- it's broken, it's fragmented. The treasury is empty. One U.N. official called it "an echo chamber." Kabul is 70 percent rubble. The worthless afghani, the Afghan currency that's now in circulation between 20 -- sorry, yeah, 25 and 30 million -- sorry, 25 and 30 trillion afghanis. And what they are considering now is to phase out the afghani and introduce a dollar, and then in four or five years introduce a new currency.

There are also a lot of security problem in the country. Around Afghanistan, warlords still control significant portions of the country.

WOODRUFF: Well, that's what I wanted to ask about. I mean, how can Mr. Karzai guarantee that the country will not only spend the money well with all these accounting methods and so forth, but that the country will remain stable? I mean, you mentioned the warlords. We are reading reports today about how apparently there are still efforts to protect Mullah Omar, who is believed by many to still be in the country. How does one know the country is going to be stable?

TOMSEN: Well, the key to stability is all of this international assistance going to the new interim regime and its structure, to strengthen its position and its relationship with the people of Afghanistan. In between are the warlords who run many states, much like Aidid does in Somalia and resists central control.

Our military, at the beginning of the battle against the Taliban had to cooperate with the warlords. We had an out-in-strategy, where we supported the warlords on the periphery. But now, we have to transition from that strategy to supporting the interim government, which has been created with our assistance.

WOODRUFF: Who is really responsible for seeing that Afghanistan becomes stable and stays that way, Peter Tomsen?

TOMSEN: I think the international community has a great responsibility here. It's been outside interference in Afghanistan, which the United States looked the other way on and other countries did after the Soviet pull-out that's caused this horror.

We also have a great benefit to reap here. Afghanistan can be a model of a Muslim country, which practices moderate Islam, assisted by the international community, to throw off the yoke of radical Muslim fascism, get back on the road to becoming a responsible member of the international community and re-creating democracy and human rights, women rights, and economic development.

WOODRUFF: How much of this burden should the United States bear? I think by our calculations, the money that the U.S. is giving in the first year or so is 15, 17 percent of the total. Does that sound about right to you?

TOMSEN: It does. Actually the cost on the military side, of course we have done the heavy lifting there, is going to amount eventually to $100 billion. It's right for the United States to expect others to do the heavy lifting on the economic development, the reconstruction side. I think that is happening.

The European community has announced that it is going to foot over half the bill. The Japanese said they would foot 10 percent of the final bill and Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia are also contributing. It's very important that Saudi Arabia is one of the cosponsors of this conference. Other Muslim countries are participating.

Again, showing to the Muslim world and to the entire world that everybody is coming together to assist Afghanistan out of this hole that it has fallen into over the last 23 years to get back on the road to development.

WOODRUFF: Peter Tomsen, former U.S. envoy to Afghanistan. Thank you very much for joining us.

TOMSEN: Thank you. WOODRUFF: While their country hosts the donor conference ordinary Japanese are doing their part to help Afghanistan, recalling that their country once required similar aid not so along ago. CNN's Tokyo bureau chief Rebecca MacKinnon explains.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

REBECCA MACKINNON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The bombed- out streets of Kabul, devastation so complete many now call Afghanistan a startup country.

Japanese who also lived through this devastation and defeat at the end of World War II say they know how it feels.

JUNCHIRO KOIZUMI, JAPANESE PRIME MINISTER (through translator): Japan's recovery from the devastation at the end of World War II was achieved not only by the efforts of the Japanese people, but also thanks to the support and the cooperation of the international community, headed by the United States.

MACKINNON (on camera): Is this the beginning of a much more active Japan when it comes to international crises?

SADAKO OGATA, AFGHAN AID CONFERENCE: I hope so. Japanese people must realize that their own peace, security, prosperity can not be produced by Japanese alone. It is really globally based.

MACKINNON: Downtown Tokyo today could have hardly seemed more different than downtown Kabul, but it's not only the Japanese government that's reaching out to Afghanistan. Many ordinary Japanese are reaching out too.

(voice-over): A feminist group, called Women in Black, uses shock value to raise money and public awareness to help Afghan women.

HISAKO MOTOYAMI, WOMEN IN BLACK: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) interested in Afghanistan.

MACKINNON: Workers with little money to spare volunteer their time and labor to load donated clothing and blankets for Afghan families. The donations pile up daily in the doorway of this Tokyo mosque.

HARDON AHMAD QURESH, OTSUKA MOSQUE: The first time we gave the address of this place, this mosque was -- within a few days it was full, even our prayer hall.

MACKINNON: Phones ringing off the hook, the fax machine overflowing with queries, "how can we help?" So far, people have given 30 containers full of whatever they've got. According to the mosque's Pakistani director.

QURESH: In all Islamic countries, Japanese people are respected very much and they are known as a peaceful country. So, it is true that Japan can fill a big role in Afghanistan.

MACKINNON: Rebecca MacKinnon, CNN, Tokyo.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: In the meantime, United States military has released the names of two Marines that were killed in today's helicopter crash in Afghanistan. They are 26-year-old staff sergeant Walter Cohee III of Maryland, and 24 year-old Sargent Dwight Morgan of California. They were members of the squadron known as the Flying Tigers, based in Miramar, California. CNN's Jeff Levine has more on what happened.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

JEFF LEVINE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The fatal crash occurred in the remote mountains of northern Afghanistan Sunday approximately 8:00 a.m. local time. Rescue vehicles rushed to the site of downed CH-53E helicopter 40 miles south of Bagram Air Base.

CAPT TOM BRYANT, U.S. ARMY, PAO TASK FORCE, BAGRAM: The site was quickly secured. We quickly got medical personnel and others on the ground and got them evacuated back here. We have a robust medical treatment capability here.

LEVINE: The chopper, like this one, was one of two on a reply mission. Seven Marines were onboard. Two of them died in the incident. Five others are expect to recover from injuries which a Pentagon source says are not life-threatening.

Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld says it appears hostile fire didn't bring down the chopper.

DONALD RUMSFELD, SECRETARY OF DEFENSE: They have no evidence at all that it was ground fire. They believe from what they have been able to hear from the members of the crew that it very likely was a mechanical failure.

LEVINE: The CH-53E Super Stallion has been a workhorse for Operation Enduring Freedom. Its primary duty: hauling up 70,000-pound loads in and out of combat. While the war in Afghanistan appears to be winding down, the Pentagon is turning its attention towards the Philippines. Rumsfeld says some 600 U.S. troops including special forces will be involved in a joint effort to combat terrorism in that nation.

RUMSFELD: We are working with the Philippines shoulder-to- shoulder to provide training and a whole host of techniques and things that are appropriate to chasing down terrorists.

LEVINE (on camera): This weekend's crash was not the first to take American lives in the pursuit of terrorists, demonstrating it's not always the enemy that poses the greatest danger to American troops.

Jeff Levine for CNN from the Pentagon.

(END VIDEOTAPE) WOODRUFF: Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, whom you just saw, is also saying that Taliban American fighter John Walker should be transported back to the United States within a few days. Security will be tight when Walker is moved from the USS Bataan in the Arabian Sea. The Department of Justice will take custody once Walker is back in the U.S. but Attorney General John Ashcroft won't say exactly where in the country Walker is going.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

JOHN ASHCROFT, ATTORNEY GENERAL: For his own security and for reasons of our own security, we will not be making announcements about his locations certainly in advance of activities. And we will do what we do with him based on a respect for his legal rights, but also with respect to the need to make sure that we have secure locations and that we don't impair the security of communities where he might be held.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

WOODRUFF: The 20-year-old Walker has admitted that he fought alongside the Taliban.

Ahead, the world gets a look inside the U.S. detention center in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and so do we.

Meanwhile the mission in Afghanistan continues. When we return a conversation with retired Air Force General Donald Shepperd

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

WOODRUFF: The world got a look inside the U.S. detention center in Cuba this weekend, and some didn't like what they saw. The Pentagon released these images, the men in orange are al Qaeda and Taliban fighters held in detention in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

When the British foreign secretary saw these pictures, he wanted assurances that the prisoners were being treated humanely. And, as CNN's Bob Franken reports, the British aren't the only ones concerned.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

BOB FRANKEN, CNN NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): From about 200 yards away, the cameras outside Camp X-ray could see a detainee brought to the International Red Cross Representative. The Red Cross continues the investigation into charges that the top security here violates international standards for humane treatment.

COL. TERRY CARRICO, U.S. ARMY HEAD OF PRISON SECURITY: We're meeting -- we're discussing issues. Most of what we discussed, we've agreed that would be held in confidentiality. They are meeting with them. They have interviewed several, but they are in more of an information gathering mode right now and then, I'm sure as they get a baseline of information, we'll have discussions on conditions.

FRANKEN: And now, a complication -- the newest group of detainees includes the walking wounded who will be fitted into the camp routine as quickly as possible, a routine that includes a lot of time in chains. The latest press tour included a demonstration.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: What we have are the basic hand irons that go around the wrists, the leg irons, shackles, that go around the ankles and then this is the belt where the hand irons will clip into to keep the hands in front.

FRANKEN (on camera): Some of the detainees will require medical treatment before they're brought here for the same treatment as the others, treatment, that is the subject of a very close examination.

Bob Franken, CNN, outside Camp X-ray, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: And now joining us with more on the overall U.S. military effort and the issue of the detainees is CNN military analyst retired Air Force General Donald Shepperd, who joins us tonight from New York.

General Shepperd, first of all, should Americans be concerned that these detainees are being mistreated?

MAJ. GEN. DONALD SHEPPERD (RET.), CNN MILITARY ANALYST: Absolutely. They should be concerned, and the world community should be concerned and make sure that they are not being mistreated. We do not beat these people up, we do not torture them, and we provide them proper housing and we provide them meals, the ability to pray, et cetera, but we are going to give these guys no quarter.

They are dangerous, dangerous prisoners, that have already killed people, including at least one American. They have threatened to kill others, and we have to treat them like death row inmates. And we have seen it all on TV before where they can make weapons out of things in their cells. We are not going to give these guys any quarter, Judy, but we need to be concerned about their welfare, so that we're not perceived as doing something improper.

WOODRUFF: Well, what do you say to the British officials who have seen some of these pictures, and perhaps they have seen more, and they are saying these detainees are manacled. We saw them kneeling in these pictures, and they are asking what's going on.

SHEPPERD: Well, good. I'm glad they're manacled. They need to be treated, again, like very dangerous prisoners, just like prisoners are treated in our American justice system. If they are dangerous people, they need to be constrained. And basically, again, I think we need to assure the British that we are going to adhere to the Geneva Conventions. We're talking to the Red Cross, and concerns are expressed. If we think they are valid, I'm sure we'll change the conditions of these prisoners. But again, they're not being beaten up, they're not being tortured, but they are going to be interrogated, and we are not going to let them kill any more Americans.

WOODRUFF: And what is business with the masks that they were wearing?

SHEPPERD: Judy, I think, and I'm not -- obviously I have seen only what you have seen there -- I don't know if this kneeling is basically control of the prisoners, or if they were praying, or -- but I think the masks basically are tuberculosis. Some of them have tested positive for tuberculosis, and we don't want them to infect other prisoners or of course the guards. I think that's what's taking place.

WOODRUFF: So in terms of changing anything or improving anything with regard to their condition, you're saying that's not necessary right now?

SHEPPERD: Well, again, not being able to see exactly what's going on, I think everyone knows that the attention of the world community is focused on these people. We can't film them because Geneva Conventions prohibit that. On the other hand, everybody knows that the whole world is watching to make sure these people are not mistreated. But we do want information from these people, and we do want them brought to justice, or turned over to their home nations for justice to be -- to be meted upon them there.

WOODRUFF: General, let me just turn you quickly to one of other stories we are following today, and that is of course the crash of the helicopter, the CH-53e, the so-called super stallion. How safe, how reliable are these helicopters?

SHEPPERD: Judy, a very reliable workhorse, but let me tell you that there's nothing more dangerous than flying close to the ground in any aircraft, and that's what helicopters do all the time, and they do it in all kinds of weather, in mountainous terrain, they do it with night vision goggles, and in the case of Afghanistan they do it where there is a lot of dust. It appears in this particular case there was a mechanical malfunction, according to our secretary of defense. Now, whether that was a real mechanical malfunction or caused by some type of hostile action, we don't know.

But basically, when that happens, you do emergency procedures, you get to the nearest suitable landing field if you can get it to an airfield. If you can't, you do what you can. And if you're forced down, you do the best you can. That appears what's happened in this case.

WOODRUFF: I want to turn the corner yet again, general, and ask you about some reports I have seen this evening out of Afghanistan. The belief that on part of in fact a general associated with the Northern Alliance, quoted as saying that it's pretty widely known that Mullah Mohammed Omar, the former leader of the Taliban is in Afghanistan, but he is being protected by tribal leaders who don't want to turn him over to the United States, that this would violate tribal law, tribal ethics. What is your understanding of this?

SHEPPERD: Well, I think it's a good guess he probably still is in Afghanistan. And of course, we have not heard any reports out of bin Laden, which is very, very strange, leading to lots of reports that he may be dead. But in the case of Omar, there is a long-time national tradition of maintaining hospitality for people that are in Afghanistan and not turning them over to other tribes or other nations. It's hard for us in the West to understand this, but we are going to keep looking for him and we are going to keep trying to get him, and we are going to try to buy him out, we're going to try to negotiate him out, and if necessary we are going to try to go get him, if we find out where he is.

WOODRUFF: And if the Hamid Karzai regime knows where he is and they are sort of looking the other way?

SHEPPERD: I don't think Hamid Karzai is looking the other way. Hamid Karzai has got his hands full. He is a very, very courageous man, and I believe will prove to be a great leader, perhaps the George Washington of Afghanistan with what he's doing. I think if he knows where he is, he will try to get him turned over, again through negotiation, or perhaps tell us where he is so we can go get him. But it's not in Hamid Karzai's interest to have Omar loose in Afghanistan.

WOODRUFF: All right. Retired Air Force General Don Shepperd, CNN military analyst. General, thank you very much.

SHEPPERD: Pleasure, Judy.

WOODRUFF: We appreciate it.

And when we come back, it's been a year since President Bush took office, a year like no other in our nation's history. We'll look back at the tough times, at the triumphs, and consider the challenges ahead.

And then, the glitz and glamour of the Golden Globes. We'll tell you who's winning what.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

WOODRUFF: Back here in the United States, the finger-pointing continues in the Enron scandal. The head of Arthur Andersen, Enron's former accounting firm, acknowledged today that his company made errors, but he said it did not use questionable accounting practices. Joseph Berardino says the blame for the demise of the energy business lies elsewhere.

(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

JOSEPH BERARDINO, CEO, ARTHUR ANDERSEN: This is a company whose business model failed. Accounting reflects the results of business activities, and the way these events were being accounted for were clear to management and to the board, obviously in less detail to the board. But at its base, this is an economic failure.

(END VIDEO CLIP)

WOODRUFF: The Enron investigation, as we know, has not been confined to Wall Street. Members of the Bush administration have also been linked to the troubled energy company, and we can expect more on that story in the days ahead.

But today marks an anniversary for President Bush. He took the oath of office one year ago. And as CNN White House correspondent Major Garrett reports, the president's freshman year saw a lot of changes.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

MAJOR GARRETT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The president offered this silent but emphatic assessment of his first year in office, an odyssey that began in a drenching rain for a plea for civility after weeks of election recount rancor.

GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Civility is not a tactic or a sentiment. It is the determined choice of trust over cynicism of community, over chaos. And this commitment, if we keep it, is a way to share an accomplishment.

GARRETT: Changing the tone in Washington became a White House mantra, but the president's biggest early victory was largely partisan. His 10-year, 1.35 trillion-dollar tax cut, by the triumph came with a huge price: Vermont Republican James Jeffords changed parties, giving control of the Senate to the Democrats.

The White House was girding for a fall of confrontation with Senate Democrats, when terror changed everything.

From the Oval Office the president sought to reassure...

BUSH: Terrorist attacks can shake foundations of our biggest buildings but they cannot touch the foundation of America.

GARRETT: Days later Mr. Bush talked to recovery workers and spoke for a nation.

BUSH: I can hear you!

I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you, and the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon!

GARRETT: Less than a month later war began in Afghanistan. Before year's end, the Taliban was destroyed, a new multiethnic government in control and al Qaeda on the run.

But back in the U.S. political unity is receding giving way to election-year calculations. Karl Rove, the president's top political adviser said Friday Republicans should run on Mr. Bush's war record. Democrats cried foul.

TERRY MCAULIFFE, DNC CHAIRMAN: I am very saddened by it. I thought it was despicable. We are all united behind this president, we are all together fighting this war.

GARRETT: But the new G.O.P. chairman said it is only natural for voters to judge Mr. Bush and Republicans on the war. MARC RACICOT, RNC CHAIRMAN: The president, because of these circumstances, has displayed a depth of character and leadership that quite obviously the American people will take into consideration when they are making judgments about what it is we do as Republicans.

GARRETT (on camera): The first year of the Bush presidency was defined by political turbulence and horrific human tragedy. Year two dawns with the president waging a war on terrorism and battling an economics recession. Neither were anticipated when Mr. Bush took his oath of office, but both will define his presidency and decide the fate of his party in this year's elections. Major Garrett, CNN, the White House.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: Tomorrow the nation celebrates the life of Martin Luther King Jr., the slain civil rights leader. His cause is taking on new meaning after September 11. Several hundred civil rights activists gathered in Washington yesterday, to rally against racial and ethnic profiling. President Bush is hosting the King family at the White House tomorrow. And, Mrs. Bush plans to visit Atlanta, King's hometown.

For more on the Bush presidency, along with all the other political news of the day, you can check out our Web site at cnn.com. From there, just click on politics. AOL users, the keyword is CNN.

Turning to medical news, scientists have identified a second gene they believe makes some families more prone to prostate cancer. CNN medical correspondent Elizabeth Cohen has more on the discovery.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

ELIZABETH COHEN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Let's say a man's uncle, brother and father had prostate cancer. He might wonder if it's in the genes. This discovery helps answer that question. You can't go to your doctor and get this test tomorrow but you might be able to do so in the future. A man with a family history of prostate cancer could possibly years from now be able to get a genetic test and if it turned out to be positive, he would know to be on the look out for prostate cancer and get early detection and treatment.

It's important to remember that having this gene does not mean a man will definitely get prostate cancer. It just makes more likely. In fact only 9 percent of prostate cancer are caused by a faulty gene. The rest are random. But this new genetic finding may help those men too. And scientists say now that they have identified this gene they can take a look at what it does, at why it causes normal cells to go haywire and become cancerous. Then doctors could develop drugs that would target the exact place where the process seemed to go wrong.

Elizabeth Cohen, CNN, Atlanta.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: When CNN Sunday returns, a look at the latest news. Plus, these kids were given a class project to take pictures of their school's neighborhood last year.

Find out how what used to be behind their school, is making these snapshots a bit of history.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

WOODRUFF: Welcome back. This story just in via the Reuters newswire: Israeli troops and dozens of tanks guarded by helicopters are reported to have moved into the Palestinian ruled city of Tulkarem, in a pre-dawn raid on Monday.

The tanks, we are told, moved into this city of the West Bank. Troop were searching houses detaining several Palestinians. According to security sources there, there was gunfire heard. Not much more is known than that.

It appears to be the latest in a series of reprisals for a deadly Palestinian attack at a Jewish celebration in Northern Israel last week where six people died. It is know that an armed group linked to Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat's Fatah Faction claimed that it carried out that shooting to avenge the killing of one of its leaders who was a gunman from Tul Karm, hence the connection there.

Once again Israeli troops moving into the Palestinian town of Tul Karm early Monday morning.

Here are other top stories: The world gets a look inside the U.S. detention center in Cuba this weekend. The Pentagon issued these images. Pictures of al Qaeda and Taliban fighters kneeling and handcuffed, the Pentagon says they're being treated fairly, but one British official is among those demanding more assurances.

Leaders from 60 nations are gathering today in Tokyo for a fundraising effort to help Afghanistan. The idea is to raise $5 billion to carry Afghanistan's interim and cash-poor government for the next 30 months.

A deadly helicopter crash today in Afghanistan killed two Marines and injured five more. The Pentagon is saying that mechanical failure caused the Super Stallion helicopter to crash near Kabul. The Pentagon also released the names of the two Marines who died: Staff Sergeant Walter Cohee III, he was from Maryland, and Sergeant Dwight Morgan from California.

A very delicate operation has been going on at the U.S. military base at the Kandahar Airport. Mine specialists from Norway are scouring the airport, digging for a hidden danger. CNN's Ben Wedeman explains.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

BEN WEDEMAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Inch by tedious inch, a Norwegian mine clearer probes the dust for deadly explosives. One U.S. Marine has already been wounded by a mine. No one at Kandahar Airport is willing to even guess how many mines lie just below the surface here. The Norwegians have been in other hot spots, but they say nothing is like this little corner of Afghanistan.

MAJOR TREGVE ANGER, NORWEGIAN ARMY: Down here, we have mines from many battles, so there are mines from when the Russians were here in Afghanistan, and we have mines from this battle.

WEDEMAN (on camera): The Norwegian unit found more mines like this in a day here at Kandahar Airport than they found in six months in Kosovo.

(voice-over): Their job is a little safer, thanks to these special Israeli-made boots. They may look unwieldy, but the Norwegians swear by them.

LT. HENNING OLSEN, NORWEGIAN ARMY: I trust them. I have been walking, I've been trying them in Kosovo, and I stepped on anti- personnel mines over there, and then stepped on some anti-personnel mines a couple of days ago, so I'm not afraid about walking with these shoes.

WEDEMAN: The boots distribute the wearer's weight, so much so, they showed us, you can walk on an egg without breaking it.

But not all mine clearing is like treading on eggshells. These machines flail the ground to a depth of 25 centimeters, almost 10 inches. The chains will set off any mines. But even with such intense work, say the Norwegians, it will take more than a year to clear the airport of mines.

Ben Wedeman, CNN, Kandahar, Afghanistan.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: Dangerous work and very brave men.

Well, work continues here in the United States at the World Trade Center disaster site in New York City. And so do worries over what harmful substances the workers might be exposed to in the process. This is a live picture of ground zero as it looks on Sunday night. The air quality there will be the subject of a hearing next month.

Before September 11, the World Trade Center Towers were captured by countless photographers. But the pictures you are about to see were taken by some very unlikely artists. CNN's Hillary Lane zooms in on their views of innocence.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

HILLARY LANE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Give a child a camera and he will show you things in a way you have never seen before, capturing the purity and innocence photographers often work a lifetime to achieve.

JESSE BENEDETTI, STUDENT PHOTOGRAPHER: I was taking the sky, but I put the World Trade Center to make it better.

LANE (on camera): So, was this to describe blue or... BENEDETTI: Yes.

LANE (voice-over): Armed with a list of adjectives and disposable cameras, last June, a second-grade class set out on an assignment to photograph their world -- their neighborhood downtown.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: And if you look down there, you can see how close -- that is the backyard of this school.

LANE: Beth Schiffer's (ph) son Jesse, was one of the photographers. She runs a commercial photo lab and knew the photographs should be put on display.

BETH SCHIFFER, JESSE'S MOTHER: It's that innocent kind of pure vision that is so beautiful about them.

LANE (on camera): Sometimes the children have trouble explaining why they took a certain photo or if they were trying to convey something. In some cases even whether they meant to photograph the twin towers or whether they were just such a visible part of their neighborhood.

You don't expect to see that kind of color downtown, do you?

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No, not any more. You don't see bright happy yellow. Now we see white, gray, and black now.

LANE (voice-over): The brightness and vibrancy these children remember is something they and their parents desperately want back. Ryan Wu chose the word "reflection" to describe his favorite photo.

RYAN WU, STUDENT PHOTOGRAPHER: But I think it sort of just reflects like memories of it.

LANE (on camera): So the hard part is that it's not there anymore?

WU: Yes.

LANE: You hope they rebuild it?

WU: Yes because I sort of miss walking under the bridge when I go to school.

LANE (voice-over): After spending months in two temporary locations, this class moved back to its regular school in less than two weeks -- just two blocks north of where the World Trade Center stood, one more step toward restoring normalcy and letting kids just be kids.

Hillary Lane for CNN, New York.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: It's safe to say those perspective no one else has had. That's a fresh perspective for all of us.

Ahead, a volcano devastates a community in the Congo. Coming up on CNN Sunday, find out how some residents are willing to risk everything rather than face becoming refugees.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

WOODRUFF: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, last week's deadly volcanic eruption still poses serious danger. But thousands of residents whose city was ruined by raging lava are returning home. CNN's Catherine Bond explains why they are disregarding the warnings.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

CATHERINE BOND, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): A stampede of people heading home, in secondhand shoes or rubber sandals over a river of lava that's still hot. People who only a few days ago had to flee a massive volcanic eruption near the Congolese city of Goma, now determined to go back, carrying trunks, suitcases, bundles, mattresses, mats, roofing materials and their children.

(on camera): This constant stream of people coming back into Goma illustrates what they've been repeating to us, that whatever the risks here, they'd rather take them than become refugees.

(voice-over): When the volcano erupted, tens and thousands of Congolese crossed into Rwanda, where they tell us local people didn't help them.

"We asked them for just one biscuit for the children to eat -- nothing," says Bahati (ph). "Just one cup of water for the children -- nothing. They wanted us to die. When we saw the sky clearing, we said we might as well go and die at home."

From morning onward, thousands of families made their way on foot along the main avenue into Goma from the border with Rwanda.

"Over there, we suffered a lot," says Kronflas (ph). "There's no water. Food prices have rocketed, and they won't even accept our money."

They've come back to a city split in two, largely without power and without water as well, carrying it instead in plastic cans from nearby Lake Kivu.

The Congolese rebel authority in charge of this city didn't warn the residents to leave before the volcano erupted. Quite the opposite.

"They said there's no danger. You could stay, remain calm," Pierre tells us.

And have the authorities done anything since? "Up to now, no," he says. "We're still waiting."

Days after the disaster, its victims still waiting for local outside help to be brought here.

"If there's going to be any humanitarian aid," Joel (ph) tells us, "let it come quickly, otherwise we're going to perish."

There is a little fruit for sale on the streets. But most people don't have much money.

Down there, Eric (ph) tells us his house and the college where he studied. "I'm left with what you see," he says.

The only person who might profit from this, a carpenter. The number of Goma's residents who lost their houses hasn't yet been counted, but the stretch of lava mixed with bricks and metal roofing and still smoking from the heat is vast.

Catherine Bond, CNN, Goma, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: Up ahead, something lighter. Few artists know more about the great white way than this New York cartoonist. In a moment, we will look at a career as bright as Broadway.

And in Hollywood, the stars come out in force to honor their own. Those stories when we return.

(COMMERCIAL BREAK)

WOODRUFF: The stars are out tonight and Hollywood gathering for the 59th annual Golden Globe Awards. Walking on the red carpet outside the theater were celebrities from television and from the big screen: Tom Hanks. Nicole Kidman, and Russell Crowe all made their way inside.

So far Kidman, Charlie Sheen, Keifer Sutherland, Sarah Jessica Parker, and Jennifer Connelly have all won performance awards. And in some of the television prizes, HBO's "Sex in the City" was named the best comedy series and the network's "Band of Brothers" won best mini- series. HBO a part of our AOL-TIME WARNER family.

And now to the bright lights of Broadway and off Broadway, and the distinctive drawings of a man named Al Hirschfeld. His work has chronicled theater life and stars for more than half a century. And as CNN's Phil Hirschkorn found out, this 98-year-old dynamo has no plans to slow down.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE)

PHIL HIRSCHKORN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Name a major musical or play of the past 70 years, and Al Hirschfeld has drawn it and its stars. "Guys and Dolls," "West Side Story," "Peter Pan," "Rent." Hirschfeld and Broadway, synonymous since the 1930s. A performance mostly on the pages of the "New York Times."

AL HIRSCHFELD, ARTIST: We just shook hands some 70 years ago, and I'm -- only two years ago they wanted a contract. And I said, "You must be kidding."

HIRSCHKORN: Hirschfeld is 98 years old and still working. Alone on the top floor of his Manhattan townhouse, Hirschfeld creates his art. Nearly 100 Hirschfeld works are on display in a retrospective at the Museum of the City of New York; the city his family moved to in 1914.

HIRSCHFELD: We arrived at Penn Station, took the Amsterdam Avenue streetcar to the end of the line. There was a little frame house with a top floor for rent. My mother went in and rented it; it was $4 a month. And all around were apple orchards.

HIRSCHKORN: In magazines and books, Hirschfeld chronicled the changing city. Sidewalk cafeterias, where people met for lunch. Night clubs, where bartenders stayed in business during prohibition. Couples, strolling the streets of Harlem. World War II soldiers at a dance. His breakthrough happened by accident. When Hirschfeld sketched a well-known French actor on a program, a friend got it published in a newspaper, and Hirschfeld drawing theater, was on his way.

Playwrights became friends. From Eugene O'Neill to Arthur Miller. Composers, like the Gershwins, his subjects.

HIRSCHFELD: Years ago, there would be maybe three or four openings in one night. Now it's lucky if we get two openings a month. I rarely agreed with the critics.

HIRSCHKORN: But he didn't tell them what to write, and they didn't tell him what to draw.

ANDREA HENDERSON FAHNESTOCK, CURATOR, MUSEUM OF CITY OF NEW YORK: I think to have been drawn by Al Hirschfeld is a huge feather in your cap.

HIRSCHKORN: Andrea Henderson Fahnestock is the show's curator.

HENDERSON FAHNESTOCK: Well I think his daughter was born in 1945, and shortly after her birth -- as kind of a joke really -- he put her into one of his drawings.

HIRSCHKORN: Nina (ph) became a signature. Hirschfeld, hiding her name in the lines of his drawings. Clueing in readers how many times the name was there.

HIRSCHFELD: I did it just to herald her appearance on this planet. And I had no ulterior motive in doing it. I didn't think anybody would notice it. And after a couple of weeks, I thought the joke wore thin and I left it out. And I started getting calls and telegrams from across -- from Alaska.

HIRSCHKORN: New York has been providing inspiration, from the subways to the hot dog stands to the World's Fair. The city's cultural icons, his focus. Stars of film, of television and the stage, whether that's Carnegie Hall or Broadway.

(on camera): The hardest thing isn't the execution for you, but it's making up your mind what personality trait you want to depict.

HIRSCHFELD: That's correct, yeah. A lot of them are like blotch. You know, they don't register.

HIRSCHKORN (voice-over): When we visited Hirschfeld, he was working in the same barber chair he's used since 1954. He was drawing the four women who star in the HBO sitcom "Sex and the City."

HIRSCHFELD: Well, a lot of editors want a little color in it. And recently it's changing. It always changes. You have to roll with the punches, you know.

HIRSCHKORN: Hirschfeld has no idea how many drawings he's done over the years; certainly, thousands. Retirement is not on his agenda. Both of his parents lived into their 90s. Staying active, he believes, is the key.

HIRSCHFELD: Yeah, I think longevity has to do with genes. But I do think it doesn't hurt to be -- I know that I would be bored if I didn't have anything that I was really interested in that I'm -- I work seven days a week and I love it.

HIRSCHKORN: Hirschfeld's past is on display, but he's not looking back.

HIRSCHFELD: I'm only interested in the present. You always feel that the drawing you're working on is the best drawing you've ever done. I think what I'm doing now is better than I did last week.

HIRSCHKORN: Phil Hirschkorn, CNN, New York.

(END VIDEOTAPE)

WOODRUFF: Can you believe he is 98? Need to check that birth certificate. Al Hirschfeld, an inspiration to us all.

We will have a check of the latest developments. That is up next and then CNN Presents: "Black Hawk Down." Stay with us.

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