The Web      Powered by


Return to Transcripts main page


Reagan Family Spokesman Announces President Reagan Memorial Service Plan

Aired June 6, 2004 - 14:58   ET


FREDRICKA WHITFIELD, CNN ANCHOR: Hello I'm Fredricka Whitfield in Atlanta. In a moment we are going to take you to Santa Monica, California where a Ronald Reagan family spokesman, Judith Drake, is expected to approach the podium where she will outline some of the arrangements being made, the funeral arrangements that will be made this week for the late president, the late 40th president of the United States, Ronald Reagan.
We know thus far there are plans in place for the body to be taken from California via Air Force One to Washington, D.C. where the body will lie in state in the Capitol Rotunda on Wednesday and Thursday. And then funeral arrangements in Washington on Friday. Let's listen in now to Judith Drake.

JOANNE DRAKE, REAGAN FAMILY SPOKEWOMAN: Good afternoon. Thank you for coming. My name is Joanne Drake. I've worked for President Reagan for almost 20 years the last nine years as his chief of staff. With me today is Fredrick J. Ryan Jr. the chairman of the board of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation, who's been coordinating with the White House on all state funeral arrangements. Also, Duke Blackwood, who is the director of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Anthony Choppa (ph), who is the special agent in charge of the Los Angeles Field Office of the United States Secret Service and his colleague Charles Conall (ph) who is a special agent in charge of the Reagan protective detail.

Barbara Owens the public affairs officer with the Military District of Washington, Bob Bediker (ph) with Gates Kingsley Gates and James Butts who is the chief of police for the city of Santa Monica, for which I wish to offer a special thanks for his support here today and for the last two days. The Reagan family has asked me to offer a short statement on their behalf. Then we will review the official funeral activities in honor of President Reagan that will occur over the next six days. Please hold your questions until the end.

Mrs. Reagan and her family are deeply touched by the outpouring of sympathy from across the country and around the world. They have received thousands of messages, via telephone, fax, and e-mail, and through the special remembrances that have been placed here near the Reagan residence in Bel Air, at the Reagan Library in Simi Valley, as Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois, at the birthplace in Tampico, Illinois. And the president's boyhood home in Dixon, Illinois, just to name a few. As you can understand, the family is in deep mourning over the loss of a husband, a father, a grandfather, and their hero.

Each of you will be handed the schedule of funeral bench in writing. But I want to review it now with you. This is the official schedule, any changes that do occur will be announced by our office.

Sunday, June 6, there are no public events.

Tomorrow, Monday, June 7, at 10:00 a.m. Pacific daylight time, Mrs. Reagan and the family will depart to Gates Kingsley Gates mortuary en route to the Reagan Presidential Library.

At 11:00, they will arrive at the library for a private ceremony.

At 12:00 noon, the official lying in repose begins in the main lobby of the library for the public to pay their respects and it will continue through the night.

The public will be transported by bus from Moorpark Community College. Out of President Reagan, Moorpark College will be closed Monday and Tuesday for all faculty staff in order to support the general public parking at the college.

Although there are too many people to thank and not enough time today or probably ever at this point, the Reagan family wants me to express their gratitude to the city of Simi Valley, the L.A. County Supervisor Michael Antonovich, Roger Snoble and the entire MTA staff, Dr. Eva Conrad the president of the college, and the numerous local and federal law enforcement agencies, for making this bus plan work.

Tuesday, June 8, all day until 6:00, the president will lie in repose in the main lobby of the Reagan library.

Wednesday, June 9, Mrs. Reagan and the family will arrive at the Reagan library at 8:00 a.m. Pacific daylight time, 8:15 will be a departure ceremony, 8:30 the motorcade departs the Reagan Library.

9:00 a.m. will be a departure ceremony at Naval Base Ventura County, otherwise known as Point Magoo.

The aircraft will depart at 9:30 en route to Andrews Air Force Base, arriving at 5:00 p.m. Eastern daylight time.

At 6:00, a formal -- formal funeral procession will be held to the U.S. Capitol.

At 7:00, the state funeral ceremony will be held in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol.

Following that ceremony at approximately 8:30, the president will be begin lying in state in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol for the public to pay their respects, and this will continue through the night.

Thursday, June 10th, that entire 24 hours, the president will lie in state in the rotunda of the United States Capitol, in order for the public to pay their respects.

Friday, June 11, at 10:30 a.m. Eastern daylight time, there will be a departure ceremony at the U.S. Capitol. The motorcade will depart the Capitol at 10:45, arriving the Washington National Cathedral at 11:15. The national funeral service at the Washington National Cathedral will begin at 11:30.

At 1:15 Eastern daylight time, we will have a departure ceremony at the National Cathedral, and at 1:45, the motorcade will depart en route Andrews Air Force Base.

Again, there will be a departure ceremony at 2:15 at Andrews Air Force Base, and the aircraft will depart at 2:45 Eastern daylight time, arriving into Point Magoo at 4:45 p.m. The motorcade will depart there at 5:15.

At 6:00, the motorcade will arrive at the Reagan Library. It is our intent to publish that motorcade route, so that the public will know where to go.

At 6:15, the private interment service will begin at the Reagan Library and at 7:30, we expect it to conclude.

All of this information has been posted on the Reagan Library website at The information on this site includes the outline of events, the bus shuttle and parking information from Moorpark for the public and all other media releases.

Beginning today, tributes from national and world leaders will also be posted. That effort is being led by President George H.W. Bush. Members of the public are invited to sign the on-line condolence book that will be shared with the family. Again that address is

Details for state funeral arrangements in Washington, D.C. will be distributed by the military district of Washington. All media questions should be directed to the MDW Office of Public Affair at 202-696-4035. For information on armed forces funeral honors and traditions, you can go to their website at

Now, we're happy to take questions.


DRAKE: Since 1981. Every president is expected to create funeral plans if and when the time comes. They've been updated every year.

QUESTION: Does the government have any more response from the Reagan family, from Mrs. Reagan herself, anything more she would like to tell the people of the U.S.?

DRAKE: I think, "thank you." It's been a really hard ten years for her. She really appreciates the love and prayers and the support that has been extended to her by so many people.

QUESTION: Is there a time when the president's condition, deffinately took a significant downturn in the last week, when did the -- when did all this suddenly come up or...

DRAKE: You know, I don't think I'm going to get into details out of respect for the family. QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE)

DRAKE: They're taking some down time today. I'm not sure there's been a whole lot of sleep in the household for the last couple days. So I think we're encouraging them to get some rest. It's going to be a hard six days ahead of them.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) speak at the national funeral?

DRAKE: I'm going to pass you over to Fred Ryan who's been working with the White House on those details.

FRED RYAN, REAGAN'S FMR. CHIEF OF STAFF: Yes, to answer your question, President Bush will be speaking at the National Cathedral at the state service on Friday. I would add, on behalf of Mrs. Reagan and the Reagan family, how grateful they are for the support that President Bush has shown both personally and at the highest levels of his administration. I think we all know that this week particularly is a very busy one for him in terms of his foreign policy responsibilities, and they have given complete support to making sure that this is a dignified and proper state service for the president -- former President Reagan.


RYAN: We're going to have a separate announcement on that?

DRAKE: I'm sorry, on President Bush's participation?

QUESTION: No, I'm asking who else will be speaking at the memorial service.

DRAKE: Yes, we will have a separate announcement regarding the ceremony, each of the ceremonies once they are finalized. I'm sure you can understand when something like this happens, we do need to be very certain about people and where they can be and what time. So, we will, as soon as we get the information, provide it to you.


DRAKE: President Bush? Yes, sir, I spoke to him when he first called Mrs. Reagan, she wasn't able to take the call. And then placed another call, and she did speak with him.


DRAKE: He extended his sympathies, of course, and I think she was just grateful for his offer of literally whatever she needed. He and Mrs. Bush would be there for her.


DRAKE: Yes, I'm going to turn you over to the MDW representative, Barbara Owens.

BARBARA OWENS, MDW REPRESENTATIVE: An armed forces state funeral is a military tradition that started back during the time of Abraham Lincoln. And as you know, back then we didn't have planes, we had trains, and it took a lot longer to do that. This state funeral will be conducted in six days rather than the weeks that it took for Abraham Lincoln.

As Joanne said, the president has a -- has been working on this plan, him and his family, since 1981. And we update it. It consists of several different ceremonies here in the California area and in Washington, D.C. Arrivals and departures, reposes, lying in state, the national service at the Washington National Cathedral, the national day of mourning, which is Friday June the 11th. So, it's a tradition long in standing. And we would invite anyone who would like detailed information on military funerals to go ahead and go to our website at and we are happy to give you all that information. It's long, it's traditional, it's a beautiful ceremony, and we'd like for you all to get that information on-line.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) day of national mourning by the president, or does it go along with any presidential funeral and burial?

OWENS: The official proclamation and notice of death we expect to take place, we suspect, on Monday, but the national day of mourning is always in conjunction with the national memorial service at the cathedral.

QUESTION: Will federal office be closed? What's involved in the national day of mourning?

OWENS: Well, we'll start with the funeral service, and of course the flags will be at half-staff. I'm not sure at this time what the federal government will be doing as far as offices closed, but that will be on our website as well.


OWENS: All presidents are entitled to a state funeral. The last one was April 27, 1994, and that was for President Nixon. He did not have a Washington, D.C. phase and prior to that, Linden Baines Johnson, in January of '73. State funerals began with Abraham Lincoln and, of course, the most famous was John F. Kennedy in November of '63.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) many of us still have memories or have seen the videotapes...

OWENS: Certainly. Most people remember President Kennedy's casket transfer and the black caparisoned "Black Jack." The casket transfer will happen on Wednesday, June the 9, at approximately 6:00 p.m.

The Hearse will be en route from Andrews Air Force Base, will stop at 16th and Constitution, if you're familiar with where the Ellipse is in Washington, D.C. There, a joint casket team will remove the casket from the Hearse, place it on a horse-drawn caisson from the old guard and then that will go up past Constitution Avenue to the Capitol.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) there were members accompanies the caisson will we have that as well?

OWENS: I'm sorry, could you repeat the question?

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) I don't know if you call them drummers with the caisson...

OWEN: Yes, there will be the single drummer with the black covered drum marching up, yes, sir.

QUESTION: You mention that this has been in the works for more than twenty years now, I notice that there are a lot of chances for the public to be able to pay their respects. Is this something specific to Mr. Reagan, that he really wanted the public to be there, or is this just standard?

DRAKE: Absolutely. President Reagan, as you know, was a man of the people, and it was really important to him that people have an opportunity to pay their respects if they wanted, and we worked really hard to work a California phase into that for the public in order to do that, in addition to the opportunity in Washington.


DRAKE: We do not know yet. As soon as we do, we will let you know. We are very cognizant of the fact that the G-8 Summit is occurring at the same time, and we have every expectation that if any of those world leaders want to attend, we will accommodate them, absolutely.

QUESTION: Do we know for certain that all the former living presidents will be attending the funeral?

DRAKE: Yes. The invitations are being extended in the next day or so. We just don't know yet. As soon as we know that, we will let you know.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) the interment at Simi Valley, will it be more a family event or will there be leaders and dignitaries at that as well?

DRAKE: The interment ceremony at the library will be covered by the media, but it is by invitation only. As you can imagine, we have a lot of people who would like to attend and there's only so much space. It was intended to be for family and friends.


DRAKE: I do not.


QUESTION: It is difficult, but can you describe the president's last few days? DRAKE: I think that goes into the area of breaching his privacy.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) escorted the Hearse to the gate yesterday? Do you stay with him -- his body at this point?

DRAKE: We'll let Tony Chapman...

I'm sorry. I didn't hear your question.

QUESTION: I was wondering what your role is at this point, it appears you escorted the person to the gate yesterday, the -- of their home. Do you continue to stay with the body at this point? What is your role?

TONY CHAPMAN, SECRET SERVICE: Well, the Secret Service is working in partnership with all the different law enforcement agencies that have been helping us over the past many months to put together a very dignified program. And, we are also working to provide for the public's safety as well, and the actual details of what we have planned is something we're not prepared to discuss, but I can assure you that we're in place and we're in partnership with not just the Santa Monica Police Department, but the Los Angeles Police Department, the L.A. County Sheriff's Department, the Ventura County Sheriff's Department, Simi Valley, Thousand Oaks, and all the other police departments including the California Highway Patrol who will escort us out tomorrow morning.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) security detail or an honor guard inside the mortuary at this time?

CHAPMAN: I appreciate you asking, but that would get into the security of the event. Sorry, I can't answer that. Thank you.


RYAN: Well, we contacted the White House as soon as the president passed away and the response back from the president was that he would adjust his schedule and he would accommodate the family's wishes. And he's done every bit of that.


DRAKE: I don't have that information -- Tony.

CHAPMAN: As to the route from here to Simi Valley, we're developing that today with our law enforcement partners. We don't have it available at this point.

QUESTION: Is there any strain on your agency -- I mean, aren't you heavily involved in the G-8 Summit that's happening at the same time, now you're going to have dozens of world leaders probably at another event in the country. Is this going to be easy for you to handle all this...

CHAPMAN: Locally we've been working with all of our law enforcement partners; it's not just the Secret Service, though we have the responsibility to put together the security for this event, but thanks to the help that we're getting with our local counterparts, that we feel we can provide the security for the event and the public safety, as well.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) Mrs. Reagan did about the scene as Mr. Reagan passed away, can you go into what we are able to know about it?

DRAKE: I can tell you that Mrs. Reagan was at his bedside along with the president's daughter Patty Davis, and son, Ronald Prescott Reagan. Michael Reagan had spent Friday with his father, and actually arrived just moments after he passed away due to traffic. But it was a very, very private moment.


DRAKE: You know, I'm not going to get into any health discussions. I think that really breaches their privacy.


DRAKE: I think that decision was made right after the decision was made to put the library on that hill.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) and also, have there been other spontaneous, kind of, memorials like this one?

DRAKE: I have not personally seen it yet, because I've been in Los Angeles, but I've seen some footage that you all have provided of the memorial site at the Reagan Library, and it was stunning. I've also been provided footage from Eureka College, the boyhood home in Tampico and the birthplace -- I'm sorry, the birthplace home in Tampico and the boyhood home in Dixon. I'm not aware of any others, but I guess I wouldn't be surprised if there were others.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) other world leaders.

DRAKE: Yes, let me let you know. I can tell you in addition to President Bush 43, his father, President Bush 41, has called along with Mrs. Bush. President Ford and President Clinton have both called her. Colin Powell has called her. Brian Mulroney has called her. She's been in contact with Lady Margaret Thatcher. Secretary Shultz has called her. Charlton Heston called her, they're old friends. Senator Ted Kennedy was one of the early people on the phone. Lucy and Ladybird Johnson both placed the call together to her. I think Billy Graham and Ruth Graham were the first messages that we received, and he's still in the hospital, so I know that was a difficult time for him.

The Nixon family has contacted her. Senator McCain, an old and dear friend, has spoken to her. And that was just up until the time we left. The phone has literally been ringing to the point where it's hard to keep up with it.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) the world's reaction to the president's passing? DRAKE: I'm not surprised. I've worked for him for 20 years, he was an extraordinary man. I would say he was one of the best presidents this country has ever had, and I think he deserves no less than this type of tribute.

QUESTION: Did the president have any last words that you are able to share with us?

DRAKE: I don't know, and if I find out, I promise I will share them with you.

QUESTION: Is there a pallbearer list yet, and do you know who's officiating as the pastor at the funeral?

DRAKE: I can tell you that Reverend Michael Venning, who was President Reagan's last pastor at Bel Air Presbyterian, will be officiating at the Los Angeles events. In Washington, Senator John Danforth will be the officiating minister. Unfortunately, Reverend Graham, who was scheduled to be part of it will not be able to attend.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) the body is lying in the pose in the Presidential Library, will that be an open casket?

DRAKE: No, we're not doing an open casket.

Anybody else?


DRAKE: Let me see if I can do it right. The first pallbearer will be...


DRAKE: OK. The question was, the pallbearers list. There are five names on that list. I will put it on the Web site. Frederick Ryan, Mr. Merv Griffin, Dr. John Hutton, Mr. Charles Wick, and Mr. Michael Deaver.

Anybody else?

QUESTION: Can you identify John Hutton, what his relation is?

DRAKE: Dr. John Hutton was the president's physician during the later years at the White House. They became very close.

QUESTION: Do you know why this (UNINTELLIGIBLE)

DRAKE: It's my understanding that when the president returned to California, he was asked to choose a funeral home and this one seemed to fit the bill. So it was put on his schedule.


DRAKE: I'm sorry. I don't know that there was a specific reason, other than it was appropriate. QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE)

DRAKE: Mr. Bodiker represents Gates Kingsley, right here.

QUESTION: Is it possible to find out the type of casket?

DRAKE: I can inquire.

QUESTION: Joanne, can you talk to us about where the president will be laid to rest, the type of monument it is, and where he overlooks. It's a very scenic setting, I know.

RYAN: Well, I think anyone who's seen the Reagan Presidential Library knows that it lies on a spectacular hilltop with a view of the ocean and the rolling hills of California, and that particularly appealed to President and Mrs. Reagan when they made a decision about where they would eventually be buried. The monument has been built; the memorial area and it will be the site for the internment on Friday.


RYAN: Well, it's connected to the library, it is the same type of look and feel, that western style that Ronald Reagan loved so much, and it's -- it has a quote that he selected, and that will be disclosed on Friday.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) when Mrs. Reagan dies (UNINTELLIGIBLE) rest there as well...

RYAN: Yes, they've both decided they would be interred there.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) there is a sarcophagus kind of thing above ground. Is it entombment or is it burial?

RYAN: Well, I don't want to get into the details of it, but it is -- they will be buried beneath that -- the structure you described, Joe.


DRAKE: The question was, was there a sense of relief in addition to sadness? I can tell you most certainly that, while it is an extremely sad time for Mrs. Reagan, there is definitely a sense of relief that he is no longer suffering and that he has gone to a better place.


QUESTION: You detailed everything (UNINTELLIGIBLE) could you sort of sum it up and perhaps intersperse the reason that the family wanted everything done the way it's going to go, how it's going to flow from here through the library, and then to Washington, D.C.?

DRAKE: OK. I'll try to keep it simple. The question was, why were the choices made that were made, I suppose. First and foremost, it was important to the president that the public be offered opportunities, and so we worked very carefully with all of these entities to be sure that there were opportunities on both coasts and that is why we have arranged an opportunity at the Reagan library, in addition to the public opportunity at the U.S. Capitol.

His choice of burial site I think was discussed. The Reagan Library is certainly, you know, a pristine spot to be buried, overlooking the ocean under the oak trees, and so, there was always the intent to have the state funeral aspects in Washington, D.C., and then to return home to California for burial.


DRAKE: I can try and share them with you, but I have to be honest with you, it's been a tough couple days for me personally. It was an honor, one that I wish every American could experience. He was an extraordinary man, and I feel honored that my children had a chance to meet him. I know his legacy will carry this country far, far into the future.

Anybody else?

QUESTION: For people who can't make it to either coast, I know there are a lot of Americans who want a way to reach out to the family. Can they contribute to a particular charity? Can they write letters?

DRAKE: Absolutely. The way they can participate, there are many ways. I would suggest if they want to do something physical, those who live near the Midwest can certainly visit any of the boyhood home, growing up spots -- Eureka College, Tampico, Dixon, Illinois. I've watched with great interest of the coverage that has been occurring there over the last day and a half. You know, our hope is that people will continue to participate in the special programs that we have to promote the legacy of freedom and democracy, by joining the Reagan Library, asking you to go to the

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) do you have any idea of how many people will be going to the library?

DRAKE: I don't have any idea how many people will go there. I think we will just have to wait and see.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) is it a logistical challenge?

DRAKE: It is a very big logistical challenge and we hope that it will work like clockwork, but we also are going to ask everyone's indulgence and patience.


QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) might the still photographers have a chance to talk with Mr. Foster before he leaves today?

DRAKE: Yes, I think that can be arranged.

QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) what are Patty and Ron junior...

DRAKE: OK, just to clarify, first of all Ron is not a junior. And I know I've tried to clarify that before, but he is -- his name is Ronald Prescott. I think there's some sensitivity to that, so Ron and Patty came early in the morning. They were called by their mother and were with him when he passed away.


DRAKE: Saturday morning, yes.


QUESTION: (UNINTELLIGIBLE) funded or is there any private money...

DRAKE: Do you want to address that?

RYAN: Sure. Well, since a lot of what you've been told about -- the question is the funding for this funeral. As a former president, there is a state funeral involved, and that is a tribute by the American people, by the federal government to former presidents and applies to each of the former presidents. Obviously, in the case of anyone's funeral, there are some personal expenses and those are being handled personally.

DRAKE: Yes, we're going to take a couple more. Go ahead.

QUESTION: I know that the funeral will be by invitation only. We work with high-definition cameras. Will you accommodate that?

DRAKE: I'm going to let Gary Foster handle that after we're done. Are there any other questions besides logistical?

QUESTION: Have they given any indication that you'll continue to be an advocate for stem cell research as it relates to Alzheimer's?

DRAKE: I think the issues she's chosen to participate in the last few years will continue to be on her agenda. This is a very important issue, most certainly now. She lost her husband to a disease that she feels strongly there's hope for, and I think she will continue to be involved.

QUESTION: Yes, what do you think his legacy will be?

DRAKE: Are you asking me personally? Well, I think his legacy will be tremendous, I think his legacy will be one of bringing freedom and democracy to people around the world that never would have seen it. In my opinion, he was mostly responsible for the fall of the Berlin Wall. I think he brought the spirit of America back to Americans. And I think when you think of Ronald Reagan, you think of America.

OK. If we're all done, we can handle logistical questions. There is a press release -- or two releases. One of them is the schedule that's been printed for you. The other one is a release dealing with the public information, which we do ask you to help us get out as quickly and efficiently as possible so that members of the public will know where to go tomorrow to begin to pay their respects. Thank you all for coming.

WHITFIELD: Out of Santa Monica, California you're hearing from Joanne Drake who's worked with the Reagan family for more than 20 years now, along with a former Reagan chief of staff member Fred Ryan, both explaining that the funeral will take place over six days spanning both coasts for the late President Ronald Reagan. Joanne Drake beginning out saying that the Reagan family was deeply touched from the outpouring of sympathy from around the world, from e-mails, faxes, from ordinary citizens to heads of state, to former heads of state. Then she spelled out the very detailed both public and private ceremonies that will take place beginning as early as tomorrow, with both private and public ceremonies beginning at the Ronald Reagan Library first, the family will enjoy some time with the body of Ronald Reagan and then it will lie in repose for public viewing beginning at noon Pacific Time at the Ronald Reagan Museum and Library.

Then the body will continue to stay there for Tuesday for continued ceremony of lying in repose for the public. Then on Wednesday, the body, along with Nancy Reagan, the former first lady, will be heading to Washington via Andrews Air Force Base for formal ceremonies before the body lies in formal state in the Rotunda of the Capitol Building. And that will take place for two days. On Friday, a motorcade will be taking the body of the late president throughout downtown Washington, down Constitution Avenue, and up 16th Street. Then it will head to the National Cathedral, where there will be a number of dignitaries that are invited. So far they'll only release the name of President George Bush, who will be speaking along with other dignitaries.

The body then will be taken from Washington and back to California. And the hope is the interment will take place by sunset at the Ronald Reagan Library.

We'll have more on our special coverage, CNN's special report "Remembering Ronald Reagan right after this.


On CNN TV E-mail Services CNN Mobile CNN AvantGo CNNtext Ad info Preferences
   The Web     
Powered by
© 2005 Cable News Network LP, LLLP.
A Time Warner Company. All Rights Reserved.
Terms under which this service is provided to you.
Read our privacy guidelines. Contact us.
external link
All external sites will open in a new browser. does not endorse external sites.
 Premium content icon Denotes premium content.