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CONNECT THE WORLD
Continuing Monsoon Rains Cause Massive Flooding in Pakistan
Aired August 11, 2010 - 16:00:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL ANCHOR: Pakistan needs your money. The U.N. is calling for half a billion dollars to help the victims of the worst floods in living memory. As the Monsoon rains continue, the price of food that is available is soaring.
Tonight, with conditions worsening in many areas, how the Pakistani Diaspora from London to Louisiana is leading the effort to raise much needed funds.
On CNN, this is the hour we CONNECT THE WORLD. It began, as you know, as a natural disaster. Now it is up to you and me to help provide for the people of Pakistan. I'm Becky Anderson in London, with the connections here and around the world. And you can get in touch with me on Twitter if you are involved in the fund raising efforts, or, indeed, if you have friends or relatives in the area. I'm on @BeckyCNN.
Also on this show tonight, British scientists raise the alarm about a new super-bug that is resistant to most antibiotics. Will it spread? And who is at risk?
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
BEAR GRYLLS, "MAN VS. WILD": I watched on the tele with my boys, and I'm thinking, Bear, what was I thinking putting raw goat testicles in my mouth. But when you're hungry, you're hungry.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Yes, but would you eat that? The adventure of Bear Grylls, answers your questions tonight. He is your Connector of the Day here on CONNECT THE WORLD.
Well, if we don't act fast enough, many more people could die. That is the start warning today from the United Nations, urging the world to contribute 460 million dollars in emergency aid for Pakistan.
Let's kick off with Dan Rivers reporting with many people who survived the floods, are now struggling to survive what is a food shortage.
DAN RIVERS, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): This used to be a vibrant food market. But look at it now. Kush al Por (ph) is completely choked with modern debris. Two hundred and fifty food shops have been completely consumed by the foul smelling smudge. Ton after ton needs to be cleared, including rotting produce that shop keepers didn't have the time to take with them as they flood the sudden inundation.
It's tough, back-breaking work. But with the start of Ramadan, it will be even harder. These people will be fasting all day, and aren't supposed to even have a sip of water during daylight hours.
Chuma Ghoul (ph) surveys the damage to his vegetable shop. His business has been in his family for 20 years. . And now it's in ruins. He shows me how high the water was, and complains that he's lost thousands of dollars of stock and lost trade.
He set up a temporary stall by the side of the road. But all the produce has increased in price. Tomatoes have doubled, so have cucumbers. The other vegetables are up by a third.
Customers like Niaz Ali (ph) they've already lost work and money is tight. But now, with the cost of food rising, they're simply having to eat less.
Market manager Ikram Ullah (ph) says it's really difficult, not just for the poor, but for shop-keepers as well. With the month of Ramadan coming up, he says it's really difficult for everybody. This flood has really increased prices.
(on camera): It's not just the food in this market that has been lost, but the crops in the field, which are still soaked, are also in jeopardy. The economic impact of this flood will be felt for months, or perhaps even years.
JEAN MAURICE RIPERT, U.N. SPECIAL ENVOY: The crops have been lost. And it's a race against time, to be sure, that the next sowing season can be met.
RIVERS (voice-over): You only have to look at the banks of the might River Indus to see why prices have gone up. This should be fertile, productive land. But it's still utterly submerged. U.N.'s World Food Program has already delivered supplies to 340,000 people, but many more will need help if these waters, and therefore food prices, don't go down soon.
Dan Rivers, CNN, Nowshera, Pakistan.
ANDERSON: On day 12, and the crisis is clear, and so is the global resonance of this story. Pakistani government officials have acknowledged they simply can't cope with the scale of the crisis on their own.
So Muslim charities there and abroad are among those who are helping to fill the void, the vacuum. We're joined now by Anwar Khan with Islamic Relief. Sir, what are you hearing from your colleagues on the ground?
ANWAR KHAN, ISLAMIC RELIEFUSA: We're hearing that the situation is only getting worse. We're already trying to cope with situation in Rhebor Pachtun (ph) Balochistan, and now we're hearing more news about Punjab and Bau Sin (ph). We're hearing that there's going to be more water coming, more flooding in the next few days.
ANDERSON: I want to get some pictures up that you have sent us from your colleagues on the ground, sot that our viewers can get a real sense of the picture. Thousands of miles, of course, of the region affected. How much money have you raised as a charity yourselves?
KHAN: So far, we've raised in the last few days nearly one million dollars here in the U.S. alone.
ANDERSON: From whom?
KHAN: This has been from our donors. We've sent out email alerts and we've gone to some mosques. Ramadan is just around the corner, so we found that some mosques were a bit reluctant to us coming a week before Ramadan and in Ramadan. But some mosques did allow us to come. But the majority of this came from Internet donations across the country.
ANDERSON: I'm surprised what you -- what you're suggesting about Ramadan. I would have though -- maybe I'm naive here -- but the start of Ramadan may have made a difference to your fund raising in a positive way. Can you explain if it hasn't, why?
KHAN: Oh, that was just the week before Ramadan, because for many of the mosques, they're asking money every day for different causes around the world. And they already allocated slots earlier. So we're asking them if we can come twice.
But now Ramadan has begun. We are visiting hundreds of mosques across the country, but not just for Pakistan. We still have to remember the situation in Africa, in Gaza and many other areas around the world. So we're competing in Ramadan. This is the most competitive time of the year for Muslim organizations to raise funds.
ANDERSON: The Pakistani Diaspora is huge around the world. Just how important a story would you say is this? I understand what you're saying, that there is competition for people's funds, particularly this time, which is such a charitable time for Muslims around the world. But how big is the Diaspora, for example, in the United States, just to give our viewers a sense? And how important will this story be?
KHAN: To the Muslims in the United States, it is important. But to Pakistanis, it is even more important. We're not getting that much media attention. Fourteen million people have been affected by this flood, six million of them are children. Yet, it's not all over the media.
When there were other problems in other parts of the world, we saw more media coverage.
On the Pakistani media, on the ethnic media, we're seeing more response. So we're finding that it's more so our Pakistani donors who are more educated about the situation are giving. But the general Muslim donors, once they find out, they're very generous. But they have to find out.
ANDERSON: Have you considered why that might be? Do you have any suspicions about why perhaps the media -- and certainly I hold my hand up here at CNN. I certainly don't hold my hand up. I'm not defending us, because we have covered this story from day one, and continue to do that here on this show. Do you have any suspicions as to why the media perhaps around the world might not be as interested in this story as it has been in others?
KHAN: Last year, there were three million people on the move, most of them women and children, in Pakistan during the fighting in Swath Valley. Again, we didn't see that much media attention. We just find that when there are situations in Pakistan -- unfortunately, in 2007, there were the floods in Balochistan. Last year, three million people on the move. Now 14 million people are affected. Two million homes have been destroyed.
We just find that if it's in certain parts of the world, the media is maybe more eager to talk about them. Pakistan, in particular, you can just see how many people have been affected.
As you mention, on CNN there is some coverage. But we're not seeing as much on the domestic TV shows here in America as we would have hoped.
ANDERSON: All right, back to the story on the ground, because I know we've been talking about aid here for the last few minutes. What are you colleagues telling you that they need next?
KHAN: We need prayers. We need food. We need hygiene kits. And we need the water to stop coming.
On Saturday, one of our convoys was stuck for two, three days in flash floods as they were rescuing 200 villages. We're trying to move people from the low level areas to the high level areas. It's -- logistics is the biggest problem.
We do need money. We're encouraging people to give us aid. But there's a problem of getting the aid over there. So we need everybody to do whatever they can in whatever ways, whether it's been praying, giving money. We need all help. Everything is what we need at the moment, Becky.
ANDERSON: Estimates are that 14 million people are affected by what is turning out to be one of the world's worst natural disasters. We thank you very much, indeed, Mr. Khan, for joining us this evening.
Pakistani communities in the U.K. have also launched fund raising campaigns to help the flood victims. Phil Black looking at grassroots efforts here on the streets of London.
PHIL BLACK, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): For the next 30 days, these men will not eat or drink during daylight hours. Those are the rules of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month. Many of the faithful here in the East London mosque come from Pakistan. They now choose to fast, knowing millions of their countrymen are suffering from Monsoon floods, with little food, water and no choice.
Tufail Hussein (ph) says people will pray more and give more for the disaster's victims because of Ramadan.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It is traumatic whenever you see enemies like this. But more so because it's -- Pakistan is my country. It's my region. These are my brothers and sisters who are suffering there.
BLACK: Riswan Khalek (ph) believe generosity, inspired by Ramadan, will change lives in Pakistan.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I just think that Ramadan couldn't have come at a better time, in terms of help and the financial aid that can be given to those people.
BLACK (on camera): Charity is a principle at the heart of Ramadan. It is an expectation. Muslims give about 2.5 percent of their wealth in donation every year, often during Ramadan. Aid groups hope that when they do, this year they'll be thinking of Pakistan.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Please, we need your help. Support these people.
BLACK (voice-over): These volunteers work for Islamic Relief, an organization that has raised around two million dollars so far. Ibera Hussein (ph) says Ramadan will motivate her to do more.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I think, more than anything, during this time, you can actually empathize with their situation.
BLACK: Pakistan's last huge natural disaster, the 2005 earthquake that claimed more than 70,000 lives, also triggered a wave of charity. But later there were concerns some of the money was diverted by corruption and even terrorism.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We hope that this time now people are more wary and cautious of who they give to, because that's the most important thing, to give, but give to those charity -- those with the track record of delivery.
BLACK: Like many Muslim communities across Britain, the East London Mosque has also raised money for flood victims. The head imam insists the money is only passed on to reputable charities.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Of course, we do make sure that they are registered in the U.K. and also in Pakistan, so they are doing some charity work in a very legal way.
BLACK: All efforts will be welcome. The Muslim world has just begun its holy month of prayer and charity. Pakistan has millions of people in desperate need of both.
Phil Black, CNN, London.
ANDERSON: Well, Pakistan needs your help. Find out how you can get involved. Head to CNN.com/Impacts. You'll find a range of ways there to help out and give money through a charity of your choice. That's CNN.com/Impacts.
You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD. I'm Becky Anderson here in London. Coming up, a drug resistant super-bug has turned up in Britain. And researchers say it is spreading. We're going to tell you where it came from and what doctors and governments are doing to stop it. That just ahead.
ANDERSON: A very warm welcome back to the show. Now, a new gene has popped up in British hospitals that researchers, at least, say makes bacteria resist almost all antibiotics on Earth. Experts say people who have traveled to India for surgery have carried it back to Britain and beyond. This as Lawrence McGinty now reports -- could it mean the end of antibiotics?
LAWRENCE MCGINTY, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): This bug is common enough. We've all heard of it, e. coli. But now scientists have found e. coli and another bacterium called Kelepsiela (ph) that contain a gene that makes them super-bugs, makes them resistant to almost all antibiotics.
DR. DAVID LIVERMORE, UK. HEALTH PROTECTION AGENCY: What we're seeing here isn't the spread of a single-bug. Rather, it's the spread of resistance between bacteria. And this resistance includes the Carbophenant (ph), which had been the most powerful, most reliable antibiotics in many infections caused by what we call Glonbecative (ph) Bacteria, bacteria like e. coli and Klepsia.
What's happening as this resistance spreads is that infections caused by these bacteria become much harder to treat.
MCGINTY: Scientists say the new gene produces an enzyme that kills all known antibiotics apart from two. What's really scaring them is that bacteria can pass on the gene very easily.
Some doctors, however, say it's all happened before. And antibiotic resistant bacteria haven't cause Armageddon.
DR. MICHAEL FITZPATRICK, GENERAL PRACTIONER: We have these scares that come around from time to time. And I think a degree of skepticism is in order about them. There's always been a fear of the emergence of some big which is resistant to antibiotics. And that is a problem from to time. It's a problem for the public health and infectious diseases people.
But mercifully, this seems to be a very rare infection. And there's no sign of it spreading in any kind of rapidity. So most people don't need to be unduly concerned about it.
MCGINTY: Indeed, scientists and doctors have been waiting for it to happen. Air travel makes it almost inevitable that new bugs and resistance to antibiotics spread more rapidly.
This one has been tracked to hospitals in India, where health tourists from Britain have received kidney transplants and other operations.
There are still two effective antibiotics. But doctors say we have a ten year window to figure out new ways of attacking the resistant bugs before they take a real grip.
Lawrence McGinty, ITV News.
ANDERSON: All right, well the Sevu (ph) bug gene has spread beyond just the U.K., making this a classic story for us here at CONNECT THE WORLD. So far, it has also been detected in the Netherlands, in Sweden, Australia , Canada and in the United States. And researches say it is likely it will continue to spread worldwide.
Well, my next guest says we should be concerned about how quickly this gene is moving and how hard it is to fight. Professor Tim Walsh from Cardiff University led the research on the super-bug. He joins us now live from Bristol, here in Britain.
You say we should be concerned, Tim. Just how concerned?
DR. TIM WALSH, CARDIFF UNIVERSITY: Well, it depends kind of what country you're in, I guess. If you're in the United Kingdom, where we have prudent use of antibiotics, and very good infection control policies, then, by and large, it's not too much of a problem. We have 50 cases of this in the United Kingdom. So if you compare that with MRSA -- we have thousands and thousand every year -- it's not a huge worry.
However, the potential for this to actually increase and proliferate is actually quite large. We also have to remember that we have five or six antibiotics left to still treat MRSA. Once this gene, if you like, enters into these bacteria like e. coli, like your news piece suggested, we basically have two left, Ticocylin (ph) and Kalistan (ph). And one of those is a fairly old drug where there's toxicity issues associated with it.
So this kind of sort of heralds really the potential, at least, for the end of the antibiotic era. To that, we do actually have isolates coming out of India and also from independent studies coming out from Greece, via slightly different mechanism, that are now totally resistant to all antibiotics.
ANDERSON: Yes. And that is going to really worry people who are watching this show around the world. Indian doctors, though, seem unsurprised that this has happened in a country where people routinely self-medicate with drugs that they buy over the counter, without prescriptions.
So from you tonight, in what parts of the world will people suffer most and why?
WALSH: Well, as your news piece says very accurately, in fact, that in India, it appears to be more of a problem. We don't actually know where it started. But the possibilities that it actually did start in India. And some Indian doctors have written some articles actually very critical of the system in India, particularly the use or abuse of antibiotics within the Indian system. That just doesn't include those that are used in hospitals, but those that are used in the community that you can buy sort of from corner stores.
Looking at the data that we've got from India, it would suggest, in fact, that a lot of the infections that the India people are presenting are actually community acquired, which would suggest, in fact, that the level of resistance within the community is quite high. And that's a real worry for people in India and Pakistan.
You know, I noticed one of your interviewees, they said it's -- well, people actually shouldn't be too concerned about this. That's fine if you're in the U.K,, fine if you're in the U.S. But actually in places like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, I'm afraid it is a very real problem.
ANDERSON: Listen, after the Swine Flu crisis, which turned out to be very little, the Bird Flu crisis, which turned out to be very little -- although let's remember that people did die in both of those -- you can understand why people might be listening to this discussion that we are having tonight and thinking, you know what, we've heard this all before; here we go again; here's a doctor talking to us about a crisis that we might be facing. In fact, in six months time, we'll find out it's all just gump. What do you say to them.
WALSH: Well, in some ways they may be right. And what we really try -- need to do is to actually have good preference data from countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, but also, actually, from the U.K. as well, where we actually don't know, if you like, the gene carriage within normal U.K. population.
But we've got to remember that, say, two or three years ago, we'd never heard of this type of resistance before. Yet, in about a two or three year period, it's kind of entered into almost about one -- perhaps even five percent of the bacteria that cause these types of infections in patients within the kind of Indian environment.
And it's actually turned up in about ten countries around the world. And that's in the space of actually about nine months, that's happened. So I think we have good cause to be concerned.
ANDERSON: With that, we're going to leave it there. We thank you very much for joining us, no doubt. Sadly, we may be hearing from you again. For you this evening, a chance for the biggest footballing nations in the world to kick off another season in style, but with reputations to repair after the World Cup in South Africa, there is little love lost in tonight's so called friendly football matches. The results of those matches that have finished and the latest on those that haven't after this.
ANDERSON: Bouncing back into the beautiful game; after Brazil's humbling quarter final exit from the World Cup -- remember that -- coach Carlos Dunga was fired. In stepped Manuel Menezez (ph). The result, a two-nil win over host USA in Tuesday's friendly.
But there's been yet more humiliation for Italy's national squad following their early exit from FIFA's summer football tournament in South Africa. They lost their friendly against African hosts Ivory Coast, one- nil.
For many of the world's biggest football teams, these friendly games offer an opportunity to rebuild their reputations, to heal the wounds from what has been sometimes disastrous World Cup campaigns. World Sports Terry Baddoo standing by at the CNN Center for more on tonight's matches, and some new faces in international football, and perhaps, fortunately, some old as well.
TERRY BADDOO, CNN SPORTS CORRESPONDENT: Yes, new faces, same old story in some cases. A number of friendly games brought with them many new faces, as managers regrouped for the European Championship qualifiers and other competitions around the world.
No one has regrouped more than new French coach Laurent Blanc. He's discarded all of France's underachieving, rebellious World Cup players for the friendly with Norway in Oslo, in favor of a new look squad featuring 13 uncapped players. In June, infighting led to the French players boycotting a World Cup training session after then striker Nicolas Anelka was sent home from South Africa for insulting the then coach, Raymond Domenech. Blanc is making a real statement as he goes about restoring France's real image on the world stage.
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LAURENT BLANC, FRENCH SOCCER COACH (through translator): I believe that this match is special because it's the first game after the problems in South Africa. I think we had very little time and did not prepare the best possible way for this match. It is difficult to prepare for an international game with only two days of training, especially in the circumstance with young players.
These are not the best preparations.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
BADDOO: So how are the new boys doing? With the match in Oslo currently in the second half, look, they're not doing too badly, I suppose. Nil-nil the score up there in Scandinavia.
Now while France exited the World Cup in the group phase, England went one better by losing in the round of 16. But it was still a massive disappointment, which England will have to live down. They began the task against Hungary at Wimbley, where the home side was expected to face a fair few boos. However, there was little negativity to be heard, as the fans got behind the new look England side, featuring several new players, and playing a new system.
Half time, there were a few boos, as the score was nil-nil. But since then, Hungary have got ahead, get this, by a Phil Jagioker (ph) own goal on 62 minutes for one-nothing. The ball apparently did not cross the line. You may remember at the World Cup a very controversial goal from Frank Lampart was disallowed against Germany even though it clearly went across the line. But I'm just hearing now that England have redressed the balance. And right now, with the game in the second half, it's the skipper, Steven Gerrard, who has made it one-one.
Argentina's World Cup ended in a shattering defeat by Germany in the quarter finals, which led to the eventual resignation of Diego Maradona as coach. His temporary replacement is Sergio Batista. He's taking charge of his first game of the national side at the moment in Dublin, where they will be facing the Republic of Ireland. The Irish are playing without their Italian coach, Giovanni Truppatoni (ph), as he's still hospitalized following recent stomach surgery. The score right now, at the Aviva Stadium, reading one-nothing Argentina. Angel Demaria on 21 minutes.
Spain don't need to regroup, as their current squad won the World Cup in some style. However, with an eye on the future, they've made several changes to their World Cup lineup for Wednesday's friendly with Mexico, who had a pretty good World Cup themselves. The first half is almost over. The current score in Mexico City, one-nothing. The man who scored it, Chicovi Sohalias Javier Hernandez (ph), a new signing this season for Manchester United of England.
Becky, going back to the England game, a few boos, but not as many as I was expecting. How about you?
ANDERSON: Yes, I was surprised as well, actually, at half time, because I wasn't particularly impressed by what I saw. And then Hungary going one-nil. But I am told -- as you've been talking, I've got say, and I've been standing here listening to you, Steve Gerrard has actually scored that goal. Apparently it wasn't a bad goal. So listen, maybe they won't get the sort of boos that we were expecting.
I don't know if you agree with me. I would rather have seen what the French coach did, and actually take all of those oldies off, and bring in a whole new young squad. I mean, he's got Jack on. You know, he's got -- he's got a couple of the other younger players on. But there are a bunch of players out there who deserve a try, don't you think?
BADDOO: I think there are bunch of players who deserve a try, but I think the French team wasn't dismissed from the squad because they played badly in South Africa. I think they were dismissed mainly because of indiscipline. Not the case with England, they were fairly disciplined. But just not very good.
ANDERSON: And they were rubbish.
BADDOO: To be perfectly honest, though, what is the point of playing a bunch friendlies so soon after the World Cup and just with a few days to go to the start of the European season? That's my main question at the moment. Nobody has really recovered from what happened in South Africa. I think it was kind of stupid to play these games now. They have to go through the motions. Win or lose, I don't think it has a big bearing on the future, Becky.
ANDERSON: Yes, but I've got to tell you, I think there are something like 50,000 people at Wembley tonight, so at least there are some out there who are still supporting the national team, wherever --
BADDOO: Well, they sold cheap tickets, Becky.
ANDERSON: Yes, that's right.
BADDOO: They sold cheap tickets to get the crowd --
ANDERSON: Oh, yes.
BADDOO: Crowd numbers up.
ANDERSON: All right, my love.
ANDERSON: I will say not surprised that that makes good -- they had a good run in the World Cup --
BADDOO: They did.
BADDOO: Yes, definitely.
ANDERSON: Exactly, good stuff. All right, my love, thank you for that. Terry Baddoo on the soccer results tonight. We are going to take a very short break. You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD. Back after this.
ANDERSON: Just after 32 minutes past nine in London. You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD. I'm Becky Anderson in London.
Coming up, a renowned Muslim scholar declares a fatwa on terrorism. I'm going to take you to his summer camp with a mission to steer young Muslims away from extremism.
Then, a mother in Mexico takes advantage of a US Constitution loophole to get American citizenship for her son. We're going to explain what she did and why it is legal.
And finally, your Connector of the Day is one of the most famous adventurers in the world. He's the "man" in "Man vs. Wild," and Bear Grylls will tell us all about life on the edge and out in the wilderness a little later this hour.
Those stories ahead in the next 30 minutes. First, let me get you a very quick check of the headlines this hour.
The United Nations is appealing for $460 million in emergency aid for Pakistan, warning many more flood victims could die if the world doesn't act fast. The record flooding has destroyed countless acres of crops, leading to a food shortage and skyrocketing prices.
A new gene that makes bacteria resistant to drugs has popped up in Britain and several other countries. The super bug makes bacteria resistant to all -- or almost all known antibiotics. Almost all known antibiotics. The researchers say people who have traveled to India and Pakistan are spreading it around the world.
Thousands of rescuers are racing against time to find survivors of the devastating mudslides in China. One village is now just a vast mud plain. In the last two days, two men were found alive, but the number of deaths has now topped 1100.
This is CONNECT THE WORLD. On all this week, we're looking at Islam in the year 2010. Muslims around the world have started observing Ramadan, the Islamic holy month, including worshipers at the Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Abu Dhabi. Take a look at this stunning time lapse video of the mosque.
More than 22,000 square meters, it can hold nearly 41,000 people at a time. All day long, Muslims have been observing Ramadan, taking no food or water, but at dusk, it's of course time to break the fast and join together in reflection. Stan Grant is among the crowd at a food tent in Abu Dhabi.
STAN GRANT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (on camera): This is one of the special food tents that have been set up here in Abu Dhabi during Ramadan. Now, there are more than a thousand men here, and there are 15,000 people who'll be catered for each night during the holy month of Ramadan.
Of course, Ramadan is a time of fasting, when people don't eat, they don't drink, they pray. They share their faith together. It is a very special time here, and this time has been put aside especially for these people.
If you look around here, many of these men are what they call the migrant workers of the United Arab Emirates. They come form countries such as Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan. They drive cabs, they work in hospitality industry. Many of these men also work outside, of course, in the construction industry, where it is incredibly hot during this time of the year.
This is a chance for these men to come here and to share this time together. Especially important, when you consider that there's so many of them that are spending this time away from their families. It's not uncommon for men here to spend up to two or three years separated from their families to come here to try to earn enough money to send back home.
ANDERSON: Fascinating stuff. Well, here in the UK, a noted Muslim scholar is spearheading a summer retreat for Islamic youth. His goal? To turn them away from the allure of radical extremism towards some more tolerant behavior. And he has -- let me start that again. My colleague, Atika Shubert, finds out who's listening to his message.
ATIKA SHUBERT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Shaykh Muhammad Tahir ul-Qudri takes the state go a packed auditorium preaching peace and love, also tolerance, but not for radical extremists.
SHAYKH MUHAMMAD TAHIR UL-QADRI, MUSLIM CLERIC: They become extremists, they become terrorists, they become violent, they become militant. So if you adopt this kind of character, your every single mandatory act of worship would be rejected, would be rejected, would be rejected.
UL-QADRI: I'm trying to spiritualize you so that every single person of you may become leader legalized.
SHUBERT (voice-over): This is Al-Hidayah, an Islamic retreat at the University of Warwick in Britain, featuring lectures by the influential Pakistani cleric. He runs a multi-media empire that showcases his lectures in Pakistan, but in Britain, he is promoting his recent fatwa on terrorism.
A comprehensive 600-page religious edict that harshly condemns terror attacks, condemning suicide attackers to hell, and disowning them from Islam.
Available online in English, Arabic, and Urdu, the fatwa meticulously sources the Koran and other classical Islamic texts. It's viewed as arguably the most comprehensive theological rejection of terrorism to date, something a silent Muslim majority has long demanded, he says.
UL-QADRI: The reality is that today we're waiting for long, long time too get this kind of voice. Their hearts had become desert, and their spirits and their souls, they were thirsty. And unfortunately the peaceful people are always silent. They don't create news.
SHUBERT (on camera): "Al-Hidayah" means "guidance," and this three- day retreat is billed as something of a summer camp for Islamic learning, specifically for a younger generation. And this year's conference focuses exclusively on fighting extremism.
SHUBERT (voice-over): Al-Hidayah has been running for six years in the UK. About 1,500 participants came this year, many of them teenagers from across Europe and North America.
Qazi is from Chicago. He says the events of 9/11 left many young American Muslims in a state of confusion.
QAZI, AMERICAN MUSLIM: Definitely, people were getting confused and were worrying about their identity. What does it mean to be a Muslim? Does it mean to be something like this?
SHUBERT (voice-over): So when Qazi heard about the fatwa on terrorism, he immediately booked a place at Al-Hidayah.
QAZI: It's really an amazing feeling to know that it's official, something's happened. I just wish it had happened a whole lot earlier.
SHUBERT (voice-over): Ul-Qadri also loudly tackles women's rights, among other things, saying women should be allowed to pray with men in mosques with no separation. A point he makes with humor.
UL-QADRI: They don't feel need of any curtain when they send them to market for grocery and shopping. No curtain there. For the social gatherings, no curtain. When they come to learn something? Then put high walls between them.
SHUBERT (voice-over): It's a refreshing take on Islam for Dutch teenager Ysmin.
YSMIN, DUTCH MUSLIM: It's like, how do you call that? A place of being home. Returning back home. So, if I see all those people, boys, girls, everyone with their Islamic clothes, it makes me happy. And in Holland, I miss that feeling. Yes, you really missed something last year, because one of the lectures was about women's rights. I cried for, like, two hours on a rug."
SHUBERT (voice-over): Next year, Al-Hidayah will be in London and is expecting more than 5,000 participants. Evidence, perhaps, that ul-Qadri's message is spreading. Atika Shubert, CNN, Coventry, England.
ANDERSON: And tomorrow on CONNECT THE WORLD, meet "The 99." These new comic book superheroes battle evil and injustice all while embodying Muslim virtues. That, tomorrow, here, at this time as we continue our week-long look at Islam. Tonight, we'll be right back.
ANDERSON: It is a political hot potato in the United States at least. Immigration, now, during the congressional election year, some lawmakers want to change an amendment that offers undocumented mothers a major loophole. Not for themselves, but for their kids. Gary Tuchman met one Mexican woman who took advantage of what is known as the 14th Amendment.
GARY TUCHMAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): By the looks of them, you would never know this mother and son are at the heart of a national debate. They have both lived in Mexico their whole lives. But while 26- year-old Lupita and her husband are Mexican citizens, three-year-old Hector is a US citizen.
LUPITA, MOTHER (through translator): I made a decision to have my child born in the United States. I wanted him to have dual citizenship, so one day, if he moves to the United States, he will not have any problems.
TUCHMAN (voice-over): Lupita, who did not want her last name used, is well aware of the US Constitution's 14th Amendment, which declares all persons born in the US are citizens. And she admits, she came to Texas on a tourist visa while pregnant specifically to give birth to a US citizen.
LUPITA (through translator): One day, we might have to immigrate to the United States, and I would like my child to be able to take full advantage of his rights and be able to stay in the United States.
TUCHMAN (voice-over): Hector was born at this public hospital in Fort Worth, where officials tell us an average of 70 percent of births are to undocumented mothers. 70 percent.
Immigration attorneys say the 14th Amendment is very well-known to legal and illegal visitors alike.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE SPEAKER: A lot of people sacrifice themselves and say, "OK, well at least my child, if they're born in the United States, is almost guaranteed a better life than mine."
TUCHMAN (on camera): Lupita's three-year-old son may never permanently live in the United States. Officially, though, he's as American as any American citizen. But notably, US immigration officials are permitted to stop pregnant women from entering the country if they feel they're coming here just to have a baby.
Did you tell the border people, "I'm here to have a baby"? Would you have told them that, or would you have been afraid to say that?
LUPITA (through translator): I only told my family. I did not tell the immigration officer. I hid my appearance to get my entry permit into the United States.
TUCHMAN (voice-over): Hector and his mother are in Fort Worth this week to visit extended family. She's using this same tourist visa that was in effect when she gave birth to Hector. The 14th Amendment, she believes, guarantees all children are equal.
TUCHMAN (on camera): So some day would you like your son, maybe, to help you become a US citizen? He'll be allowed to do that when he's an adult.
LUPITA (through translator): Well, yes. I don't know what's going to happen in the future. But if we're doing badly in Mexico and we have to emigrate, why not?
TUCHMAN (voice-over): Lupita hopes to have another child and says she'll likely do it the same way as long as she still has the 14th Amendment to rely on. Gary Tuchman, CNN, Fort Worth, Texas.
ANDERSON: Apparently, the United States of one of at least 27 countries that grant automatic citizenship to kids born to illegal residents. According to the Center for Immigration Studies, the list also includes Canada, Mexico, and a number of other Latin American countries.
There are eight nations that have abandoned birthright citizenship in recent years. There most recently, Australia in 2007. The UK, Ireland, France, India, New Zealand also no longer grant citizenship as a birthright.
Will the United States eventually be added to that list? I want to talk about that with Erick Erickson, he's a CNN contributor, and he's the editor-in-chief of the conservative website RedState.com. Joining me from CNN Center in Atlanta. She's not doing anything wrong, is she, Lupita?
ERICK ERICKSON, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF, REDSTATE.COM: It's flattering that someone would want to come across the border to have a child here to make sure they're an American citizen. I think that speaks highly of this country. The problem is the rate at which it's happening, and the reliance on the 14th Amendment.
Just to put it in perspective, the idea of birthright citizenship doesn't originate in the 14th Amendment, which was actually enacted after the American Civil War to deal with the issue of slaves and children of slaves.
It actually came from Colonial England. It was originally, apparently, a king's decree that anyone born within the British Empire was a subject of the king. It transferred over in common law, and has been interpreted as that in the 14th Amendment, but there are some key words in the 14th Amendment where it says any person born here "subject to the jurisdiction of the United States," and there are many Republicans and some Democrats who say that means Congress can get rid of birthright citizenship without actually amending the 14th Amendment.
ANDERSON: Erick, there are also Republicans, including Colorado gubernatorial hopeful Tom Tancredo, an outspoken critic, it's got to be said, of illegal immigration. He's told CNN today that he actually opposes altering the 14th Amendment. He's calling the debate over it almost a ruse. I'm guessing he's suggesting it's pandering to what is the great immigration debate, which has started out of Arizona --
ANDERSON: And seems to be spreading across the States. That is a concern, isn't it?
ERICKSON: It is. In fact, if you look at the senators in the United States Senate who were the first ones to bring up the issue of amending the 14th Amendment, none of them have ever gone on record before of opposing birthright citizenship.
And, in fact, several of them, the leader in particular, Lindsey Graham from the state of South Carolina, he has serious issues in his own state. And many people, myself included, think that he's not serious about amending the 14th Amendment, he's just trying to get himself in better political standing with conservatives who are opposed to immigration.
ANDERSON: There are, though, examples of immigration hardliners who are against changing this amendment. The narrative is out there, and I guess --
ANDERSON: Part of that narrative is simply, why change this amendment now? Are the numbers really suggesting that so many people are taking advantage of the system, that things need to be changed? And at the end of the day, isn't there a kind of emotional sort of, slightly, sort of so short --
ANDERSON: Sort of moral imperative here? I guess the other thing is, if I was to go to the States and happened to give birth at the time, am I going to be put down for that?
ERICKSON: Right. Well, it's interesting, the list of countries that you went over who have gotten rid of birthright citizenship, most of them, Britain and a lot of British colonies, are moving away from that, as well as a lot of western Europe, dealing with major immigration issues from the Middle East.
It may be time for the United States -- I don't have a problem getting rid of birthright citizenship as I think to be a citizen of a country should mean something more than by -- in some cases, an accident. You just happen to be born on American soil. It should mean something. You should have greater ties.
But I don't -- I think that issue and conflating it with amending the 14th Amendment are two separate issues, and the 14th Amendment is a distraction from the other issue.
ANDERSON: And with that, we're going to have to leave it there. Fascinating stuff. Have -- come again. Erick Erickson is a CNN contributor. We'll have you on CNN International and CTW another day. Thank you very much, indeed, for that.
Our next Connector of the Day is Bear Grylls, and in his world, it's "Man vs. Wild." He's traveled the globe, experiencing the world's most extreme environments. He's seen the Arctic and the Alps, the jungles of Costa Rica, and the Moab Desert in Utah. Now, he's answering your questions about all of his adventures. He is up next here on CNN.
ANDERSON (voice-over): He's known to the world as simply "Bear." And the title couldn't be more fitting. Action adventurer Bear Grylls is the ultimate outdoors man. The British-born traveler is best known as the face of the Discovery Channel's "Man vs. Wild," where he consistently tackles the impossible.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP - "MAN VS. WILD")
BEAR GRYLLS, ACTION ADVENTURER: This is the most dangerous part of the climb.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON (voice-over): Grylls began his adventure lifestyle early, learning to rock climb and sail at the age of eight years old.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP - "MAN VS. WILD")
GRYLLS: One, two, three!
(END VIDEO CLIP0
ANDERSON (voice-over): At the age of 23, he achieved his childhood dream of being the youngest Briton to ever climb Mount Everest.
Since then, Grylls has circumnavigated the UK on a jet ski, crossed the North Atlantic in an inflatable boat, and paramotored over Angel Falls. He's also written several books detailing his explorations.
Re-defining the word "travel," Bear Grylls is your Connector of the Day.
ANDERSON: That was a show. Bear Grylls is famed for his survivor skills, so let's waste no time in finding out how he coped with your questions. Your Connector joined me from New York a little earlier, and I began by asking him about his adventures that he had while making the new series of "Man vs. Wild." This is what he told me.
GRYLLS: We went up to Canadian Rockies, did a show there. I got injured there. We had a camera fall down a mountain face and just miss my head. And they reckon it would've taken my head off, not just killed me.
GRYLLS: So I got super lucky there. But I had to be evacuated off by helicopter. It caught my leg and gave me a massive hematoma.
GRYLLS: And we thought I'd broken my femur and all of that. Anyway, survived that. And the last show was one called "Fan vs. Wild," is where we took two fans of the show and we had about 20,000 people write in, and we picked two. And I took them up to the Rockies and gave them the full kind of "Man vs. Wild" experience. So, that for me was the highlight of it.
ANDERSON: Listen. You've probably had this question before. Are you mad?
GRYLLS: Takes one to know one.
GRYLLS: Do you know what? It's the only thing I've ever been good at in my life, and I love doing this job. It's hard and that kind of tires you, you think, "What the hell have I gotten myself into?" But those times never last forever, and soon you're back with your family and it's all kind of good again.
ANDERSON: Let's get to some viewer questions, because we've had lots and lots of them. You won't be surprised by that. Claudia's written to us. She says, "What was the most hostile environment that you've ever had to survive in?"
GRYLLS: The real extremes of heat have become very unforgiving. Siberian winter, minus 45 every day. If you pee, it kind of freezes as it hits the ground. It's just a really tough, difficult place, and it reduces your margin for error a lot, I think.
The Sahara in summer. You know, 125 degrees just constantly. And again, we had so many of our crew going down with heatstroke. And when you only have a crew of three or four, that kind of reduces things pretty fast.
I love going -- my wife keeps going, "Why can't he just go somewhere near home like normal?"
ANDERSON: I've got a question from Luis here. "What would you say, then, are the most three most important things to keep in mind in order to survive these environments, or the wild?"
GRYLLS: Keep calm in a crisis. Never give up. And be inventive. So much of survival is -- I love the quote "necessity is the mother of invention." And if you're hungry enough and you're -- you're going to come up with some clever way of snaring some little bug or whatever. You're always going to come up with ways of getting up trees or down waterfalls using your shoelace. I love that side of survival, just being inventive. That's really the heart of it, actually, is just never quitting.
ANDERSON: I wonder whether -- you've probably had this question before, but have you ever been criticized by people who say, "Listen, it's all well and good, you're out there in the wild. But you have got, whether they're any good or not, you have got this crew with you who, to all intents and purposes, ought to be able to help out in crisis. Is this for real, what we're seeing on the tele?
GRYLLS: Yes, for sure. We work with a very, very small crew, and they're best friends of mine. They're old friends from my special forces days. They work with me in some difficult, hard places around the world. And actually, they're the real heroes of this show. They're the unsung guys.
ANDERSON: Joseph Penner's written to us, and he says, "After filming one of your episodes, how long does it take you to recover before you are on your next adventure?"
GRYLLS: It's funny. Before I had kids, I used to get back and I used to be absolutely whacked from these things. And it'd take, like, two or three days just to sort of recover and get the sleep. You definitely dip into your reserves when you're out there.
I've got three young boys now, so it's like, I get back and it's full- on. All I want to do is get in a bath and get home, and they're just going, "Come on, Dad, let's go and catch a man some worms in the garden!"
And I'm going, "Let me get some peace and quiet for just a minute."
ANDERSON: Oh, lovely.
GRYLLS: But that's kind of life, eh?
ANDERSON: Charles has written to us. He says, "Bear, love the show you did with Will Ferrell. Any other celebrities who've asked to come on an adventure?"
GRYLLS: Yes, I've had few different kind of well-known actors ask to come. What's happened a few times is that they're now, as it got closer, they've suddenly got quite cold feet. Or they come and watch some of the other episodes.
But Zac Efron said the other day he'd love to do one. So, we're kind of explore -- I'd like to do a few more of those. They're fun to do and, again, the fan one we did -- I love taking other people and sort of showing them how to do these things. And I think a lot of the time on my own you kind of take it for granted and I'm just working, and I'm kind of thinking subconsciously a lot of the things we're doing here.
And I think when you have other people, you suddenly kind of see actually how hard a lot of this stuff can be for people.
ANDERSON: Yes, all right. Last question, and perhaps it alludes to that. It's from Charlie. He says, "At what point do you think you'll decide enough is enough," what he says, "when it comes to eating things nasty." I wonder whether you're just going to say enough is enough full stop at some point.
GRYLLS: Well, it is amazing what you do when you get hungry or thirsty, and there's no doubt I've eaten a load of bad things. My son has watched it on the tele, with my boys, and I'm thinking, "Bear, what was I thinking, putting raw goat's testicles in my mouth?" But when you're hungry, you're hungry.
GRYLLS: But who knows how long I'll do it? I always kind of feel I've done "Man vs. Wild" since I was about five years old. It just wasn't filmed before. And I hope to be doing it long after TV cameras have ended. And I just feel really lucky to have a job that is a blast.
ANDERSON: Bear Grylls for you. And later this week, your Connector is a familiar face from cinema and from this show, in fact. Emma Thompson is one of the world's most celebrated actresses, and she is back on the silver screen in "Nanny McPhee Returns." So start sending in your questions, cnn.com/connect -- connact? Connect. That's the show, cnn.com/connect. You can tweet me @beckycnn. Tonight, we'll be right back.