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CONNECT THE WORLD
A Closer Look at Pakistan
Aired September 15, 2010 - 16:00:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, HOST: Washington's envoy to Pakistan highlights his country's efforts to aid millions of flood victims. But his message is competing for attention with this -- a new audiotape from al Qaeda, calling on Pakistanis to revolt against their leaders. Tonight, a global game of tug of war and what happens to the people caught in the middle.
Going beyond borders on the stories that ripple around the globe, on CNN, this is the hour we connect the world.
Well, with a nuclear arsenal, a history of instability and near daily terror attacks, flood-stricken Pakistan is often called the world's most dangerous place. And we all have a stake in what happens there.
I'm Becky Anderson in London.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
GRAHAM BAVERSTOCK, ABUSE VICTIM: I have a message for the pope -- as long as I live, I will haunt him, because we are haunted by a system which abused us.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: This is what's in store for the pope ahead of his arrival to the U.K. And I want to know your thoughts on his visit and whether you will expect an official apology for abuse victims from him during the trip. Tweet me on atbeckycnn.
Also on the show this evening, a rare look at the terror group, al- Shabaab, in Somalia. I can guarantee you'll be surprised when you hear where their fighters are being recruited from.
And actor, comedian, journalist and now your Connector of the Day -- Stephen Fry is answering your questions this evening.
That's CONNECT THE WORLD in the next 60 minutes.
As I said, we begin, though, in Pakistan this evening. U.S. special envoy, Richard Holbrooke, has visited the disaster zone to inspect and highlight American relief efforts there.
CNN's Frederik Pleitgen joined him on the trip.
FREDERIK PLEITGEN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Flying around the area here in Tattar in Southern Pakistan, you can see how much of this area is still underwater. We flew in a U.S. Marines helicopter across this area and whole towns are underwater. You can see massive camps with displaced people; a lot of people also lining up to try and get aid. And, of course, this is a huge natural disaster.
But for countries like America, this is also a big security concern, because natural disaster can unseat governments, especially unstable governments, as some people perceive the one in Pakistan to be.
So today, the American special envoy to this region, to Afghanistan and Pakistan, Richard Holbrooke, is here to take a look at this area, because it's so vital to the US' interests.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
RICHARD HOLBROOKE, U.S. ENVOY TO PAKISTAN AND AFGHANISTAN: The Pakistani economy was getting better. It was getting stronger when this happened. And the international community had given billions of dollars to Pakistan. In Swat last year, there was an immense effort. All of that effort was washed away by these floods.
We support the civilian government of Pakistan, democratically elected. And we salute the Pakistani Army for its efforts. And I'm not here to -- to discuss internal Pakistani political issues.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
PLEITGEN: For the time being, immediate assistance is still absolutely essential to keep people alive, really -- getting people food, getting people medicine. But in the long-term, these people -- and also these kids that you see right here -- are going to have to go back to school and families are going to have to rebuild their lives.
Fred Pleitgen, CNN, Tattar, Pakistan.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: Let me tell you, even before the crisis, the U.S. was sending billions in -- in aid. Well despite that, the Pakistani people have a grim view of America. A recent poll taken before the floods found 59 percent -- or only six out of 10 Pakistanis -- regard the United States as the enemy, while just 11 percent see the U.S. as a partner. In the same poll, 53 percent voiced an unfavorable view of al Qaeda. On the other hand, nearly a fifth of Pakistanis approve of the group.
Well, now, al Qaeda's second in command, Ayman al-Zawahari, is reaching out to Pakistan's victims. He's released a new audio message offering his condolences, at the same time launching a scathing attack on the Pakistani government. In the 44 minute speech, al-Zawahari accuses the country's political leaders of doing too little to help the people and calls for a revolt.
So a tug of war emerging for the hearts and minds of the Pakistani people.
I'm joined by one of our big thinkers. He's an expert on the region, on terrorism in Asia as a whole.
And Sajjan Gohel, we welcome you to the show.
You've heard Zawahiri's message.
Firstly, your thoughts.
SAJJAN GOHEL, CONNECT THE WORLD PANELIST: Well, it's not unusual for al Qaeda to issue messages, especially on the anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Al-Zawahari is bin Laden's deputy. He's also very much the organizer of the group's propaganda. This is a message to ensure that they are able to get their voice out, attract new supporters to their cause and show the world that they are still active and still trying to carry out possible new attacks in the future.
ANDERSON: You've seen the poll numbers, this recent Pew poll suggesting some 20 percent or 18 percent of Pakistanis actually supportive of al Qaeda. Holbrooke's intent, of course, on winning hearts and minds for the U.S. in their efforts in Pakistan. The U.S. is set to, let's face it, to fill the void left by what is a negligent government during this crisis.
Isn't, though, Holbrooke playing a clever hand, do you think?
GOHEL: Well, the U.S. has a very strong vested interest in Pakistan's future, its stability, especially with the fact that that Taliban, al Qaeda and other affiliated groups operate inside Pakistan. It has a detrimental impact upon Afghanistan and it could create problems with neighboring -- other neighboring countries, like India.
So the U.S. is monitoring the situation. They also need to win hearts and minds effectively to ensure that new adherents don't joking al Qaeda and affiliated groups. And, also, in the particular, with the fact that Pakistan being a nuclear powered state, with the fact that the Taliban has continued to proliferate its activities, if the country continues to fall into the abyss, it doesn't bode very well for regional stability.
ANDERSON: How much pressure is the Pakistani government on -- under at the moment?
GOHEL: Well, the Pakistani government has come under a lot of criticism for the way its dealt with the floodwaters, partly because it's been unable to ensure that aid and -- and food and medicine is being effectively distributed, whereas the military in Pakistan hasn't come under the same criticism.
ANDERSON: And I wonder, in a country renewed for military coups, how much of a risk is there, at this point, that there will be another?
GOHEL: What's interesting and -- and disturbing at the same time is that editorials in Pakistani newspapers, as well as individuals from the upper classes, are actually openly speaking about a possible military coup, that it would be in Pakistan's best interests.
Now, Pakistan's current army chief, General Ashfaq Kayani is a very important individual. The U.S. is looking to him to provide effective assistance in clamping down on the activities of the Taliban and al Qaeda. We don't know where he stands politically. On the surface, it seems that he's trying to take a back -- a back seat role. But nevertheless, he has interfered in the political process.
ANDERSON: The former president, Pervez Musharraf, have a listen to what he said earlier on today about his intentions to play a part in Pakistani politics again.
Have a listen to this.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
GEN. PERVEZ MUSHARRAF, FORMER PAKISTANI PRESIDENT: My going back is -- is dependent, certainly, on an environment that was created in Pakistan and also that I would say the certainty that in the next elections, whenever the time of the next elections come up, I will be there in Pakistan.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Is he a player?
GOHEL: Unlikely. All the elections that he's taken part in have been accused of being (INAUDIBLE) and also the fact that he was the military chief, as well as the president, he is deeply unpopular. It's his legacy that we're seeing in Pakistan today. Musharraf dismantled the judiciary, sacked supreme court judges, suspended the constitution, arrested politicians. The only thing he didn't do was clamp down on the terrorist activity, which is what we're seeing in effect today.
ANDERSON: How important is a stable Pakistan to the likes of you and me, finally?
GOHEL: It's very important because of the fact that it has become the center offer terrorist recruitment, not just for al Qaeda, but other groups, like the Lashkar-e-Taiba; also, the Islamic Jihad Union and also the various dregs of the Taliban. It has an impact on Europe, too, because so many Europeans have traveled to the tribal areas in Pakistan for terrorist training, come back to Europe with the intention of carrying out plots.
So it doesn't just impact on the U.S., it impacts on Europe, too. And if we're talking about a withdrawal in Afghanistan, the worry is that those elements in Pakistan will spread their tentacles further into Afghanistan and it becomes the whole situation of Af -- not just Pakistan, but Afghanistan, too.
ANDERSON: And this will be something that Holbrooke is minded of.
We thank you very much, indeed, one of your big thinkers on the show, Sajjan Gohel.
Well, the U.S. faces a difficult task in winning over not just the Pakistani people, but Muslims across the region. Anti-American demonstrations have escalated throughout the region over the past week following an American pastor's threat to burn the Koran.
Well, today, those protests turned violent in Afghanistan. Five Afghan police officers were injured when demonstrators began shooting and throwing stones. Two protesters are in hospital after being shot by police.
Connecting the world here on CNN.
Well, as thousands of Catholics across Britain prepare for the pope's state visit, we're going to hear what one victim of the sex abuse scandal would like to tell him.
ANDERSON: Well, his visit is almost as controversial as it is historic. And when Pope Benedict begins the first ever papal state visit to Britain tomorrow, he's likely to be met by angry protesters as he is by adoring crowds. One person who won't be there to hear the senior papal aide. Cardinal Walter Kasper compared leading at Heathrow Airport to arriving in the Third World country. Well, he won't need to worry about that this week. It seems he's been dropped from the entourage.
Well, the purpose of the pope's visit will be the beatification of a British cardinal. John Henry Newman was his name. He's credited with helping to build the Catholic Church here in the 19th century.
Well, for many, though, the focus will be on whether the pope will address the effects of the abuse scandal which has rocked the church worldwide.
ITN's Penny Marshall returned to the scene of one man's trauma.
BAVERSTOCK: Now, this is the first time I've been back in 38, 39 years.
PENNY MARSHALL, ITN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Graham Baverstock is returning to the place where his childhood, and, he believes, his life, was ruined.
BAVERSTOCK: I feel emotional, but it's something I have to do. I want the people in the world to know how we suffered at the hands of the abusers.
MARSHALL: Those abusers were running a Catholic children's home here and when Graham last came to these out buildings in 1970, he was a 14-year- old able-bodied school boy in their care.
BAVERSTOCK: My memories of this place will haunt me until I die. I had to come back here today not just for me, but for all the other damaged children.
MARSHALL: Graham is one of 155 men now suing the church for the trauma and the cruelty they suffered in the largest civil case of this kind in England. Graham believes the abusers ruined not just his own life, but that of hundreds of other boys.
Now 52 and seriously ill, Graham wants resolution and retribution. He and his fellow abuse survivors have been fighting this case for six years and never had an apology.
BAVERSTOCK: In my book, the Catholic Church are the most dishonest organization that I've ever come across in my life. They are making the suffering of these children tenfold more than if they recognize the damage they have done.
This is him, James Carriger (ph), so smart, so sophisticated, and yet the biggest abuser of children.
MARSHALL: James Carriger (ph) is now in jail for multiple rape. The children's home he ran, St. Williams, catered to particularly vulnerable boys.
BAVERSTOCK: I was just a little baby, but look at me wheelchair and look at me push chair.
MARSHALL: Boys like Graham, who was abandoned by his mother when just a few days old, ending up as a teenager in the care of the church -- a church who failed him then and have never said sorry.
BAVERSTOCK: I do not believe they will ever accept their responsibility. And I have a message for the pope -- as long as I live, I will haunt you, because we are haunted by a system which abused us, tortured us, annihilated our whole ethos of life.
MARSHALL: Graham's past is full of sadness. His present is consumed by this fight for justice. His only hope for the future is an apology.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: And that report from Penny Marshall.
Well, some within the Catholic Church think it's down to the pope to provide that apology that Penny mentioned there. An open critic of the Vatican, Father Hans Kung, was stripped of the right to teach as a Catholic theologian in 1979. Earlier this year, he wrote an open letter to all Catholic bishops, accusing Pope Benedict of direct responsibility for the global cover-up of the rape of children by priests.
Earlier, he told me why.
HANS KUNG, CATHOLIC THEOLOGIAN: I think what are the historical facts are historical facts. I think just to blame the Irish bishops, for instance -- I'm not saying that they bear all the (INAUDIBLE) at the Vatican and that Cardinal Ratzinger and then the pope were responsible for the whole procedure. I think that's unfair toward the Irish bishops and I think it would be good if the pope himself would say, well, we made mistakes.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, the head of the Catholic Church in England and Wales admits that the church has made a mess of its response to these sex abuse scandals.
So how should the pope deal with these scandals during his trip to the U.K.?
That's what I put to Archbishop Vincent Nichols.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
ARCHBISHOP VINCENT NICHOLS, CATHOLIC LEADER IN ENGLAND & WALES: Well, the pope deals with the scandal -- and it is, it's a grave scandal -- of the abuse of children by priests -- not many -- in the Catholic Church very robustly. He has already, on a number of occasions, expressed his dismay, his sorrow. He is said to have wept with victims of abuse. And I don't think there's any doubt that he understands.
But also, even before he became pope, he was the one figure in the Vatican, above all others, who tackled this issue. From in 2002, he began to make sure the bishops, whose responsibility it is, acted in a clearer manner.
And so there's no doubt in my mind that this pope is -- is deeply sensitive to these matters and will continue to addresses them robustly in the church.
ANDERSON: Would you be surprised if he made a public apology while he's here in England and Scotland?
NICHOLS: You know, the pope has made a public apology about the abuse of youngsters within the embrace of the Catholic Church a number of times now. And, therefore, I would expect something similar to be said this time.
But the -- the fact of the apology, therefore, is not something new. In this country, we have been working -- struggling with these issues for about 10, 15 years now. And -- and I think we've learned a bit. And I think we know that the work of the responding world to victims of abuse, to putting systems in place in the church that make sure that it's a safe environment for youngsters and for vulnerable people, it -- that's -- that's a long haul. That -- that's continual -- continuing work. And I think in this country, we do have experience now that we can share with others.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: The top Catholic leader in England and in Wales. And it's not just the Catholic Church in Britain that's been affected by the scandal. You know that. Hundreds of claims of abuse have emerged in countries, including Austria, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Five bishops have resigned over their handling of abuse claims, including the pope's native Germany, Belgium and in Ireland.
Also in the past year-and-a-half, two detailed government reports from sexual abuse in Ireland were made public. And then, of course, in the U.S., the church has paid more than $2 billion in abuse-related costs and damages since 1992.
Connecting the world here on CNN.
We'll be right back with this week's special look at the world of languages and why Lebanon is now the scene of what some are calling a linguistic crime. Find out why after this.
ANDERSON: Well, all this week, we have been looking at the world's languages. There are about 7,000 of them spoken on the planet. Get this - - 94 percent of those languages are spoken by only 6 percent of the world's population.
Well on Monday, we were in the U.S., where many of the 800 tongues heard in New York today may not be around for very long. Experts say some 400 languages are endangered. And from there, we headed to China, looking at the battle for linguistic dominance. Mandarin may help if you're an expat doing business in Beijing, but say -- some say it's so complex that only the younger generation can grasp it.
You're with CONNECT THE WORLD.
Up for you today, we're in Beirut, where a movement is underway to save the country's official language. The Lebanese are proud polyglots, many also speaking fluent English and French.
And as Rema McTabe (ph) now reports, when it comes to their mother tongue, it seems some are now finding Arabic, well, just a little passe.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Yes, let's go.
REMA MCTABE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): This is how many Lebanese speak.
MCTABE: Three different languages -- English, Arabic and French -- within the same sentence.
MCTABE: Lebanese has been a multi-lingual country since early in the 19th century. French and British missionaries established schools and introduced Western languages. Later, with French colonization, the country became a nation of Francophiles. Now, this diversity leads many to think that the Arabic language is threatened.
NABIL DAJANI, AMERICAN UNIVERSITY OF BEIRUT: It is threatened not because the language is incapable of adapting and hastening the development. It is threatened because of an inferiority complex that the Arabs have to their language. We're not willing to put an effort to develop our language according to the needs -- business needs and developmental needs of the society. We're lazy.
MCTABE: However, many Lebanese are proud that their children are bilingual or even trilingual, like Nayla Fahed, a Lebanese mother of three who hardly speak their mother tongue.
NAYLA FAHED, LEBANESE MOTHER: I think they have the chance to live in a country where they can learn three languages. And I would like them to speak both well.
SARAH JANE, DAUGHTER: I'm in a French school and I talk Arabic, but I talk French better than Arabic.
FAHED: Classical languages may be threatened. And we have to find ways to revive it. But Lebanese talking language, I don't think it's threatened. I think it's just moving.
MCTABE: Lately, there have been efforts to revive the language and make it more appealing.
SUZANNE TALHOUK, PRESIDENT, FEIL AMER: Our alphabet...
MCTABE: Suzanne Talhouk, a civics major who has published two books of poetry, is one of the staunch enthusiasts of Arabic language. She founded Feil Amer, meaning act now, an organization that works on preserving the Arabic language in Lebanon.
TALHOUK: We want to celebrate our language.
By saying to people that we can produce arts, we can produce movies, we can produce theater, we can produce songs, we can produce everything in our language. And the big thing is connecting the Arabic language with what is contemporary.
MCTABE: The organization put together a festival that showcased 150 artists in dance and drama, along with a major media campaign that had the title, "Don't Kill Your Language."
However, for some, events like this are not enough. Many people say government and civil society network together to bolster the Arabic curriculum in schools, revive the Arabic language and make it appealing to the new generation.
Rebe McTeba (ph), CNN, Beirut, Lebanon.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: Well, tomorrow, we've got another language battle, but this time it's a revival that's catching on with a most important audience -- the kids. In Israel, some are hoping to restore Yiddish to its former glory. We're going to take a look at this ancient language and why it's slowly starting to make a comeback in the classroom. That's tomorrow, right here on CONNECT THE WORLD.
Tonight, we'll be right back with your headlines.
ANDERSON: And it's just about a half past the hour.
You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD.
I'm Becky Anderson in London for you.
Coming up, in strife-torn Somalia, peacekeepers face a door to door fight against Islamic insurgents. But this is no obscure domestic fight. We're going to tell you why Somalia has become an international problem.
Then, barely bigger than the goats they are leading to the slaughter - - two Kenyan children work for less than a dollar a day. We'll investigate the scourge that is child labor.
And Britain's great raconteur, Stephen Fry, joins us as your Connector of the Day tonight.
What does he do to rebel each day?
Who's on his fantasy dinner guest list?
We'll be talking to a man with a great wit in the next half hour.
Send us your questions, of course, for our Connector of the Day.
All those stories are ahead in the show.
First, let me get you a very quick check of the headlines this hour.
Al Qaeda's second in commend says Western forces are weakening after nine years of fighting. The statement from Ayman al-Zawahari was released four days after the anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. In it, he says, the forces of jihad have emerged victorious.
Pope Benedict XVI begins a four day tour of Great Britain tomorrow. Victims of abuse by Catholic priests there are demanding that he hand over all the information the church has on the subject. Pope Benedict is expected to meet victims of abuse during his visit.
Well, Mexico is celebrating 200 years of independence under the cloud of a violent drug war. Security is heavy in the capital in Juna (ph), in of one of the most affected cities, Ciudad Juarez, officials have canceled the traditional guico (ph) event. Residents will have to watch the mayor shout "Viva Mexico!" or "Viva Mexico!" on TV.
We want to take you to Somalia now. The United Nations warns that the country's two decade long war is now a serious threat to international security. In a minute, I'm going to bring you the type of reporting you rarely get from that country, on the front lines, facing the same dangers as peacekeepers.
First, though, here's why Somalia matters to all of us.
Let's start with the humanitarian crisis, shall we?
Right now, there are more than three million people in urgent need of aid. Militia are hindering that effort. Then there are Somalia's neighbors. Not only are half a million refugees cross their borders, but the group, Al-Shabaab, took responsibility for a recent attack in Uganda's capital, Kampala, and has threatened more. Well, don't forget piracy -- an increase of attacks by gunmen based in Somalia have made the busy shipping lanes of the Gulf of Aden among the most dangerous in the world.
Well, that brings us back to the story that I mentioned and perhaps the biggest threat of all -- Somalia's ability to attract and export terror. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon is urging the international community to provide military and financial aid that can be used against extremists.
Well, Jane Ferguson now takes us into the war-ravaged capital for a rare insight into what's become a door to door fight.
JANE FERGUSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Peacekeepers literally hit the ground running in Mogadishu. It's so dangerous here, that when these African Union soldiers land, they have to run for cover because of the threat of mortar fire. And the airport is one of the few areas that's supposed to be firmly in control of the government and AU forces.
The threat is from Islamist insurgents al-Shabaab, a group with links to al Qaeda that controls much of southern and central Somalia. The government only controls a section of Mogadishu, and the AU --
FERGUSON (voice-over): Are here to protect it. They are not, in reality, peacekeepers, but protectors.
Across Mogadishu this summer, the fighting has been fiercer than ever. During the holy month of Ramadan, al-Shabaab increased their attacks.
And in turn, despite heavy sniper fire, AU forces have advanced into al-Shabaab-held territory, house by house, by knocking holes through the walls of each home. It is a brutal slog to take the high ground.
ANTHONY LUKWAGO MBUSI, MAJOR, AFRICAN UNION MISSION IN SOMALIA: To make it a mop-up operation within the buildings here. And there, after they have moved into that tall building there -- answering forces -- we're moving to those buildings so that we continue pushing these people out, flushing them out of the near reach.
FURGUSON (voice-over): The AU, largely made up of Ugandan troops, shell al-Shabaab positions. Bakara Market in the distance is an al-Shabaab stronghold and commercial center. Locals say the red mosque close to it is the scene of executions and torture.
FURGUSON (on camera): Here at the new position that the African Union forces have taken further into Mogadishu, Bakara Market is far behind me. And in between there, we have al-Shabaab fighters. The African Union right now are trying to clean them out of that area, so they can continue to move deeper into the city.
FURGUSON (voice-over): AMISOM's mandate is to defend the government. But in Mogadishu, the line between defense and offense is rarely clear, and the two sides are often just meters apart.
Al-Shabaab fights back with roadside bombs, suicide attacks, and mortars. It's also declared that it will take the fight to the home countries of the African troops deployed there, and recently claimed responsibility for devastating bomb attacks in Uganda. Al-Shabaab have also been known to recruit child soldiers.
Shortly after I arrived in the city, reports circulated that up to 100 boys had been brought to Mogadishu from the south and forced to fight. The AU soldiers say they have no choice but to shoot them.
KEITH KATURIGI, CAPTAIN, AFRICAN UNION MISSION IN SOMALIA: You have no choice.
FERGUSON: And they're very scared.
KATURIGI: Very much. They're my -- They look so weak. So weak.
FERGUSON (voice-over): And there are constant reports of foreign fighters joining al-Shabaab from Yemen, across the Gulf of Aden, but also from North America and elsewhere.
KATURGI: We do see them. And when we kill them, we see them, yes.
FERGUSON: And what -- how many foreign fighters have you killed? Since July?
KATURGI: I can't be certain, because we have had several encounters. At least, in each encounter, at least we do kill. We do kill them. We get information.
FERGUSON: And what --
KATURGI: We get intelligence. Mostly Arabs, but we have also some Africans, from some Kenya, Uganda. Arabs from Yemen, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Chechnya.
FERGUSON (voice-over): The AMISON force has opened three new outposts to better protect the presidential palace from attacks. Soldiers took me to what they call "the dead zone," where they pointed out al-Shabaab positions. They said foreigners were often in charge of local fighters, running outposts from buildings just behind the line of fire.
KATURGI: That building. That is the Monopolio Market. You can -- that is the Monopolio Market, and they -- that's where you find foreigners. When we are fighting here, the foreigners are a little bit in the rear.
FERGUSON (voice-over): This summer, the AU's modest gains have taken them up to the ancient seaport overlooked by the once grand Aruba Hotel. There's often talk of a new offensive against al-Shabaab, and Uganda has pledged more troops to AMISON.
But this is a war of attrition, fought out among the ruins of a once graceful city, where victory is as unlikely as surrender. Jane Ferguson for CNN, Mogadishu, Somalia.
ANDERSON: Al-Shabaab in Somalia, and the ramifications for all of us around the world.
Next up, children robbed of their childhood. It's a problem the world over, and the effects are long-lasting. We're going to take a look at child labor in Kenya, and what some organizations are really trying to do to solve it.
ANDERSON: You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD. I'm Becky Anderson for you in London. You are very welcome. Now, the numbers are staggering, and they underscore how common the problem of child labor is. UNICEF estimates that 158 million kids around the world are working illegally. That is one in six. The statistic is even worse in some parts of Africa, and particularly in Kenya. David McKenzie shows us what life is like for two young brothers there.
DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Already a two-year veteran on the job, eight-year-old Boku knows he must pull a goat's ears to move it. Five-year-old Mohammad is still learning his trade.
These brothers work at the Kiamako Market in Nairobi. They make a living delivering goats. And if they're lucky, they'll earn just a dollar a day.
BOKU HASSAN, EIGHT YEARS OLD (through translator): "Every day, I wake up and go to the market to work," says Boku. "When I'm done, I have to come back home."
MCKENZIE (voice-over): They're paid for each goat they take to the slaughter houses, where they're dwarfed by their employers.
MCKENZIE (on camera): Boku and Mohammad aren't the only children working here. The local leaders say there are literally hundreds of children working with these slaughter houses. Now, the owners don't want us to come inside and film, but they do admit that they use child labor.
MCKENZIE (voice-over): Which is illegal in Kenya. Primary education is free and compulsory, but UNICEF says one in four children in Kenya work.
OMARI HUKA, KIAMAKO MARKET (through translator): "We need help. The government must come and forcefully take these children away and educate them," this man says.
MCKENZIE (voice-over): But it's not that simple. Community activists say that even free schooling is too expensive.
ADAN ROBA, KIAMAKO TALENT INITIATIVE: They say it is free, but in other ways, it's not free, because you have to provide a uniform, you have to buy books, you have to every day, when he wakes up, you have to give him food, shelter.
MCKENZIE (voice-over): So Boku and Mohammad must earn just to survive.
HASSAN (through translator): "I have to work," says Boku, "because my mom is sick, so we don't get food."
MCKENZIE (voice-over): When their father died, the boys became the only source of income. Their mother can't find work.
We met other women in Kiamako with working kids. These mothers say between them, they have half a dozen children working.
ROBA: They do know about child labor. They think that everybody can work. But in a real sense, child labor is not good for the community.
MCKENZIE (voice-over): And dangerous. Older boys steal their money, and police regularly arrest the working children. One senior police officer told us it's too complicated to arrest their employers.
Boku says he does his best to protect his brother. But for this boy, who has become a man, the burden is sometimes too much.
HASSAN (through translator): "He is so small and young," says Boku.
MCKENZIE (voice-over): While children their age should be playing, the brothers have to work. Boku tells us his dream is to play soccer and watch TV. But right now, all they can really count on is a lifetime of labor. David McKenzie, CNN, Kiamako, Nairobi.
ANDERSON: All right. We want to take a look at some solutions for you now. We all know that education, of course, is a key to preventing things like child labor. But as we heard in that report, even incidental costs can be a barrier. What if education at a young age became cheaper and easily accessible? What of the world could donate cheap laptops to encourage learning?
To that end, India's government is planning to make a $35 computer tablet available to university students next year. You can see it here. It's also considering renting out computers to spread technology awareness.
Before India's initiative, you might have heard of the broader One Laptop project, launched by a US professor. The mission there, to provide rugged, inexpensive laptops to the poorest kids in the world. Well, it's been a couple years since One Laptop got started, and we're looking for some good news this evening. So Matt Keller joins us. He's the vice president of Global Advocacy for One Laptop Per Child Foundation, joining us now from Boston.
We spoke to you at the launch of this project. How's it going now?
MATT KELLER, ONE LAPTOP PER CHILD: It's going well. It's -- we have roughly two million laptops in the hands of children in about 35 to 40 countries worldwide, in 25 to 30 languages.
And what we found in the two and a half years that we've actually been in mass production is that children use these laptops in a way that is so sophisticated, and so beyond what we had anticipated, that what is happening is real learning. It's real cognitive development, in a way that -- for example, you and I never had the chance to do in school or to appreciate and to learn.
ANDERSON: Sure. Matt, I know that they were a hundred bucks to begin with . How much do they cost now, and how do you get them to these kids all over the world?
KELLER: They're about US $180 to $190, depending on costs of raw materials. They're a little more expensive than we'd anticipated. There's more memory than we had originally thought, and some other features to the laptop. That price will come down as the engineering continues to get better. And as we go into the production of a tablet.
So, we get them to countries working with governments. Working with the government of Peru, or Rwanda, or Mongolia, or Uruguay. We help train and do some basic education stuff, but the governments at the end of the day own the project, and they get it to the kids' schools, and the kids take it home.
ANDERSON: All right, you told us who's benefiting and where they're benefiting. We've heard about the $35 laptop that India is looking to produce. And I know that you're looking to collaborate with the Indian government on this work. How's that going to happen or work?
KELLER: What we want to do -- what we're about is creating the bandwagon, and then jumping off as fast as we can.
ANDERSON: So, making yourself redundant, effectively.
KELLER: Yes. We want to put ourselves out of business as soon as humanly possible. So, we want to keep pushing the engineering, let industry follow suit. And once that happens, once industry makes laptops that are indestructible, that are low-power, they can be cranked by hand or charged with a solar panel, and that really focus on learning and children, we're finished. We've won.
ANDERSON: You've heard David McKenzie's report on the little kids in Kenya. We're talking to you tonight on the back of that report, suggesting that things like child labor could be alleviated so much in so many parts of the world if we just educated our kids. So, if you had one message to the outside world tonight, what would it be?
KELLER: Technology is an answer to leap frog existing educational infrastructures that have failed. Invest in technology and children, and children will lead the way. They will learn themselves, with or without teachers, by using technology. And if that happens, the world is a different place.
ANDERSON: Matt Keller is your expert, and I often say that, but really for sure, Matt Keller really is your expert tonight. He's the vice president of Global Advocacy for One Laptop Per Child Foundation, and hopes to be out of business sometime in the very near future. Matt, we thank you very much, indeed, for joining us this evening.
A few moments ago, you heard from David McKenzie. Tonight, on "BackStory," he's going to explain why child labor is declining around the world except in Africa. That is in about 15 minutes on "BackStory," so do stick with CNN for that.
Up next here on CONNECT THE WORLD, he's one of Britain's best-loved entertainers, and we've got him in the hot seat for a grilling. Our Connector of the Day, Stephen Fry, tells me about his addictions, his guilty pleasures, and his favorite small act of daily rebellion. We're going to reveal all for you in just a moment. Stay with us.
ANDERSON (voice-over): Through his pen and his programs, Stephen Fry has become nothing less than a British national treasure. He first captivated audiences in 1986 as part of the BBC sketch "A Bit of Fry and Laurie," alongside university friend and fellow actor, Hugh Laurie.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP - "A Bit of Fry and Laurie")
STEPHEN FRY, AUTHOR/COMEDIAN: What are you going to do about this madness of mine?
HUGH LAURIE, COMEDIAN: It's nothing, I don't think you're mad at all.
FRY: Oh! You think it's perfectly usual, do you, to put a slice of bread in your shoes?
(END VIDEO CLIP - "A Bit of Fry and Laurie")
ANDERSON (voice-over): He became known worldwide playing the daft Lord Melchett in the UK TV series "Blackadder."
Since then, he starred in a range of global film hits, including "Gosford Park" and "V for Vendetta."
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP - "Alice in Wonderland")
CHESHIRE CAT: The Alice?
(END VIDEO CLIP - "Alice in Wonderland")
ANDERSON (voice-over): Recently, you have recognized him as the voice of the Cheshire Cat in Tim Burton's "Alice in Wonderland."
A fan of all kinds of gadgetry, Stephen Fry has become a giant of the social media scene, boasting over 1.7 million followers on the micro- blogging site Twitter. The author of four novels, he's now publishing the second part of his autobiography, "The Fry Chronicles."
Comedian, writer, and technophile, Stephen Fry is your Connector of the Day.
ANDERSON: On the cover leaf of Fry's new autobiography, he says, and I quote, "This is the boldest, bravest, most revealing, and heartfelt account of a man's formative years that you will have the exquisite pleasure of reading." Given that, on your behalf, I asked Stephen just how much of a pleasure it was to write.
FRY: Like most writing, it was exquisitely pleasurable and exquisitely painful. It's a lonely business, writing. I can't write in any other circumstances than ones that you can call hermetical. I'm more or less a hermit. I reclude myself, is that the word? I become a recluse. I've -- I hired a house in the hills, in the countryside of Los Angeles, and just did it every day, got up at four-ish and worked until, solidly, until about one-ish. I'm an early morning person.
And sometimes -- PG Woodhouse said, you do it by beating your head against the wall until it bleeds. And that's more or less --
ANDERSON: It felt like that.
FRY: Yes. Sometimes, yes.
ANDERSON: In your last autobiography, "Moab is My Washpot," you talked about serving time for credit card fraud. Now, are there any illegal misdemeanors that you'll be admitting to in this new book?
FRY: Yes. I revisit that particular embarrassment of going to prison, because it really starts this new book with me leaving prison. And it ends with me -- how can I put it? Delicately balanced on the precipice that was to be the next 12 or 15 years of my life, which was one in which I befriended Charlie, which is the common name, as you may know, for the cocaine drug, presented in powder form and taken internasally. That's the usual presentation.
And I fell victim to that. It's a preposterous thing to say "fell victim to it." I launched myself head first into it towards the end of the 80s, and didn't really emerge until earlier this century.
So, that's how, in fact, the book ends. It's a series of addictions, all beginning with C. I don't know why it is. It's carbohydrates and coffee and cigarettes and cocaine and chocolate.
ANDERSON: Let me put some questions from the viewers. We have loads of them. Lord Beardsley from Brussels writes to us for you. He says, "What is your favorite small act of daily rebellion?"
FRY: Goodness. That's very good. I suppose -- I do things that if, I were seen to do, would probably have me locked away, in terms of shouting at radios and televisions. So I basically yell, "No, it isn't!" and would start lying -- not at politicians, that's easy to do. But at anybody. I get very sort of cross with the world when I'm on my own and things go wrong.
But as far as daily acts of rebellion are concerned, I feel probably not much more than the occasional use of a bus lane or something. It's really feeble. I think my days are over. I'm rather law abiding now.
ANDERSON: Thank you, Lord Beardsley for that. Frank Funicello from Heidelberg in Germany has written. He says, "Dear Mr. Fry, you've been such a literary and erudite person with a fabulous vocabulary. How do you justify your use of the downsized language on social media, such as Twitter?"
FRY: I don't need to justify it, but if you wanted me to explain why it is not in any way inimical to good literary taste, I would say two things. Firstly, read the letters of Lord Byron or anybody from that era and you will see that for the same reason, they, too, used what you choose to call downsize, by which I assume you mean abbreviated --
ANDERSON: Sure, yes.
FRY: Language. Because bandwidth restrictions have caused that to be a necessary thing, firstly with texts. And then, it was seen to be a virtue.
But, as I say, look at literary letters from the 18th and early 19th centuries. They're crossed, and "your" is "yr," and "the" is an "e" with a little sort of "y" on top of it, which is the form letter. Abbreviations are fine. They're not anti-literary. It's an absolute mistake to think that expanding a word to its full length is somehow more literary than using it in shorthand.
ANDERSON: Melanie writes, and she says, "Dear Mr. Fry, I thoroughly enjoyed your documentary on bipolarism. As the parent of a bipolar adult son, how can I best support him, and what should I avoid?"
FRY: So, I would say the main thing -- and I think this will be the biggest issue, probably facing, certainly, the western world in the next 10 or 20 years, is for us all to face up to the fact that mental health is all -- is an issue that is just going to get bigger. And mental ill-health is all around us, and there is not one of us watching, I don't think, here, who doesn't have someone close to us who has issues, shall we say. And all we need to do is understand.
ANDERSON: Neil asks, or certainly writes to us and says, "You always seem to feature on people's fantasy dinner table lists, and rightly so." He says, "Your wit and intellect would be a credit to any gathering. But who would you least like to be around a dinner table with, and why?"
FRY: That's very good. I'm so often asked whom I would like, and it's very hard to wade through the usual suspects. But whom I would -- whom I would most dislike to have next to me.
Well, I suppose anyone loud-mouthed. I'd -- people are nice to say they want me. I try and make sure my dinner party manners are such that I spend twice as much time listening as talking. Who was it? I think it was King Faisal or someone who said, "Allah gave us two ears, but only one mouth."
And I think it's the talkative types that -- I mean, I can't imagine anyone worse than Patton. I know -- some big, loud general.
ANDERSON: Not Chris Patton?
FRY: No, not Chris Patton.
FRY: General Patton.
ANDERSON: Chris is great.
FRY: George C. Scott would be fun, and that version of him. But the real man is just so opinionated and so full of himself. I like people who ask questions all the time. "Well, I wonder," and "Is it true?"
I tell you the best one, though, it occurred to me, would be Sydney Smith, who was a divine, as they used to call religious things at the time. But a great wit, who once sat next down to a woman and looked at her, and she was speaking to a servant and said, "Oh, Madam. Let us swear eternal friendship. All my life, I have looked for someone who detests gravy."
FRY: Fabulous way to open a dinner party conversation.
ANDERSON: Chris in London has written. He says, "According to Baldrick in 'Blackadder Goes Forth,' in which you star, the first World War was started by a guy named Archie Duke, who shot an ostrich because he was hungry. How do you think that stacks up as a cause," he asks you, Stephen, "for war compared with the causes for our current wars?"
FRY: It's a lot more compelling.
FRY: I think if a fellow called Archie Duke had happened to shoot an ostrich because he was hungry, it would naturally be a fine casus belli. Yes. If you're asking me to comment on the nature of our war now, it's very hard for me to do in time without being silly. I regretted deeply the Iraqi war. The Afghan war I regret as well.
I think in the end, I would just say this. The greatest immorality for a politician is not to be wicked, but to be stupid. It's when you're dumb, it's when you do something out of principle that has consequences that are deleterious to the happiness, health or, indeed, life of others, that's when you really have failed.
I just think, be smart. And be smart -- I know there those who play chess. And a very fine chess player once said to me, "You know, the best chess move is not the best move. The best chess move is the move your opponent least wants you to play." And all along the line, I cannot but feel Washington and Whitehall have almost gone out of their way to do things that the perceived enemy would be delighted by.
ANDERSON: Stephen Fry, out with his new autobiography, and I've got to say, the last one was absolutely fantastic. Well, tomorrow's Connector of the Day has been the president of Rwanda for more than a decade now. Paul Kagame helped lead his country with its first government after the devastating genocide in 1994. And under his stewardship, he's been credited with turning Rwanda into Africa's biggest success story.
If you've got anything you'd like to ask Rwanda's president, he's a pretty controversial figure, send us your questions. Head to cnn.com/connect. You can send -- put your questions there, we'll take a look at them all, put the best ones to Paul tomorrow. Tonight, we'll be right back.
ANDERSON: It's day two of round two of probably countless negotiations. While leaders and diplomats are in Jerusalem talking peace, in southern Gaza, one Palestinian was killed today during an Israeli air strike, while nine rockets, fired from Gaza, rained down on Israel. As we take you through the lens this evening, we're looking at the politics, the players, and what's at stake in the Middle East peace process.
Earlier this month, from Washington, the Palestinian Authority president, Mahmoud Abbas, and Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu pledged to move the peace process forward.
But privately, they were said to be stuck on the question of whether Israeli settlements should continue in the West Bank. A ten-month moratorium on building there is set to expire on September the 26th. That's just one of the issues separating both sides, but there's also the future of Palestinian refugees, Israeli security, and the status of Jerusalem.
A notable absence from the talks is the Palestinian group Hamas. It refuses to recognized Israel's right to exist. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton says that a deal would not be easy, but she says she can see, quote, "the future that can deliver on the aspirations of the Israelis and the Palestinians."
Politics in the Middle East, through your lens this evening. I want to, just before we go, bring you up to date on a special project of ours. One that requires your help. Each week, we are picking two countries and making -- well, not making you do anything -- asking you to make the connection. This week, we've got two countries that are home to engineers' marvels.
The United Arab Emirates boasts the tallest building in the world, while half a world away, Panama gives its name to a canal that connects oceans. But the connections you've been building are even better. Gustavo Castellano, "Both countries," he says, "are working as hard as they can in developing as trading and banking hubs."
But we know there are more out there, so come on, tell us your personal stories that connect the two countries. Go to cnn.com/globalconnections to take part. Winners revealed, of course, on Friday.
I'm Becky Anderson, that is your world connected, just before the top of the hour. "BackStory" up next. We'll get you a quick check of the headlines first.