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CONNECT THE WORLD
In the Line of Fire on Yeonpyeong; Containing Cholera in Haiti; How Intelligent is Man's Best Friend?; Researchers Study Canine Cognition. Three Teens Rescued After Two Months at Sea. Connector of the Day Condoleezza Rice. British Prime Minister Launches Survey on National Well- Being. Parting Shots of Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.
Aired November 25, 2010 - 16:00:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, HOST: As the United States sends this warship to the Korean Peninsula to support the South, the North is warning it will attack again if provoked.
As tensions continue to rise, will China take steps to reign in its ally?
Going beyond borders on the day's biggest stories, on CNN, this is the hour we connect the world.
Well, with thousands of American sailors headed for the Yellow Sea, China will no doubt be looking on.
But what will it take for Beijing to persuade Pyongyang to step back from the brink?
Well, joining the dots in London, I'm Becky Anderson.
Also tonight, the UN's emergency relief coordinator tells me that the world body hasn't done enough to help the victims of Haiti's cholera outbreak.
And former secretary of State Condoleezza Rice admits that mistakes were made in Iraq, as we reconnect with one of our favorite Connectors of the Day.
And do remember, it's your program. And if you want to join in the conversation, just head to our Facebook page. It's Facebook.com/cnnconnect.
Let's kick off tonight with fallout from North Korea's deadly artillery attack and the first political casualty. South Korea's defense minister resigned on Thursday amid growing criticism that his military was unprepared for the assault and its response was too little too late. Well, two civilians and two marines from the South were killed on Tuesday when North Korea shelled the island of Yeonpyeong. Seoul now says it's strengthening its rules of military engagement and sending more troops to islands near disputed waters.
Well, CNN's Stan Grant was the first Western journalist to tour Yeonpyeong after it had come under attack.
And he shows us now how ordinary communities suddenly found themselves in the line of fire.
STAN GRANT, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Our first look up close at Yeonpyeong. We caught a ride with South Korea's Coast Guard. Off the shore, navy gunships in clear view, where, just days ago, North and South Korea traded fire, bringing the Korean Peninsula to the brink of all out war.
On the streets, a once bustling little fishing village is deserted. Around 1,500 people lived here. No more. Those who have stayed recall the moment when North Korea rained shells on them.
"I was up near the lighthouse when my daughter called," she says, "and said some kind of war had broken out."
This is its aftermath -- houses lie in ruins. Where families once called home, now it just destruction. It is the small things that tell the most -- the books tattered and burned. This is what remains of a piano. Here, a kitchen, charred pots and pans, broken crockery, what was once a child's cup broken. Their possessions gone, so are the people.
Those who remain fear an uncertain future.
"This is a fishing village. What am I going to do if I leave? People have got to come back." "There's got to be some kind of resolution to this. North Korea might do something again. It's scary. And my children need to go to school."
Much of this island was destroyed so suddenly. The attack shattering an armistice of more than 50 years. For more than an hour, a war that's never really ended flared again.
(on camera): Here's an up close look at what may have happened when the attack took place. Here is what looks like a shell hole as it busted through that cement and brick wall. And just over here, here is shrapnel - - shrapnel marks where it will have hit the roof of this building and detonating and just destroying everything around it.
(voice-over): Yeonpyeong is a battle-scarred and lonely place. Dogs, once family pets, are now strays scavenging for food. The old people who will not leave, clinging to their possessions and try as much as they can to rebuild a shattered peace.
Stan Grant, CNN, Yeonpyeong Island.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: Well, North Korea says that attack was in response to the South firing into waters that it claims. Well, the North warns it will attack again if Seoul commits, quote, "another reckless provocation."
Well, the United States, meanwhile, hopes a show of force can convince North Korea to hold its fire. So it's sending a warship to take part in South Korea's next military exercise, scheduled to begin in just days.
Pyongyang broadcast this message for both nations.
(BEGIN AUDIO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED MALE (through translator): If the puppet South attempts to provoke us once more, without any hesitation, our military will show decisive retaliatory military force for a second time and a third time. The U.S. should drop its bad habit of sending out distorted truth of what is truly happening in the Choson Peninsula.
(END AUDIO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, some experts believe the U.S. warship now heading to the Korean Peninsula is not only meant to pressure Pyongyang, but also its only real ally, China. The United States sees Beijing as the crucial player in all of this. The joint chiefs chairman, Mike Mullen, explained why when he spoke recently to CNN's Fareed Zakaria.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP FROM "FAREED ZAKARIA GPS")
ADM. MIKE MULLEN, CHAIRMAN, JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF: We really think it's important for the international community to lead, but all -- but in particular China. It's a very dangerous area when he does this. It destabilizes the region. And China has as much to lose as anybody in that region, with the continuation of this kind of behavior and what the potential might be.
It's really important that Beijing lead here, as well. I believe for some time, that probably the country that can influence North Korea the most is -- is clearly China.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: All right. Well, China may be able to sway North Korea, but is it willing to intervene?
Beijing bureau chief, Jaime Florcruz, picks up that part of the story for you.
JAIME FLORCRUZ, BEIJING BUREAU CHIEF (voice-over): All eyes are on China, North Korea's ally and its biggest trading partner. They share a long border and the Chinese could cut off North Korea's most important link with the outside world by stopping shipments of food, fuel and weapons, though Beijing has not indicated it will do so.
China is urging calm on all sides.
Much is made of China's leverage on its next door neighbor. But analysts caution, don't overestimate it.
WENRAN JIANG, POLITICAL ANALYST: Yes, it does have more influence than other players. But we have to remember, China does not have absolute influence.
FLORCRUZ: Beijing is working to bring North Korea back to the negotiating table. North Korea walked away from the last round of the six party talks, aimed at getting Pyongyang to give up its nuclear weapons program in exchange for economic aid and political concessions. The talks have stalled for years, but analysts say the latest conflict may prove China's point in trying to revive them.
JIANG: It's important for us to remember that during the six party talks, these conflicts were like -- likely to happen. Well, without such a mechanism, we see such bloodshed.
FLORCRUZ (on camera): Observers say it all comes down to building trust -- a difficult task. And here, China can play a unique role, as an emerging world power and potential peacemaker.
Jaime Florcruz, CNN, Beijing.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: Well, our next guest here on CONNECT THE WORLD says that the United States and it allies face few appealing choices in dealing with the North, calling it, quote, "the land of lousy options."
Victor Cha advised former President George W. Bush on policy toward the Koreas.
He's also author of "Alignment Despite Antagonism," joining us now.
Victor, we've heard what Admiral Mike Mecullan said -- or Mullen, sorry -- said about Beijing's influence.
So can Washington rely on Beijing to get involved, do you think?
And if so, how?
VICTOR CHA, ADVISED PRESIDENT BUSH ON THE KOREAS: Well, I don't know if we have that much of a choice but to rely on China if we really want a country that has leverage to try to compel the North Koreans to do the right thing. Right now, the only country in the world that is giving food and fuel assistance to the North Koreans are the Chinese. The South Koreans used to, but they don't anymore.
So I think while the United States is working with its allies to be militarily ready for more provocations, the best way to get the North back to the negotiating table is with the support of China.
And China should be doing this not because the United States asks...
CHA: It's in China's interests not to see this sort of conflict in their backyard.
ANDERSON: You know, I hear you say should, but will it?
CHA: Well, I mean that's a tough question to answer. You know, in the past, in 2006, when North Korea did their first nuclear test, the Chinese were very helpful. But when the Chinese -- when the North Koreans sunk the South Korean naval vessel last March, the Chinese, you know, cold- heartedly took the side of the North Koreans.
So right now, I think it's difficult to say. I think the Chinese are being worked behind the scenes by the United States and other parties behind diplomatic doors right now. And we'll see, I think, in the next few days, what the outcome of that will be.
ANDERSON: All right, let's talk about the end game here, both for Washington, Beijing and for the rest of us, to be honest.
Let's start off with Washington.
CHA: The end game for the United States, I mean it's to -- it's to get back to a genuine negotiation when -- the focus of which will be denuclearization of North Korea in return for energy, food assistance and - - and political recognition. This is clearly what the Japan want and it's clearly what the South Koreans want, as well.
For China, the end game, I think, is really stability and maintenance of the North Korean regime. And the price that they're willing to pay, in terms of a nuclear North Korea or North Korean attacks on South Korean territory, that price, it seems to be pretty high. They're willing to pay that price just to see the regime survive.
ANDERSON: What about for the rest of us, Victor?
I mean it -- you know, as a journalist, you've always got that kind of phrase, so what?
Why do I care about all of this?
And it is a difficult story to watch as a viewer, to -- to get any sense of why, at the end of the day, this is important to all of us.
How would -- what would your message be?
CHA: Well, I mean, I think, first of all, if this rolls into some sort of full scale war in East Asia, that's going to impact the entire world. It's going to impact the entire world global economy. Sixty percent of economic activity in the world occurs in East Asia. It's going to have a major impact.
In terms of national security, a country like North Korea has basically sold every weapons system they have developed. And they do not discriminate in terms of who they sell to. They are willing to sell to -- they are willing to sell to countries like Iran, to countries like Burma. And we don't know if they're willing to sell to terrorists groups who could operate all around the world, including in Europe.
So this is a -- this is a security concern that is local to Asia. But the pur -- the repercussions of it can be global.
ANDERSON: Victor Cha. The voice off tonight, as you'll have notice. Our picture is frozen here, but the -- the miracles of technology allowed you to hear what Victor was saying even though you couldn't see his lips moving. I promise you, he was a guest live and direct for you here on CNN with some interesting -- interesting expert advice for you on what ids a complicated story.
Well, you are watching CONNECT THE WORLD here on CNN.
Up next, we need more help -- the United Nations issues a desperate plea for more medical staff in Haiti, as the cholera toll rises.
And we head to Afghanistan, where U.S. troops give thanks for a special treat.
ANDERSON: It is 15 minutes past nine in London.
I'm Becky Anderson for you.
More doctors, more nurses, more support on the ground -- and we're not just talking a dozen or so. According to the United Nations, what Haiti needs is an army of medical staff if it's to contain the cholera epidemic that's claiming more lives every day.
Let's get to the heart of this story.
Ivan Watson is in Port-au-Prince and he joins me now -- Ivan.
IVAN WATSON, CNN CORRESPONDENT: That's right, Becky. The -- the cholera epidemic continuing its deadly spread across this island. It was first discovered in Haiti last month, for the first time in more than a century. And it has already claimed more than 1,400 lives.
Medical experts say the deadly bacteria is here to stay.
WATSON (voice-over): Employees of Haiti's Ministry of Health preparing for another grim day of work, suiting up for their first call of the day, picking up the body of this 57-year-old man. His widow says he dropped dead on the streets on the way to a hospital after suffering nausea and stomach cramps. No one knows whether he was infected with cholera, but neither the workers nor the dead man's family are taking any chances. They load his body onto this makeshift morgue truck and head out to answer another gruesome call.
"Our work has doubled since the cholera epidemic struck," says this ambulance worker.
Cholera has killed more than 1,400 people since it was first discovered in Haiti last month. The organization, Doctors Without Borders, says it's receiving 600 to 700 new patients a day at its seven cholera treatment centers in Port-au-Prince.
(on camera): What are the conditions that the patients are coming in when they show up?
DR. BART JANSSENS, MEDECINS SANS FRONTIERES: It's severe dehydration. It's -- cholera is a disease that can affect very severely the -- the hydration status of the person.
WATSON: These are cholera beds and we're showing this to you to illustrate how difficult and how messy this disease is. Patients being put on these beds with holes to help them cope with the acute diarrhea that they're facing; nausea, as well; which can dehydrate them to the point of death within a matter of hours.
(voice-over): Month-and-a-half old Danielle Landi (ph) showed up here yesterday severely dehydrated. But now she's receiving intravenous fluids and even swallowing a special solution her mother is feeding her.
JANSSENS: And this is oral rehydration. This is a fantastic, very simple medicine. And this is saving so many lives.
WATSON (on camera): Just drinking salt and sugar water?
WATSON (voice-over): Doctors say almost all the children here will recover within a matter of days. Preventing further spread of cholera is now a priority.
JANSSENS: This disease mainly is transmitted from person to person. It's dirty hands. It is people sharing a water source in one bucket and one dirty hand goes into it and it spreads further.
WATSON: A public awareness campaign includes trucks with loudspeakers announcing cholera symptoms and government posters teaching simple steps to avoid contact with the water-borne bacteria.
(on camera): The key to preventing the spread of cholera really is sanitation and hygiene. And that's one of the lessons that patients coming through here are taught. And they're sent home after treatment with the most basic of tools -- a bar of soap to help wash their hands with.
(voice-over): The bigger challenge -- finding access to clean water. In this impoverished country, this most basic of services is a luxury that may Haitians simply cannot afford.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
WATSON: Now, the World Health Organization has issued a warning to other Latin American countries to prepare for a possible surge of cholera infections. And Haitian travelers carrying cholera have already been found in the neighboring Dominican Republic and one woman traveling to Florida was also found with the disease -- Becky.
ANDERSON: Ivan Watson for you on the ground there.
Well, the plea for more help in Haiti came from the United States Undersecretary General Valeria Amos.
I spoke to her about the situation on the ground just hours after she returned from the devastated country.
VALERIE AMOS, U.N. UNDERSECRETARY-GENERAL: We need to do much, much more. It's absolutely clear that the spread of the infection and the scale of it has taken everybody by surprise -- the government assets, the United Nations, the NGOs. You know, so many people have become infected now. And what we really need to focus on is getting the mortality rate down and making people understand that the fact that you get infected doesn't mean you have to die.
Good hygiene practice is absolutely essential.
ANDERSON: You've admitted that the U.N. itself was surprised by the scale of this outbreak. It's been accused of not taking the threat of cholera seriously in Haiti.
What's your response to that?
AMOS: Let's not forget that even before the earthquake, only 40 percent of Haitians had access to health care. Only 50 percent have access to clean water. So we're dealing with a situation which even pre- earthquake, was terrible.
I've just seen some of the slums in Port-au-Prince where, you know, the sanitation facilities are terrible. Just in Port-au-Prince, we need, you know, 11,000 bars of soap in the next two weeks.
ANDERSON: Are you satisfied with the UN's response in Haiti?
AMOS: No, I'm not. And it's part of the reason that I went there. I was very concerned at the reports I was getting that even though we have been working pretty hard on the ground, we weren't actually managing to control this.
One of the reasons that I went was I wanted to see for myself. I wanted to get a proper sense of the gap in our response. What I have come back with is we need at least 350 more doctors, 2,000 nurses, 2,200 other support staff to work in some of our cholera treatment units.
We have to scale up our -- our response on a massive scale.
ANDERSON: At this point, critics say no elections in the midst of the current crisis can be considered credible. You've just come back.
Do you agree?
AMOS: No, I don't agree with that. I think one of the really important things for Haiti is that it needs stability in terms of its government. And we have committed to providing water and food for those polling stations, using this as an opportunity to raise people -- people's awareness of some of the issues.
I met with the president yesterday. He was absolutely clear, as are the majority of the candidates, that these elections need to go ahead. He thought that about 50 percent of Haitians would probably turn out to vote. We have to go ahead with this.
But cholera outbreak has not peaked yet. The reports from the Pan- African -- Pan-American Health Organization are that, you know, up to 400,000 Haitians could become infected. So this will go on for some time.
So what we have to do is to reassure them, help them to understand that going out to vote will not mean that they will become infected.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: And that vote is, of course, on Sunday.
And just to remind you that the U.N. has appealed for $164 million in order to help out with the cholera outbreak. To date, they have offers of about $20 million.
Still ahead, what's the one mammal that we had to include in our Intelligent Animals week?
Well, you get this -- if you love dogs, CONNECT THE WORLD is 60 seconds away.
ANDERSON: Well, they can't read or write, but don't ignore how smart they can be. All week, we've been looking at intelligence in the animal kingdom.
Well, on Monday, we saw how dolphins are one of the only species that can recognize themselves in a mirror.
Well, it was lemurs on Tuesday. It turns out they're top of the class when it comes to mathematics.
And then last night, our closest relatives, bonobos -- they are part of the ape family and they showed us that humans aren't the only ones who can hold down an intelligent conversation.
Well, if you've been watching that connect line at the top of your screen today, you'll know what's next -- man's best friend, of course.
Here's Randi Kaye with our final report this week on Intelligent Animals week.
RANDI KAYE, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): If you've ever wondered what's really going on behind those puppy dog eyes, this may be the guy to tell you.
PROF. BRIAN HARE, DUKE UNIVERSITY: Good boy. Good boy.
KAYE: Professor Brian Hare, the director of Duke University's Canine Cognition Center, is one of only a few people in the country who study how dogs think. Professor Hare and his team put pups through a series of games similar to those you might play with young children.
HARE: We don't want to look at cute pet tricks. What we want to know is what does a dog understand about its world?
KAYE (on camera): For years, researchers didn't even study dogs. They thought they were too domesticated. Brian says that's exactly why dogs do need to be studies.
For 15 years, he's been analyzing how dogs think. What surprised him most, he says, is that dogs have figured out how to read human behavior better than any other species, even chimpanzees.
HARE: The way they think about their world is that people are super important and they can solve almost any problem if they rely on people.
KAYE: How do dogs think compared to children?
HARE: Probably around 12 months young children start using -- relying on their adult gestures and they start making gestures themselves. And that's at about the point where it looks like dogs have that -- a sort of a similar level of flexibility.
KAYE: Watch this. I just met Tazi (ph), Professor Hare's dog, a few minutes before this test. When we both point to a cup which may hold a treat...
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Ready, set, push.
KAYE: Will she trust me, a stranger, or her owner?
(on camera): Oh, I'm crushed.
HARE: That's my boy.
KAYE: How can he...
HARE: That's my boy.
KAYE: -- trust you over me?
(voice-over): Over and over, Tazi chooses her owner's gestures.
HARE: He's grown up with me. We, you know, do lots of stuff together. He's never met you before. And so he says, look, if they're both telling me where to go, I'm going to trust the guy that I'm with all the time.
KAYE: Dogs are complex social animals who understand they have different relationships with different people.
HARE: They really narrow in and pay attention to you and they want to know what is it about the world that you can help them with.
KAYE: Because, let's face it, dogs can't solve every problem...
HARE: Here, he's the food.
KAYE: When a treat is hidden inside an opaque tube, this Gordon Setter can't see it, but figures out right away she can reach the treat by going around to the side. But watch what happens when the tube is switched...
KAYE: -- and the dog can see the treat. She forgets how easy it was to get just moments before. You might call it a dog meltdown.
HARE: Oh. OK. He hit it. No, he got it.
KAYE: We tried the same test on Napoleon, a Yorkshire Terrier.
(on camera): OK, let's see how you do. All right, here's your treat. Put it in a clear cylinder. OK. Oh. You are impressive, my little friend.
HARE: And a lot of times the best solution requires a bit of a detour. And so what this says is that Poli (ph) is able to sort of take a detour -- a mental detour, and realize, wait a second, even though it looks like that's a short cut easy answer, it's the wrong thing to do.
KAYE (voice-over): Researchers here are studying dogs to better understand their limitations. By identifying why they make mistakes, they believe they can make them better at working with people with disabilities or working with the military.
Professor Hare says domestication has made dogs smarter -- so smart, in fact, they're even able to understand the principle of connectivity.
HARE: They know that they're connected on a leash and it's, well, now I have to listen, because if I don't do what you say, you can stop me. Whereas if I'm not on a leash, well, yes, I know the command, but I don't have to listen to you now.
KAYE (on camera): How do you know that?
KAYE: From studying them?
HARE: Yes. If you have...
KAYE: -- it's not through these tests.
It's from owning a dog.
KAYE (voice-over): Just like children, he says, dogs also understand they can misbehave when you turn your back, even after you told them not to do something.
HARE: And you're really upset because your dog disobeyed you, and you think the dog's not obedient. Well, no, no, no. Your dog was obedient, but it realized that it could get away with it.
KAYE (voice-over): Like it or not, researchers have figured out dogs use their skills to manipulate the world and those of us in it. So next time you catch yourself thinking you are the master, look your dog straight in the eye. Chances are, he is thinking the same thing. Randi Kaye, CNN, Durham, North Carolina.
BECKY ANDERSON, CNN HOST: Lovely. Well, coming up, a happy ending to a nightmare at sea. Three teenage boys have been rescued after 50 days adrift in the Pacific. We're going to speak with the first mate of the boat that brought them to safety. That and your headlines up next.
ANDERSON: You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD here on CNN. I'm Becky Anderson in London. You are very welcome. Coming up, a dramatic rescue at sea after nearly two months. We're going to hear from one of the rescuers of these three lads.
Then, one of our favorite Connectors of the Day, Condoleezza Rice, tells us what it was about her upbringing that led her to the White House. We ask, does she have ambitions to return, possibly as president?
And the pursuit of happiness. The British prime minister launches a national initiative, trying to find out what pleases his people.
All those stories are ahead, but as ever at this point in the show, let's get you a very quick check of the headlines this hour here at CNN.
South Korea's defense minister is stepping down after North Korea's shelling of an island earlier this week. Following an emergency cabinet meeting, Seoul is beefing up its military capability and its rules of engagement. North Korea is threatening more attacks if it's, quote, "provoked."
A top UN relief official has wrapped up a a two-day visit to Haiti. Valerie Amos met with President Rene Preval and visited a slum in Port-au- Prince. She called for stronger international and national response to the cholera epidemic.
Growing concern in Europe over rising debt and the value of the euro. It's slumped to a two-month low against the dollar. The big fear that more EU economies will need bailouts. Spain, Portugal, and Belgium appear to be the weakest links.
Iraq's prime minister is being given 30 days to form a government. The president named Nouri al-Maliki to a second term as prime minister earlier today. His nomination comes after months of power sharing talks between parties.
They were dehydrated, sunburned, and weak from hunger, but they are alive. Lucky they are. Three teenaged boys who were lost at sea for seven weeks have now been rescued. A fishing boat found the boys off the coast of Fiji on Thursday. They drifted more than 1400 kilometers from Tokelau, a remote Pacific island. Their loved ones had given up hope, believing that they were dead.
Well, it is quite an amazing rescue, this, from the -- let's get more details for you from the first mate of the ship that discovered them. Tai Fredricsen is still at sea near Fiji, and he joins us now on the line. Remarkable stuff. Tell us what happened.
TAI FREDRICSEN, FIRST MATE (via telephone): Yes, hello Becky. We've just transferred the boys to officials in Fiji, and currently they're receiving medical care they urgently needed.
But, yes. About 40 hours ago, we came across the boys adrift, who had been adrift at sea for near on two months. Very dehydrated, as you can imagine. Physically exhausted. But mentally, strong as all -- just three teenage boys just wouldn't give up.
ANDERSON: Yes. We're looking at pictures of them now. How did they survive, Tai?
FREDRICSEN: That's no problem, no problem at all. As you can say, they are, all three of them there, there's Filo, Samuel, and Edward. Samuel and Filo or the oldest, 15, and Edward is 14 years old.
ANDERSON: Yes, all right. I'm not sure that you heard my question. How did they survive for so long?
FREDRICSEN: The first two days, they had some coconuts in their small craft. As you can see, it's a very small craft, 12 feet, actually. That only lasted two days of their 50-day ordeal. They were able to capture water, rainwater, during the night as it rains quite often in the tropics at night here.
But about two weeks before we actually rescued them, they were able to catch a sea bird. I still don't know how they did it, and they won't tell me their secret, but I -- that, I believe, is what sustained them until the day we picked them up there.
ANDERSON: This is remarkable stuff. They've been two months at sea. Sadly, for their loved ones -- although it's a great story for the loved ones, but they did at one stage, obviously, believe that they had died at sea. And they'll be absolutely delighted to find that these three lads are still alive.
How did you find them? I know you guys were obviously in your vessel. When did you first see them, and how did you realize that this was these guys?
FREDRICSEN: Well, we're actually finishing our fishing operations, and we're actually en route towards New Zealand. We do not generally take this route, as we usually unload in the America territory, American Samoa. But as we had obligations in New Zealand, we were running the fastest route towards New Zealand.
On the 24th local time at 4:30 in the afternoon, one of my crew members on watch noticed a floating object on the bow. And as we drew closer, we realized it was a little boat and it had people inside. So, we drew up beside -- it was definitely in the wrong area being that there's no mainland, no islands around. F
We did know that they were going to need some assistance but, unbeknownst to us, they had been drifting for two months. So, I actually asked them, just --
ANDERSON: Sorry -- how did they react when you drew up beside?
FREDRICSEN: They were ecstatic. As you can -- as you know, now, they were exhausted, but there were smiles and -- yes. They could talk loud enough that I could hear that they had been at sea for two months. And once realizing they were in need of urgent medical assistance, we launched our rescue craft to get them onboard so I could start immediately rehydrating them and attending to their basic needs.
ANDERSON: There's a man who's been up for a long, long time, but he is a hero to these chaps tonight. Tai Fredricsen there for you, who's still at sea, reporting on exactly what happened when these three lads were found after two months at sea, surviving, they tell these guys, off coconuts, off water, and off a sea bird, somehow, that they've caught. What a remarkable story.
"Forbes" magazine once declared her the most influential woman in the world. Next up, our candid interview with Condoleezza Rice, the former US Secretary of State gives us her take on what went wrong in Iraq.
ANDERSON: Welcome back. Now, tonight, we're going to bring you one of our most popular Connectors of the Day. She is a woman who has already made her mark on history, a history she's candidly playing a part in impinging herself. Let's get you connected with the lady known simply as Condi.
ANDERSON (voice-over): She's a woman who's achieved many firsts. Most notably, as the first African-American female to become Secretary of State. But for Condoleezza Rice, ambition isn't just a character trait, it's a way of life.
The professor turned politician was born in Birmingham, Alabama, where she grew up fighting the stereotypes and limitations that came with being a black woman in the South.
CONDOLEEZZA RICE, FORMER US SECRETARY OF STATE: When America's founding father said "We, the people," they didn't mean me. My ancestors were treated as property, just three fifths of a man.
ANDERSON (voice-over): At the age of just 19, she graduated from college and went on to become a professor at Stanford University. After serving in the administrations of Ronald Reagan and the first president Bush, Rice signed on to help the George W. Bush campaign as a foreign policy advisor in 2000. Following his election, Rice became Bush's national security advisor and, during his second term, his Secretary of State.
Known to have the president's ear, Rice's close relationship with Bush gave her a voice in major policy decisions, including the controversial choice to go to war in Iraq. She also played a key diplomatic role in relations with both Iran and North Korea.
RICE: Very clear to everyone, the United States has a condition for the beginning of negotiations with Iran, and that condition remains the verifiable suspension of Iran's enrichment and reprocessing activities.
ANDERSON (voice-over): This month, she's released her first volume of memoirs, a reflection on her life up until she got into politics. She talked to me about these years, and the most difficult things to write about.
RICE: Well, the hardest part to write was really about my mother's struggle with cancer and, ultimately, her death. Even though I lost -- I've lost both my parents, my father lived to be well into his 70s. My mother was 61. She was very young. And though I'm very glad she got to see me grow up and be a young woman, not just a child, it's still a very tender spot for me.
ANDERSON (on camera): Politics played a really important position, both in yours and your parents' life, didn't it.
RICE: Yes, it did. My parents were children who were educated by their parents against a lot of long odds. And they, then, passed on that belief that education was absolutely transforming. And they were themselves educators.
They have a whole group of students, people that they taught, who still to this day say that my parents are responsible for who they became. And it includes doctors and lawyers and the first black woman governor of the international monetary fund, and the man who's currently the president of the University of Maryland Baltimore. So, yes, education meant everything to us.
ANDERSON: Condi, why did you choose to write your memoirs in two volumes, starting with your upbringing?
RICE: I felt that I could not adequately tell the story of my parents and my upbringing if I tried, somehow, to attach it to what is going to be a story of a pretty complicated and sometimes chaotic last eight years.
And so many times, Becky, people ask me, "How did you become who you are?" And I would say, "You had to know John and Angelina Rice in order to answer that question." And so, I wanted to answer that question by introducing people to John and Angelina Rice.
ANDERSON: Fantastic. Some viewer questions for you about getting more involved in politics. Michael asks if you would ever run for the presidency.
RICE: Oh, I don't see myself in those roles. I didn't even run for student government when I was in high school. I think I'm just not -- I don't have that fire in the belly to run for office. I do a lot of public service. I'm very concerned about the state of K-12 education in the United States. I'm active in that reform movement.
So, there are ways to public service, but I had the chance to be Secretary of State. It's the best job in government. That's enough.
ANDERSON: All right. Let's get back to the books. The first, of course, is about your upbringing. The second volume will be about your political life. Can we expect frank and candid reflections on your time with the Bush administration, both successes and mistakes?
RICE: I feel an obligation to be candid. We are human beings. And we did some things well, and some things not so well. And I have no trepidation about talking about it in that way. I'm trying to write a book that will be as historically accurate as an observer can possibly make it. And, so, in that regard, I think I have to try to be candid.
ANDERSON: Which mistakes would you be referring to?
RICE: Well, I'm not very far into the book yet, Becky. But I do believe -- I would take Saddam Hussein out of power again. But, of course, in the rebuilding of Iraq, there are things that I would do differently. I think we put too much emphasis in Baghdad, not enough emphasis on the provinces. Perhaps we didn't fully understand how -- the degree to which the society would start to come apart as a result of having been held in tyranny for all of those years.
So, there are many things that we can talk about. But I'm also a believer that history's arc is long, not short. And sometimes things that looked terrific at the time look pretty bad in retrospect, and vice versa. So, ultimately, this is a story that will be written by history.
ANDERSON: Let me leave the last couple of questions to our viewers. Brajesh and, I think, Christy, they ask you how you rate the current Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton.
RICE: Well, no, I think she's done a fine -- is doing a fine job. It's a tough job. You're always on an airplane someplace, you never quite know which country you're in, you're always hoping you're not going to make a mistake and --
ANDERSON: Did you every get it wrong?
RICE: A country that you're actually not in. And so -- I did on one occasion, but it -- I hope nobody noticed. So, I'll write about it in the book.
But it is really a job that requires two things. It requires stamina, which Hillary has plenty of. And it requires that you understand the strength of America and try to help structure a more prosperous and a freer world using the great powers of America. And I think she understands that, and I think she's doing a great job.
ANDERSON: Thumbs up from Condi Rice to Hillary Clinton, then. Next week, it's World AIDS day, and we'll be connecting you with some stars who've joined the global fights against the epidemic. Amongst them, Alicia Keys. The Grammy award winner actively helped kids affected by AIDS through her charity, Keep a Child Alive.
We'll also hear from "Gladiator" star Djimon Hounsou. The African- born actor has played a major part in raising awareness about HIV, not least in his acclaimed portrayal of an AIDS victim in the film "In America."
Well, to learn more about next week's Connectors and to post your questions -- and do remember, this really is your part of the show. You do it, and I just execute it for you, as it were. Head to cnn.com/connect. Do remember to tell us where you are writing in from.
Hang on tonight, because we are about to make an emotional U-turn just ahead on CONNECT THE WORLD. Britain's prime minister wants to know what makes people happy and, to that end, he's just launched a national survey on well-being. We're going to pick it apart somewhat for you after this.
ANDERSON: Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness is a key part of the US Constitution. Living well is embedded in the charters of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Brazil. And now, it's Britain's turn to take a hard look at happiness. Today, Prime Minister David Cameron launched a national survey on well-being.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
DAVID CAMERON, PRIME MINISTER OF BRITAIN: Just as the GDP figures, actually, they don't give a full story of our economy's growth, but they give us a useful indicator of where we're headed.
So, I believe a new measure won't give the full story of our nation's well-being or our happiness or contentment or the rest of it. Of course it won't. But it could give us a general picture of whether life is improving.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Look, we talked about this as a team, and we decided, and I think you'll probably agree, it's hard to find anything more subjective than happiness. What pleases some pains others. So, we hit the streets of London to ask, what makes you happy?
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Friends, family, I would say, mostly. It's about having a content life, doesn't have to be the best in the world. Just waking up and feel that it's all right.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: My wife, my child. It's nearly Christmas.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: To not work. And I have money and go to a Madonna concert and see Europe's soccer team win a match.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Friends, family, having a good laugh.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Exercise. I love running. I love being outside, fresh air, spending time with my loved ones, with my family, my friends, my boyfriend. Quite simple things, really.
ANDERSON: All right. Well, Mr. Cameron has got his work cut out for him if he hopes to make the United Kingdom the happiest country on Earth. A Gallup survey of 155 nations ranks the UK at around 17th, -- I was going to say in the top 20, but it's 17th.
Denmark holds the top spot worldwide. More than 8 in 10 Danes describe themselves as thriving. Less than a fifth say they are struggling. In fact, the top five countries are all found in Northern Europe.
After that, we leave the continent and cross the Atlantic to Costa Rica, number six on the list, and the highest-ranked country among the Americas.
New Zealand is tied for sixth place overall, though it's considered the happiest country in Asia. It's not until we get to 63rd place that we arrive in Africa. Malawi, specifically, where nearly three-fourths of the population say it's either struggling or suffering.
Happiness seems to be a hit or miss emotion. You can't will yourself to be happy. Or can you? Martin Seligman has studied depression and pessimism but, for the past decade, he's been focusing on positive psychology, and he joins me now from Philadelphia.
So, I guess you're going to say that what Cameron's up to today, the prime minister here in the UK, is great. Is it?
MARTIN SELIGMAN, PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY: Well, it's a bold move, both politically and scientifically. Now, first, Becky, it's important that this is not a happiness, happy-clappy initiative. The word is "well- being," here. And well-being has a bunch of elements other than how happy- clappy and satisfied you are.
ANDERSON: All right. I understand that, and you've heard what some of the people on the streets of London said about what makes them happy. I think the point here, though, perhaps, that we should discuss is how we measure our happiness or well-being, because that's really difficult, isn't it?
Take a listen to what some people we talked to today thought about whether, indeed, we can measure our well-being or happiness. This is what they said.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I don't think you can measure happiness. I think you can tell if someone's happy or unhappy, but you can't actually say how happy, or how unhappy. I think that's too difficult to actually quantify.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Probably not, I would've thought. Unless you're rating people how much they smile every day, or how quickly they work to walk -- walk to work. I would have thought it's not easy to measure at all, really.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: I get your point about the fact that this is well-being rather than specifically happiness, and so, to a certain extent, it's not as wooly-headed as some people might think. But how, Martin, do you measure well-being?
SELIGMAN: There are five different elements of well-being, each one of which is measurable. And science has come a long way in the last 30 years.
The first one is positive emotion, and that's the cheery, life satisfaction part. The second one is how engaged are you? When does time stop for you? At work, with the people you love? The third one is the quality of your positive relations. The fourth one is how much meaning and purpose you have in life. And the fifth is how much have you accomplished relative to your goals.
So, if you take perma and well-being, it's quite an adequate measure, scientifically, of how an individual and a nation is doing.
ANDERSON: Since you've stopped studying depression and pessimism and started studying, quote, "positive psychology," how do you stack up on a measure of well-being yourself, out of interest?
SELIGMAN: Well, pretty well. I'm a chronic measurer. But I'm also a depressive and pessimist by nature. I think only a pessimist can do serious science on optimism.
And as I've spent the last 12 years measuring myself and studying the elements of happiness, I find that --
SELIGMAN: Has been going up. We found a lot of ways to build positive emotion, meaning engagement in life. And these are things that are taught at schools and measurably build --
ANDERSON: All right. And with that, we're going to have to leave it there, because I've got to take a short break. I do enjoy seeing some of the video that we've just been showing.
I went to a laughing yoga course once, didn't make me laugh at all, it made me feel really depressed, actually, but maybe that was just me. I guess I'm probably fairly happy, generally, though. Martin, thank you for that.
Americans are in particularly high spirits. It is, of course, Thanksgiving for them. Stay with us as we take a look at an annual tradition that reaches some rather lofty heights.
ANDERSON: Before we go, just enough time for a parade of our Parting Shots for you this evening. In the United States, of course, it's Thanksgiving holiday. And in New York City, the day was all about paying tribute to heroes. Cartoon heroes, to be precise. Take a look at this.
Kung-Fu Panda was among the giant helium-filled balloons and floats in the annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. Shrek also loomed rather largely over the streets of Manhattan. King of the Muppets, Kermit, managed a wave at the spectators.
More than three million lined the routes each year. Even the six-hour inflation process that draws a crowd. Here's Spider-Man in pre-flight mode, giving us an idea of just how massive these balloons actually are.
And what would a Macy's parade be without Mickey. The world's favorite mouse made his first appearance. These are all going back to front, aren't they? Anyway, you get the point. Made his first appearance back in 1934.
Yet, this enduring parade comes with all the bells and whistles. Ending tonight's Parting Shots, there's really just one more thing to say.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
UNIDENTIFIED CHILDREN: Happy Thanksgiving!
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Happy Thanksgiving if you are American and watching this broadcast. I'm Becky Anderson, that's your world connected. "BackStory" is next right after a quick check of the headlines for you.