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CONNECT THE WORLD
Ratko Mladic Arrives at the Hague; The Controversy over FIFA
Aired May 31, 2011 - 16:00:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
BECKY ANDERSON, HOST: Tonight, one of the world's most wanted men is one step closer to justice. Ratko Mladic is in the building behind me, the United Nations detention center. He is accused of orchestrating the worst massacre in Europe since World War II. Now, after 16 years on the run and five days of legal wrangling, he's finally facing genocide charges.
Plus, a crisis tarnishing the beautiful game -- some of the months recognizable brands in the world warn FIFA to clean up its act.
I'm Becky Anderson -- I'm Becky Anderson at...
MAX FOSTER, CNN ANCHOR: And also tonight...
ANDERSON: I'm Becky Anderson at the Hague.
FOSTER: And I'm Max Foster in London.
Also tonight, trading one horrifying situation for another in the search for a better life -- CNN's Freedom Project.
And a new law in New York has ignited a fierce debate -- should smoking cigarettes outdoors be a right or a crime?
That's coming up a bit later in the show. We're going to take you off to the Hague now, though, with Becky.
ANDERSON: Well, he escaped his past for the last 16 years, but now he will be forced to confront accusations of unspeakable atrocities. Life has changed radically for Ratko Mladic in the past several days. The once feared commander of the Bosnian Serb Army has now arrived here at the Hague by helicopter just about 40 minutes ago, where he'll stand trial on war crimes charges.
Mladic tried to fight extradition from Serbia on health grounds, but lost his appeal earlier today. Well, a U.N. tribunal has charged him with genocide and crimes against humanity. It says Mladic helped carry out a campaign of ethnic cleansing during the 1990s Bosnian civil war. He is accused of orchestrating the siege of Sarajevo and the massacre at Srebrenica, amongst other crimes.
Mladic's life on the run ended on Thursday when he was arrested in a town near Belgrade. He wasn't wearing any disguise and he was hiding in his cousin's house, who shares the last name -- the same last name.
Some hardline Serbs consider him a nationalist hero, but not the government of Boris Tadic.
The president's justice minister says Serbia will never be a safe haven for the likes of Ratko Mladic.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
SNEZANA MALOVIC, SERBIAN JUSTICE MINISTER (through translator): This is a clear message to all the message -- a clear message to all the people who have been accused of war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. Everybody will be brought in front of justice, to face justice, and they will be punished if they're found guilty.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
ANDERSON: Well, Mladic faces a life sentence behind bars if he's convicted. His lawyers say, though, that he is too ill to stand trial.
Joining me now is our senior international correspondent, Nic Robertson -- Nic, before we talk about the trial, just talk to me about the significance of today's events.
NIC ROBERTSON, CNN SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: It's hugely significant for the victims of the crimes that he is alleged to have perpetrated. This will be some step, not toward closure, perhaps, be able to see the man who is responsible for the deaths of loved ones, for the maiming of so many people.
It will begin to be a moment where they can see justice is going to be done, albeit it's taken such a long time to get to this point.
ANDERSON: It's quite a moment when two helicopters arrived from Rotterdam. Just about five minutes for them to make that flight, accompanying Mladic here to the detention center -- the UN's detention center here at the Hague just about a half hour ago.
What do we know about the trial?
ROBERTSON: We know that it's going to begin without delay, that the chief justice here will want to see the charges read to Mladic as soon as possible. He can -- we can expect it to last years. And a lot of details we're going to have to learn about in the coming days, like what sort of defense will he conduct?
Will he -- will he want to conduct his own defense, as -- as -- as Radovan Karadzic, the political leader of the Bosnian Serbs tried and is trying to do at this time?
All these things will perhaps become clear in the next few days.
ANDERSON: His lawyers, though, of course, say that he is too ill to stand trial.
Will he ever stand trial at this point?
ROBERTSON: It certainly seems absolutely he's going to stand trial. The chief prosecutor in Belgrade, of the special court there, I -- I interviewed him yesterday. He told me, no, Mladic is quite capable of standing trial, lucid, lively in court, he said, cracking jokes, even verbose, talking too long.
So the indications are that this man is capable.
ANDERSON: All right, Nic, we're going to get back to you.
I want to remind our viewers of what perhaps came to symbolize the brutality of the Bosnian Serb Army, and that was, of course, the massacre of Srebrenica. Mladic there, of course, giving out sweets in 1995, telling people that nothing bad would happen. Hours later, the slaughter, of course, you'll remember, of 8,000 men and boys began. The world's shock and disbelief was compounded by the fact that Srebrenica had been declared a U.N. safe haven, guarded by hundreds of peacekeepers.
How, then, could this have happened and why would those peacekeepers abandon townspeople taking shelter in their compound?
Our Phil Black went looking for answers.
PHIL BLACK, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Bosnian Serb Commander Ratko Mladic has long been accused of ordering the massacre at Srebrenica. But many have also blamed the 400 Dutch peacekeepers who surrendered to him for letting it happen.
Ebel Dijkman was one of the Dutch soldiers.
MAJOR EBEL DIJKMAN, DUTCH ARMY (RET.): For the disaster in -- in -- in Srebrenica, there's one man responsible. It's Ratko Mladic.
BLACK: He shows me pictures of some of the refugees who are among the tens of thousands of Bosnian Muslims shattering in what was supposed to be a U.N.-declared safe haven.
But when you look at these images now and you realize that a good number of them were killed during those days...
BLACK: -- what are your thoughts?
DIJKMAN: I -- I feel sad. I feel angry. And -- and I -- I hope that all of them are living, normally are living.
BLACK: But they're not.
DIJKMAN: No, no, I -- I know that they aren't. And most of them are killed.
BLACK (voice-over): In July, 1995, Bosnian Serb forces attacked and overran the Srebrenica enclave. The peacekeepers have always insisted they had no chance but to surrender to the larger, better armed and supplied force. And they never predicted what would happen next -- the murder of almost 8,000 men and boys.
Ebel Dijkman says he saw Ratko Mladic at Srebrenica before the massacre.
(on camera): What do you remember of him from that time?
DIJKMAN: My first thought was a little Napoleon. He is a small man. I saw him and his soldiers giving things to the children, the little, little children. And it was filmed by a Serbian film crew. And when the crew was away, the soldiers -- and now this was a little further on the road, then the soldiers picked up those candies and stole these again from the children.
BLACK: What did you think of him at that time?
DIJKMAN: It was a rat.
BLACK: He was a rat?
BLACK (voice-over): Dijkman says it's very important for him and for all the Dutch peacekeepers, who have been criticized for not preventing Srebrenica, that the accused architect of that atrocity will now face justice in their homeland. The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is based in the Hague.
DIJKMAN: I hope and we hope that he will also speak the truth so that all the world now knows what happens there in those days.
BLACK: Days that Dijkman says dramatically changed his life and brutally ended so many more.
Phil Black, CNN, Assen, the Netherlands.
(END VIDEO TAPE)
ANDERSON: Well, families of Srebrenica, of course, will be relieved that at least Mladic is now in custody, in the building, as I say, behind me here, the UN's detention center. They also realize, though, that there is only one step in what will be a long road to justice.
Nic, of course, still with me.
You've been to Srebrenica, Nic, I know, back in the '90s. You've also met Mladic a number of times.
ROBERTSON: He was a very strong character. He was a man who was utterly in command of the people around him, demanded their attention. He was a man who could be jovial, as we've heard the chief prosecutor in Belgrade say. I mean you -- I remember him as somebody who could turn on the charm. But at the same time, he could absolutely turn on the defiance.
U.N. commanders, generals going to meet him, to make deals, to get access to places like Srebrenica, Garadjde (ph), these enclaves that were cut off, to get food into the people who were living there, the civilians. Deals made and they would leave. And Mladic would renege on those deals.
Srebrenica, we went there in the winter of 1992. The siege of that town had been underway for some maybe six or so months by that stage. This was two-and-a-half years before that massacre occurred, pitiful -- a terrible, terrible situation even back then -- six days to get in.
ANDERSON: We've been asking for almost a week now, how could Mladic have been hiding in plain view of Serb authorities?
It's a bit like bin Laden some three weeks before that, when he was found in plain view of, we believe, the Pakistan authorities, possibly, if not the military.
What more do we know at this point?
ROBERTSON: It's a complex situation for him, because he was still getting his army pension from Serb -- from the Serbian government until perhaps as late as 2002. His family has actually demanded the restoration of that pension. The authorities, and certainly his close generals and perhaps the military intelligence were hoping to protect him. Slowly, they -- some of them were arrested. Slowly, they were weaned away. And it really left him dependent on his family.
And the authorities in Belgrade cut down the financial money that the family could bring in to pass onto him, essentially. They used money to flush him out. So he was reduced to living in very, very meager conditions with family members in the tiny village of Lazarevo.
ANDERSON: Briefly, are we any closer to knowing, though, at this point, who was protecting him, aside from the family?
ROBERTSON: Specifically, no. There's an investigation. We may never know. But think about this. President Boris Tadic was the defense minister of the Serbian forces, of the Serbian -- Serbian government, and, therefore, responsible for Serbian forces when Ratko Mladic's pension was still being paid. That's what people say.
So perhaps he didn't know the details. Perhaps he didn't know what officers were doing in -- in the name of the army and the forces. We may never know the details.
ANDERSON: What we do know tonight is that Ratko Mladic is in the building behind Nic and myself. That it the UN's detention center. As I said, he arrived by helicopter from Rotterdam Airport just about 40 minutes ago.
Well, if he is convicted and sentenced and will spend his life in prison, if, indeed, he is, it will send a strong message to other world leaders, as it were, that war crimes will not go unpunished. But remember, he is just one of three high profile men charged with ethnic cleansing during the Bosnian war.
Well, former Serbian president, Slobodan Milosevic, you'll remember, died during his trial at the Hague, escaping any punishment. And the trial of Radovan Karadzic still drags on today, years after the former Bosnian president was arrested.
Well, Miranda Sidran-Kamisalic joins us now to talk about the importance of what has happened today.
She is the Bosnia ambassador to the Hague.
And before we talk about the importance, I believe just a couple of hours ago, you actually spoke to Mladic at Rotterdam Airport.
What did he say?
MIRANDA SIDRAN-KAMISALIC, BOSNIAN AMBASSADOR TO THE HAGUE: Oh, yes, that's according to the normal, usual procedure. I was informed and brought to the airport at Rotterdam today while that that job under the office of the register of the tribunals to inform ambassadors of the countries that -- that were criminal counts from those countries.
So I was there just before 8:00 today. And he arrived around 8 -- around -- after 8:00. We spoke for probably almost half an hour.
ANDERSON: What did he say?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Well, first of all, I have to say that he was very talkative. He was very talkative. And he wanted to hear my name. He wanted to hear where am I from. He even -- he heard that I am from Sarajevo, then he wanted to hear from which particular part of the city I am.
And then it was mainly he who was speaking. My duty there was only to -- to inform him that he would have any consular assistance in case he needed any from our country and from our embassy here.
ANDERSON: Can (INAUDIBLE)?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Well, first, while he was climbing down those three or four stairs from the -- from the small aircraft, he didn't feel that fit, to be honest. But afterwards, when he started to speak and he spoke to some of us there, the registrar was there and the doctor, of course, of the tribunal was there, he was aggressive, very talkative and to me, he -- he seemed very, very fit, a very healthy man in his -- well, he was born in 1942, so he's not that old, for sure.
ANDERSON: Did he come across as a man who was fit to face trial?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Very much, indeed. Very much, indeed.
ANDERSON: How did it feel for you to be talking to him?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Well, I had to be an ambassador. I was a governor (ph). I had to be professional and I only offered the consular assistance as I -- as I just mentioned. But he was, as I also said, very focusing. And he talked a lot. So...
ANDERSON: But how did you feel?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Well, as a Sarajevan and not as an ambassador, it was very, very difficult to me. In my city, there are so many thousands of people that were killed and not only -- not only adults, but we know that 1,600 -- more than 1,600 children were also kid -- killed in my city.
So it's -- it was incredibly difficult. But also I did feel that this was the first day of the justice to really, really all -- almost became tangible. You can see it. It was happening. It was there. And this was, as you can see, a very, very long day for Ratko Mladic, I believe.
ANDERSON: If he is convicted and sentenced to life behind bars, will that, in any way, do you think, draw a line under this for Bosnia?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Well, this -- this -- you touched the question on the importance of the trial, the importance of -- of him being brought here to the Hague. And, yes, it is incredibly important. We -- we, all the time, we need -- we need some steps toward the reconciliation. We are -- sometimes we -- we enter this process, which is very fragile, but then something happens and draws us back. And then now, this is so important. This is incredibly important.
And if it wasn't for the victims, and we know the time is passing. It's 16 years after the war has ended. Imagine 194 -- 1961 in Europe, after the Second World War.
Where was Europe in 1961?
And we are here 16 years after. We only today see not the last, but, well, only one left (INAUDIBLE).
ANDERSON: Ambassador, I want to show our viewers some pictures of pro-Mladic protests today in a place called Sanilac (ph).
And as we take a look at these pictures, how does it make you feel when you see that there are people who consider him not a war criminal, but a war hero?
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Well, I think it's -- it's a process and it's needed. What is needed for many years now, what -- many long years now, is a clear message from the president of Serbia, Tadic, the same message as we have already, a long time ago, many years ago, heard from -- from the president of Croatia, of the (INAUDIBLE) message who said -- who gave a clear message to the Bosnia crowd that Bosnia-Herzegovina is their home and that Sarajevo is their capital. We need the same message sent from the president of Serbia to Bosnian Serbs, that Banja Luka is (INAUDIBLE) in Bosnia has forgotten that their capital is Sarajevo, not Belgrade. And they should look for their happiness and destinies and lives (INAUDIBLE)...
ANDERSON: We're going to have to...
ANDERSON: We are going to have to take a very short break.
We thank you very much, indeed, for joining us here this evening.
SIDRAN-KAMISALIC: Thank you very much.
ANDERSON: The Bosnia ambassador to the Hague.
The story is Ratko Mladic is in the building behind us. This is a story, of course, that CNN will continue to cover for you.
This is a special edition of CONNECT THE WORLD.
I'm Becky Anderson at the Hague -- Max, back to you.
FOSTER: Becky, thank you.
You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD.
When we come back, more bloody clashes on the streets of Yemen. We look at the battleground city of Taiz.
Lighting up the smoking debate -- New York takes the fight and the ban outdoors.
And she's a tennis sensation with all the right moves. Our Connector of the Day, Andrea Petkovic, answers your questions in just a moment.
FOSTER: FIFA's 61st congress is underway in Zurich under a cloud of scandal that its embattled president simply shrugged off. Coming up on CONNECT THE WORLD, we'll tell you what FIFA's corporate sponsors have to say about it. And we'll go live to Switzerland, where there's news of a mind-boggling twist involving a top FIFA official suspended over the weekend.
I'm Max Foster in London.
You're watching CONNECT THE WORLD.
And here's a look at other stories we're following this hour.
More deaths and accusations of grave human rights violations. Violence continues to rage across Yemen. In the south, at least three people have been killed in clashes in Taiz. The city has been a hub of anti-regime protests, with 23 reported killed there this week. And in Sanaa, government troops are battling tribal members after a tentative truce broke down.
State-run television in Syria says President Bashir Assad issued a decree today offering amnesty to protests detained for various alleged crimes. But a different report suggests the decree will only decrease punishment and not grant amnesty. This comes amidst a serious fierce crackdown on anti-government protests who officials describe as terrorists trying to destabilize the country.
A Saudi woman jailed for driving a car is free. Manal al-Sharif spent more than a week behind bars. She wasn't charged, but her attorney says her case remains open. Al-Sharif is part of the women to drive group, which demands women be allowed to drive freely in Saudi Arabia. She even posted a YouTube video of herself driving.
Whilst there's no law against women driving, it's widely considered a bad practice due to religious edicts.
Spanish health officials say there's no proof Spanish grown cucumbers are the source of Europe's deadly E. coli outbreak. The results of their investigation could be released tomorrow. And an EU spokesman says a cucumber shipment from either Denmark or the Netherlands is being checked.
At least 16 peopled have died in the outbreak and hundreds have got sick. Whilst most cases were in Germany, the latest fatality was a woman in Sweden who had just returned from Germany.
The World Health Organization says mobile phones could be as dangerous as lead, engine exhaust and chloroform when it comes to causing cancer. A group of 21 scientists from 14 countries believes cell phones may increase the risk of certain types of brain cancer, classifying them as possible carcinogenic. The WHO had previously said there was no clear evidence that cancer could caused by mobile phones.
A live report from Zurich, where FIFA opens its congress under a cloud of scandal.
Later, a smoking out New York City -- one pub, one part, one beach at a time.
FOSTER: Now, it was all pomp and circumstance at the opening of FIFA's congress in Switzerland. But don't be fooled by the festive celebrations there. Football's world governing body is in the crosshairs of scathing criticism after a scandal that led to the suspension of two top officials. Several key FIFA sponsors expressed concerns today.
There's also controversy over Qatar's selection to host 2022 World Cup.
All of this comes in advance of tomorrow's election for FIFA president. Sepp Blatter stands to run unopposed for a fourth term.
I want to show you some reaction from those top sponsors.
A Visa spokesperson told CNN: "The current situation is clearly not good for the game and we can ask that FIFA take all necessary steps to resolve the concerns that have been resolved."
Emirates Airlines says it's "disappointed with the issues that are currently surrounding the administration of the sport."
Similar words from Coca-Cola: "The current allegations being raised are distressing and bad for the sport."
Adidas will remain a sponsor of the next World Cup in Brazil, but adds: "The negative tenor of the public debate around FIFA at the moment is neither good for football nor for FIFA and its partners."
There's more intrigue and new allegations regarding one of the suspended FIFA officials, Jack Warner.
I want to bring in Pedro Pinto from Zurich to explain that one -- Pedro, let's -- Pedro, this is a -- a strange development.
You'd better explain it, the -- the Warner one.
PEDRO PINTO, CNN CORRESPONDENT: OK. Well, there's a lot of -- of mystery surrounding Jack Warner these days, ever since he touched down here in Zurich. The latest report we have heard is that he wrote to members of the Caribbean Football Union advising them to vote for Sepp Blatter in tomorrow's election, which is a surprise considering that just two days earlier, he said Sepp Blatter was the man who needed to be stopped.
So that's the latest that we're hearing concerning Jack Warner. now, Max, I have to tell you that the sun may have come down for the day here in Zurich, but there's no doubt that it has not set on Sepp Blatter's reign at the helm of football's world governing body. We're outside the Hallenstadion here in Zurich, where the delegates from the 208 member associations earlier were -- were watching the opening ceremony for the 61st congress. And they were also enjoying a gala dinner.
We had a chance to catch up with a few of them before the -- the ceremony began. And there's no doubt that they still believe Seth Blatter is the man to lead this organization through these troubled times.
I had a chance to get the opinion of the head of the Portuguese Football Association.
Let's listen to what he had to say.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
GILBERTO MADAIL, PRESIDENT, PORTUGUESE FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION: Mr. Blatter is a good man and if you ask me, I think he's the right man to -- to lead. But FIFA is a big, big, big elephant now, you know?
I don't know, how you say it, it's very difficult to lead an organization that's like FIFA. But I think that the work of Mr. Blatter as far as I know, has been excellent.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
PINTO: And that was the tone, Max, throughout the -- the day and even the evening, I would say. Everyone admits there are issues. People made a few comparisons to the International Olympic Committee and the reforms they had to make after the Salt Lake City bribery scandal.
But they are still behind Sepp Blatter. And they believe he's a maintain to turn this around.
FOSTER: OK, Pedro.
Thank you very much, indeed.
With you as we get the results of that election, if it does take place. It looks like it will at this point.
Now, this is CONNECT THE WORLD.
Coming up, a harrowing tale of migrants who thought they were heading for a better life only to be subjected to the most appalling treatment imaginable. Will have firsthand accounts of their ordeals as part of the CNN Freedom Project after the break.
FOSTER: You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD.
I'm Max Foster in London.
Coming up, CNN's Freedom Project returns with a gripping story of a journey toward freedom, that for some, ended in rape and torture.
Then, New York widens its smoke-free zones to order areas.
But can the city really stamp out smoking at a park or a beach?
FOSTER: You're back with CONNECT THE WORLD. I'm Max Foster in London.
Coming up, CNN's Freedom Project returns with a gripping story of a journey towards freedom that, for some, ended in rape and torture.
Then, New York widens its smoke-free zones to outdoor areas, but can the city really stamp out smoking at a park or a beach? We'll explore.
And later, the tennis star who has created a new dance craze, Connector of the Day Andrea Petkovic tells us about the Petko Dance. But is her trademark victory jig about to retire?
All those stories ahead in the show for you. First, a check of the headlines this hour.
Former Bosnian-Serb general Ratko Mladic has arrived at the Hague, where he faces charges of genocide and crimes against humanity stemming from the Bosnian civil war. Mladic fought his extradition from Serbia on health grounds, but lost that appeal earlier today.
Sponsors of football's word -- world governing body say they are concerned about allegations of widespread corruption, and Britain's football association wants FIFA to postpone Wednesday's presidential vote. Current president Sepp Blatter is currently the only candidate.
Syria's government says it's granting amnesty to arrested protesters. A decree from President Bashar al-Assad says it applies to all charges prior to Tuesday, but a different report says protesters' punishments are just being reduced.
Some disturbing economic numbers from Japan. Unemployment rose to 4.7 percent in March, up one tenth of one percent. It was the first jump in unemployment in six months, and the data did not factor in the three areas hit hardest by the earthquake and the tsunami.
The World Health Organization now says mobile phone use can expose you to higher cancer risks. Today, the WHO added cell phone radiation to the same carcinogenic hazard category as lead, chloroform, and engine exhaust.
Those are the headlines this hour.
This is the fight to end the trade in human life. Over the course of a year, CNN's Freedom Project aims to reveal the dark world of modern-day slavery. From its victims to the perpetrators, we'll bring you some of the most incredible stories from right across the globe.
Tonight, we're investigating the horrors of migrant smuggling, those particularly vulnerable to trafficking. It begins simply with an opportunity to chart a better life, a brighter future. But as Kevin Flower explains, for those braving the journey, it can be a mission made for disaster.
KEVIN FLOWER, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): On a nondescript Tel Aviv street inside a modest one-room apartment, harrowing tales of human depravity.
"We were 17 people going to the Sinai, and I was the only girl among them. It took us 40 days to go from the Sudan to Sinai. The rape happened during the 40 days when I was coming to Sinai. When I said 'no,' they threatened me by knife and with their guns. I had no option. I just had to say OK."
These women asked that their identities be hidden, so we'll call them "Hannah," she's 22, and "Gannette" (ph), who's 25. They are Eritrean migrants who came separately to Israel seeking a better future.
"I thought things would be much different from Africa," Gannette tells us. "I got information from people who already arrived before me in Israel that the lifestyle is much better than Eritrea."
What they didn't know was that the men they paid $2500 to to bring them to the Israeli border would repeatedly beat, rape, and starve them.
"When I left my country, I was optimistic, and I thought I would reach my final destination. But at the point where I was with the Bedouin in the Sinai, I just gave up everything and said, 'This is the end.'"
When we spoke to them in a temporary shelter a few months ago, both girls had been left penniless and pregnant from their ordeal.
FLOWER (on camera): And these are not isolated stories. In 2010 alone, more than 14,000 African migrants made their way across Israel's southern border here with Egypt, 170 percent increase from the year before.
And migrant aid organizations tell us that with that surge has come an increase in horrific firsthand accounts of torture, rape, and slavery in the Sinai peninsula.
FLOWER (voice-over): Thirty-two-year-old Umani Tossfim (ph) left his six children in Eritrea to come to Israel, brought into Egypt's Sinai by smugglers. There, he says he was made a slave laborer for two months, digging ditches and moving earth.
He recounts how he had to get friends to pay a $4,000 ransom for his release, but only after repeated torture damaged his legs so badly that he was no longer able to work. Hobbling on one foot, he crossed into Israel.
FLOWER (on camera): With the political uncertainty in Egypt just across the border here, human rights groups are fearful that communications with the Egyptian government over the issue of trafficking will only get more difficult, and that a recent downturn in the number of migrants making this crossing will only be a temporary state of affairs.
WILLIAM TALL, UNHCR: Israel, now, is one of the main migrant roots for African mixed migrations. This is also quite significant, because Israel has received some 35,000 people. The flow to Israel, now, of 1,200 or so a month is one of the more significant refugee flows in the world today.
FLOWER (voice-over): And one not likely to stop anytime soon.
Tossfim, who is without home or job, tells us that despite his hellish ordeal, his decision to come to Israel was the right one. For now, he says, he is just happy to be alive. Kevin Flower, CNN, on the Israeli border with Egypt.
FOSTER: Well, we know it's a problem we can't solve -- or our coverage can't solve alone, but we do hope to put it firmly in the spotlight with the stories and the interviews that you won't see anywhere else.
If you do want to get involved and take a stand to end slavery, do submit a photo or video of yourself on cnn.com/freedom. We've also posted more details about how you can do this on our Facebook page, that's facebook.com/CNNconnect. Just make sure you send in your iReport and you, too, could be on our show later this week.
Now, no smoking, please. First it was bars, now New York's mayor tries to stub out smoking in the city's parks. But will it work?
FOSTER: Today is World No Tobacco Day marking the World Health Organization's fight against smoking in a year estimates that five million people will die from tobacco-related diseases.
Around the world at a national and local level, government officials are moving to crack down on lighting up in public. New York has just this week, just a week into a ban on smoking at the city's parks and beaches. So, CNN's Richard Roth went to see if residents are actually taking any notice.
RICHARD ROTH, CNN SENIOR UN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Summer is finally coming to New York. Reading, Tanning, and eating. But another activity is now banned in parks and at beaches. Smoking.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think it's a great idea.
ROTH (on camera): Why?
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We should all be able to breathe.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It's great. I have asthma, and I can't stand smoke.
ROTH (voice-over): The mayor of New York can't stand smoking, either. He signed the new law, the latest crackdown after smoking was banned in bars and restaurants.
MICHAEL BLOOMBERG, MAYOR OF NEW YORK: In this case, it came from the public that said, "We want this stopped."
ROTH: The outdoor smoking debate is now fuming. A protest smoke-in was held Saturday at a Brooklyn beach.
AUDREY SILK, SMOKER RIGHTS ADVOCATE: This is a symbol of freedom. Soon, you're going to be holding on to your hot dogs, your McDonald's, your cotton candy, and saying the same thing, because they're going to ban that next.
SHEELAH FEINBERG, COALTION FOR A SMOKE FREE CITY: Secondhand smoke is a danger. It's a known carcinogen, and any exposure to secondhand smoke, according to the US Surgeon General, is unsafe.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Nobody smokes in America. You go to Israel, everybody smokes there. Or you go to France. Here, nobody smokes.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: For Bloomberg!
ROTH: In a Greenwich Village park, the people were defiantly puffing.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The ban is dumb. I think it's ludicrous.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I think Bloomberg is a social engineer. I don't like what he's doing, he's telling people how to live.
ROTH: For now, the city may just be blowing smoke. Cards and signs are the first method to encourage smokers to stop and smell something else.
ROTH (on camera): Smokers will not have to worry about the New York City Police Department. A tiny parks department team is supposed to advise people not to smoke. In the end, it's going to come down to public pressure.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I'm not going to enforce it. I just walk away.
ROTH (voice-over): Smokers face an initial $50 fine.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I was just told as I lit my cigarette that I'm not allowed to go in the park anymore.
ROTH: Smoking is even banned at public plazas. Non-smokers look forward, at least, to the end of one particular pain in the butt.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: When he's in a public park, he'll go, "Mummy, what's this?" and have picked up a dirty cigarette butt.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: If you stop smoking, everybody's going to get fat, then they're going to be on the Twinkie patrol. You know? Oh, where's the cake at, you're getting to fat! Come on, man! Let us live.
ROTH: Richard Roth, CNN, New York.
FOSTER: Let's take a look at some other places with outdoor smoking bans. In January this year, Spain outlawed smoking outside near hospitals and in school playgrounds.
In Australia, cities like Sydney and Queensland have smoking bans on some beaches and outdoor eating and drinking areas.
In Hong Kong, you can't smoke in most public, outdoor recreational areas. The ban is enforced, and violators are fined.
And selected areas in Tokyo, Japan prohibit smoking on the street. Violators are also fined there.
And smoking is banned on all railway platforms in England regardless of whether they are covered or not.
So, are these smoking bans a victory for the health of the masses, or do they encroach on smokers' rights? Joining me to debate this issue is Deborah Arnott from the public health charity ASH. Also with me is David Atherton from the group opposing smoking bans, Freedom to Choose, the group's called, isn't it?
DAVID ATHERTON, FREEDOM TO CHOOSE: Yes.
FOSTER: First of all, I just want to ask you, first of all, Deborah, what evidence is there that secondhand smoking kills?
DEBORAH ARNOTT, CHIEF EXECUTIVE, ASH: Well, there's a lot of evidence from research done over many years, in particular looking at Japanese housewives who tended to spend most of their time in the home.
So, if they weren't smokers and they were suffering as they were from lung cancer and heart disease, then, basically, the reason for that was the exposure from their husband who were smoking.
So, from that, we know, really, what the odds ratios are for being --
FOSTER: It's not the same type of evidence as firsthand smoking, though, is it?
ARNOTT: It is the same kind of evidence, epidemiological research. It took many years to prove that smoking itself killed, and the research more recently has used the same tools to determine what the risks are of getting cancer and heart disease from secondhand smoke.
FOSTER: So, it's causing danger in public areas, so it has to be banned, doesn't it?
ATHERTON: Well, first of all, I want to pick at Deborah on a thing about Japanese ladies smoking and or passive smoking from Japanese households.
In Japan, it's thought to be morally bad if you're a woman who smokes. And generally on average between 10 and 14 percent of Japanese women who were involved in secondhand smoke studies actually suggest -- actually mislead the research on whether they smoke or not, 10 to 14 percent, so that completely skewers the figures.
FOSTER: OK, yes --
ARNOTT: Can I just -- ? I mean, if smoking is as harmful as it is, and it -- half of all smokers die from their addiction, the levels of exposure from secondhand smoke are very similar to light smoking. I mean, why would --
FOSTER: But what would it take, now, for the evidence --
ARNOTT: -- the logic, if --
FOSTER: No, but you know --
ATHERTON: That's completely wrong.
FOSTER: The scientific evidence isn't the same, that's the problem with this, isn't it?
ARNOTT: No, but actually, the World Health Organization, the World College of Physicians, the chief medical officer here, the Surgeon General, there is evidence over --
FOSTER: They tend to that view.
ARNOTT: No, not tend to that view.
ATHERTON: Well, with -- sorry, I've got to get --
ARNOTT: Actually, their reports say yes, this is the case. And Dave Atherton, I'm sorry Dave, you're not an expert.
ATHERTON: Well, let me pick up immediately on some points like that. First of all, I've got five papers at home that suggest what the average passive smoker inhales is one 500th of that of an active smoker. One 500th. Not even one percent.
Second point, there are, freely available on the internet, 82 individual studies done on passive smoking. Fifteen percent suggest a raised risk, ten percent actually suggest protection, and 85 percent have got the null hypothesis.
Also as well, if you move on, for example, to smoking bans and heart attacks, there was a matter analysis done by the Rand Corporation in America, it was published last year. It's freely available on the internet now, as well. It covered 217,000 heart attack deaths, two billion heart attacks --
FOSTER: OK. We've got the point that the science -- there's a debate around that, which is almost never --
ARNOTT: Yes, but why -- why -- why would the World Health Organization, our chief medical officer, the Surgeon General, all these very respectable people and organizations, be saying that it's not harmful --
ATHERTON: Well, first of all, the 19 --
ARNOTT: -- I mean saying that it's harmful if it's not.
ATHERTON: First of all, the 1998 Buffalo paper -- 1998 Buffalo paper World Health Organization, that actually proved that passive smoking was harmless.
FOSTER: OK. So, this debate, anyway, will continue about passive smoking, but apart from anything else David, if you're a non-smoker, it's really unpleasant if you're lying in the park and someone wafts a load of smoke over you. And it's a public area, so it's a bit unfair, isn't it, that for smokers in a good position, but the non-smoker isn't?
ATHERTON: Are we assuming that smoker's in a standing position? No. If you look at somebody sitting on a bench smoking, you can very easily avoid them.
FOSTER: OK, Deborah. In terms of rights, you're saying that the non- smoker should have stronger rights than the smoker.
ARNOTT: I'm saying that smokers have rights and non-smokers have rights. But actually, we're not saying that smokers can't smoke. It's just about where they smoke. So, they're not being stopped from smoking.
ATHERTON: Well, I've got fair smoking in a park. I'm a consenting adult, freedom of assembly, to consume a legal substance on private property. That's outrageous. That is a breach of property rights. No, this is tyranny, this is authoritarianism, no this is like serfdom, it's freedom in the highest state.
ARNOTT: It's actually untrue, not just in this country, but in every country where a smoking ban's been put in place, it's been as the result of public debate and the democratic process. And actually, the smoking ban in this country has 80 percent support and more smokers --
ATHERTON: That's completely untrue -- completely untrue as well.
ARNOTT: No, more smokers support it than don't support it.
ATHERTON: No, no, no, no. How are you -- how are you skewing --
ARNOTT: And comparatively, when 98 percent complied from day one.
ATHERTON: How you skew the figures, Deborah. The question that was asked the people in this country was, do you agree with Brits not smoking in pubs. And you --
ARNOTT: No, the question is --
ATHERTON: No, no, no, let me --
ARNOTT: -- no, the question now is --
ATHERTON: -- let me finish, if I may.
ARNOTT: Can I finish? The question now is, because you told me what the question was. I'll tell you what the question was. The question was, do you support the smoking ban? Do you support the legislation?
ATHERTON: No, it said -- it said --
ARNOTT: And the answer is, 80 percent --
ATHERTON: -- restrictions, it said restrictions.
ARNOTT: No, no, you're wrong on that.
FOSTER: OK. We're going to leave off on that, because we're going to get bogged down on that. In terms of enforcing this, we've learned from New York, actually, the police aren't going to go around issuing fines anyway, so it's a bit academic. It's all going to come down to social pressure.
ARNOTT: But will this -- exactly --
FOSTER: Are you --
ARNOTT: These things don't work --
FOSTER: But as a non-smoker, are we going to see non-smokers going around the park telling smokers off? Is that the answer?
ARNOTT: Well, I don't know whether that's the answer or not. I'm not --
FOSTER: But is it going to work?
ARNOTT: What works, and what worked in this country, we saw 98 percent compliance in pubs and bars from day one, which was the area where everyone said it --
FOSTER: But people understood that better than in an open space.
ARNOTT: -- because people accepted it. Now, one of the interesting things. This is going on in New York. It will be interesting to see if it works. If it doesn't work, if people don't support it, then --
ATHERTON: This is about the denormalization of smokers and treating them as --
ARNOTT: And what's wrong with that?
ATHERTON: -- second-class citizens.
ARNOTT: What's wrong with denormalizing?
ATHERTON: Oh! Oh! Right, so we are a minority to be scoffed out, maybe, like an ethnic minority or somebody who's gay? We are as bad as that, are we?
ARNOTT: What's wrong with -- what's wrong with being gay?
ATHERTON: Absolutely nothing.
ARNOTT: What's wrong with being an ethnic minority?
ATHERTON: And what's wrong with being --
ARNOTT: So, what's wrong with being a smoker?
ATHERTON: And what's wrong with being a smoker?
ARNOTT: Nothing's wrong with being a smoker.
ATHERTON: Well, fine. You just said we're second-class citizens.
ARNOTT: No, I didn't.
FOSTER: We'll let you continue debating that one. It's a big debate, and many people disagree on it, as we can see. We showed that very well, today. Thank you both for joining us today.
Still to come, your Connector of the Day. She's a rising star on the tennis circuit and on YouTube. We talked to charismatic German player Andrea Petkovic as she prepares for the biggest match of her career.
FOSTER: We are now at the business end of the French -- the French Open with the quarterfinals underway at Roland Garros. Many of the big names are still standing, Federer, Nadal, Murray, Sharapova, and tonight's Connector of the Day as well.
Andrea Petkovic is a rising star of tennis whose fancy footwork and charisma has made her a crowd favorite. Let's get you connected.
FOSTER (voice-over): She's soared through the rankings and is now number 12 in the world. Bosnian-born Andrea Petkovic is Germany's top female tennis player.
Age 23, she speaks four languages, and has become famous for this, the so-called Petko Dance. Delighting Grand Slam crowds from the US to Australia.
ANNOUNCER: Here's the dance!
FOSTER: Petkovic's fancy footwork has become such a craze, she's even filmed an instructional video.
ANDREA PETKOVIC, NUMBER 12 RANKED TENNIS PLAYER: It's a little bit like marching, but of course, trust me, it's a little cooler. Right, left, right, left --
FOSTER: Will we see this victory jig at Roland Garros? I asked Andrea Petkovic how confident she's feeling as she prepares for her quarterfinal clash against Maria Sharapova.
PETKOVIC: You know, she already won three Grand Slams, so she knows what she's talking about and she knows where she's been. So, it's going to be a tough one, and I just try to stay calm and concentrate on the next match and don't look too far ahead, because then you can get crazy. So, I'm just trying to stay in the moment right now.
FOSTER (on camera): One of our viewers, Nem, has a question about that match and asks what strategy do you believe will be effective against the in-form Sharapova?
PETKOVIC: Well, I made my coach hit some big strokes at me, and I served, and he tried to return as big as he could. And I tried to prepare, yes, for her speed, because she just has this hard ground strokes, so I tried to prepare a little bit for that.
FOSTER: And how important is it that you represent Germany when you're playing tennis, or are you playing for yourself?
PETKOVIC: For me, it's definitely very important to play also for my country. I love playing Fed Cup and I've just recently been given the Fed Cup Heart Award, which was a big honor for me, so I really enjoy also the team matches. We don't get to play a lot of team matches, so the Fed Cup is a big thing for me.
And also, sometimes it's a little bit hard on us German players, because we have this great Steffi and this great Boris that are always there and that are always some kind of a shadow above us.
But on the other hand, we are so lucky to have these kind of idols and to just been shown the way that it has to go. And I'm really proud to play for Germany.
FOSTER: One of the greatest female tennis stars in the world, Steffi Graf. I gather you recently met up with her. How did that go?
PETKOVIC: Yes, it was great. I met her in Las Vegas and I practiced with her for 45 minutes, which was absolutely amazing. She still hits so well, and she's still playing really well. I believe she could still beat some of us today if she wouldn't get injured that easily now.
But she's a great person. She just has a very warm personality. She knows where she's standing in life, and she's just so balanced. So, it's a great idol to have, and I was so, so happy to be able to meet her.
FOSTER: I'm sure you've had other idols as well, but who is it that inspired you to first go onto the court?
PETKOVIC: Well, my dad was a tennis player, as well. He actually played Davis Cup for back -- Yugoslavia back then. And he just wanted me to do any kind of sports, he didn't really care if it was ballet, American football, or tennis but, obviously, tennis was the closest one, so I picked up a racket and just started hitting some balls.
FOSTER: Jorgen Friis has a question for you. How did the much-talked about Petko Dance come about?
PETKOVIC: Well, it was a bet with my coach, actually. And I was playing really bad. I lost a couple of matches that I shouldn't have lost, and at the US Open he told me, "OK, if you win here, you're going to have to do something crazy."
And the first spontaneous thing that came to my mind was the little jig, and the Petko Dance was born.
FOSTER: Many of our viewers very concerned of your talk about retiring the dance. Can you confirm for us that you're not going to do that?
PETKOVIC: Well, I did retire it, actually, the Petko Dance. I'm having a little moonwalk here on the clay because it's quite fitting for clay, and I'm thinking of something special for Wimbledon, but I haven't found the solution yet, so if there are any suggestions, please let me know.
FOSTER: What sort of dance does that surface lend itself to?
PETKOVIC: Well, I thought about something football-soccer specific, because, obviously, England is -- has a big tradition in football and also the grass is quite fitting. But I'm not sure yet. Or maybe there's a traditional English dance that I could pick up, but I'm not sure yet.
FOSTER: There I am, asking all the crucial questions of the German tennis star Andrea Petkovic, there on the eve of her quarterfinals clash against Maria Sharapova in the French Open. We'll have details on that for you.
Tomorrow night, we connect you with the man who introduced us to the dark side. Hollywood producer George Lucas tells us all about a new Star Wars adventure, and you can take part. That's tomorrow night at this time as our Connector of the Day.
To find out more about all of this, do head to our website, cnn.com/connect. Remember, this is your part of the show, and it's where you can ask the questions.
In tonight's Parting Shots, amazing pictures from Australia's east coast of one of nature's marvels. Paul Kadak reports on what happens when water and wind are woven together.
PAUL KADAK, SEVEN NETWORK AUSTRALIA CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Our helicopter crew was off the central coast chasing the weather when it found them in spectacular fashion. A waterspout, churning through the ocean, heading for land. Majestic and a monster.
From the cloud down to the water, it's around 600 meters, a funnel of water vapor from the clouds above, brought down to the surface by rapidly rotating winds moving at more than 100 kilometers an hour, sweeping the sea water around it into the air.
And it wasn't alone. A glance further north revealed two more created from the same system, thriving in the wet and wild condition just ripe for waterspouts. Take the warm ocean water, cold air from the changing season, add those storms and twisting winds.
We tracked it for more than 20 minutes as it closed in on the coast. That's Terrigal on the right, Avoca Beach on the left, where people watched in awe.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: At first, it looks like the (EXPLETIVE DELETED) world's going to end, but no. It was cool.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Again, you can always buy rapids, but that was -- well, there's tornadoes we've seen recently. But it looked pretty impressive. I wouldn't have liked to be in a boat out there.
KADAK: Vince and Tony Bagnato were on a boat out there. Their fishing trawler, battling much rough than forecast seas.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Pretty amazing, pretty window and --
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: A little bit scary, too.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It was scary --
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We have one, like, today, it was about three points or better away.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Look, when you see it come like, you think it might comes toward you, I don't know what to expect.
KADAK: They've fished off Sydney for more than 20 years and never seen so many.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: About one, two at the most.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: But not three.
KADAK: As it neared the coast, it lost power and took just seconds to go from potential menace to memory.
FOSTER: Unbelievable, isn't it? Those stunning pictures were captured off the central coast of the state of New South Wales about an hour north of Sydney.
I'm Max Foster, thank you for watching. The world headlines and "BackStory" will follow this short break.