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Benedict XVI's Last Day; Interview with Mozilla Foundation's Mitchell Baker; A Look Back At Mobile World Congress
Aired February 28, 2013 - 08:00:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
KRISTIE LU STOUT, HOST: I'm Kristie Lu Stout and welcome to News Stream where news and technology meet.
Now we are live at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, the mobile industry's biggest event of the year. And all this week we've been speaking to the biggest names in the business. And today is no different, but there is another big story we are covering from all angles this Thursday. Benedict XVI's last day as pope.
Now the pontiff has said his final farewells to his cardinals and pledged his obedience to his successor. And his next stop, a country retreat. We'll take you on a tour of Castel Gandolfo.
And we get a snapshot of what the Catholic faithful worldwide expect from their next religious leader.
Now the pope is just six hours away from stepping down as head of the Catholic church. And earlier today he greeted the cardinals one by one inside the Sala Clementina Hall at the Vatican. And less than three hours time he will leave the Vatican heading to the summer papal residence of Castel Gandolfo where he will begin his new life of seclusion and prayer.
And then at 8:00 pm local time, the Swiss guards who by tradition protect the pope will abandon their posts at the residence's gate. And the Catholic Church will be without a pope until the next pontiff is elected.
Now Jim Bittermann is in St. Peter's Square. He joins us now live for more on the pope's final day.
And Jim, the pope is carrying out his final engagements. Tell us what's been happening in the moments leading up to his departure?
JIM BITTERMANN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, basically Kristie Lu, this has been a very private day for the pope. It's been behind Vatican walls. A number of people came out today to sort of see whether anything would happen that they would be able to spot. And in fact the Vatican kind of lowered expectations by not turning on the Vatican TV screens. There was video available of the pope greeting the cardinals. And one of the things that was a very remarkable about that occasion was in fact the emotions that were shown as the pope greeted each cardinal that was there individually.
And here's the way he put it at the end of that meeting.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
POPE BENEDICT XVI (through translator): Rome is my obedience. Respect for the next pope. And I give you the apostolic blessing from my very heart.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
BITTERMANN: And a big applause there as the pope said his final goodbye to his brothers in the college of cardinals. Now they in fact had a lunch with the pope just after that, that's still in progress now. And then of course the pope will, as you mentioned, in about three hours time will get aboard his papal helicopter and fly off to Castel Gandolfo. I think a lot of people have come this morning to sort of wait for that moment when the helicopter flies away.
It's the only chance today that the crowds here will get any kind of - - any kind of indication that the pope is on his way out of the Vatican and into retirement -- Kristie Lu.
LU STOUT: I can see the scene behind you there in St. Peter's Square. A lot of the well wishers have left already, but have you spoken to them, the pilgrims and the well wishers who had gathered there earlier about the feelings on the pope's last day?
BITTERMANN: Well, I think there's a lot of sort of emotions for Catholics. I'm not so sure that non-Catholics are feeling much emotion and basically have come here just to sort of be a part of history. It's also the beginning of uncertain time. It's -- first, they're going to be an election, there's going to be a new pope. But also there's a lot of questions about what exactly this precedent of a pope in retirement -- what kind of precedent is going to be set (inaudible) is that...
LU STOUT: OK, our apologies for the technical difficulty there with our connection there in St. Peter's Square. So Jim Bittermann reporting earlier on the final day for Pope Benedict XVI.
Now until a new pope is installed, we are in a period that's called interregnum. And that begs the question of who is in charge.
Now the college of cardinals led by Cardinal Angelo Sodano governs the church until a pope is elected, but its powers are limited and it can't make any decisions that will be binding on the next pope. Now Cardinal Tarcisio Bertone may be the most important official during this period. He runs the Vatican state.
And as the pope steps down, Catholics are looking to the future. And that means a new pope. But the election process is far from straightforward. Now CNN analysts and national Catholic reporter correspondent John Allen explains how it works.
JOHN ALLEN, CNN SENIOR VATICAN ANALYST: The pope is the spiritual leader of 1.2 billion Catholics around the world, and the most visible religious leader of any kind on the planet.
The new pope is always chosen by the members of the college of cardinals. They are the highest office in the church under the pope himself. Normally, when a papacy ends either through death or resignation, cardinals from around the world gather in Rome, they have daily meetings to talk about the issues facing the church and the qualities the new pope needs. We are talking about slightly over 100 cardinals who file into the Sistine Chapel cast ballots and pick a pope.
Conclave is a term that comes from two Latin words, meaning with a key. It refers to the fact that the cardinals are locked behind closed doors while they go through a highly ceremonial process of casting ballots and then burning them. Then it goes as long as it takes for somebody to get two thirds - the shortest conclave in history took a couple of hours. The longest one took three years.
In the old days, they would burn ballots largely because they wanted to maintain the secrecy of the conclave, that is they didn`t want the vote totals to get out. What they realized, is that when people saw the smoke from the chimney atop the Sistine Chapel, they knew a round of balloting had ended, and so they came up with the system where they would put chemicals into the mix to turn the smoke black if no pope had been elected, and white, if a pope had been elected.
In theory, according to the law of the church, any person who was eligible for ordination to the priesthood and therefore, an unmarried male, could be elected as pope. But in practice, the new pope will be elected from among the cardinals who are voting. That is the cardinals who are under the age of 80, who will take part in this election. Which means that the roughly 150 cardinals aren`t merely voters, they are all also candidates.
When a candidate crosses that two thirds threshold, another cardinal will approach him and say, do you accept your canonically valid election as Supreme Pontiff? If he answers yes, from that moment forward, he becomes the pope. The next questions is, by what name will you be known? And at that stage, the new pope tells his brother cardinals what he wants to be called. And in a few minutes later, when the announcement is made from a balcony outside St. Peter`s Square, the whole world will know the name of the new pope.
LU STOUT: Insight from John Allen there. Now you're watching News Stream. And still ahead live from the Mobile World Congress here in Barcelona. We will here from Mozilla's chairwoman about the search firm's plans to tackle Google in the operating system space.
When it comes to cell phones, does size really matter? We'll examine while the line between mobile and tablet is becoming increasingly blurred.
And as Pope Benedict XVI prepares to step down, our correspondents in Rome and around the world will tell us what the Catholic Community wants from his successor.
LU STOUT: Your watching News Stream live from the Mobile World Congress here in Barcelona. It is the mobile industry's biggest event of the year. And all week we've been looking at each of the major mobile operating system.
Now Apple doesn't take part in trade shows like this one, but we've talked to Google about Android, and to Microsoft about Windows Phone. And yesterday the designer of the BlackBerry 10 software system told me that he hopes the OS will win back customers and turn around the company's fortunes.
But there is a new operating system, it's been getting a lot of attention here in Barcelona, the Mozilla Foundation is slated to release the Firefox OS this summer. Now unlike other operating systems, this one is almost entirely based on the web where Android and iOS have apps run specifically for those operating systems, Firefox OS apps are all from the web. Think of them like the apps you can download on Google's Chrome browser.
Now devices running Firefox OS will be introduced into emerging markets first, but eventually it could provide an alternative for handset makers wanting to reduce their reliance on Google's Android, the current market leader.
Now I had the chance to sit down with Mozilla chairwoman Mitchell Baker here in Barcelona. And I began by asking her does the world really need another mobile operating system?
MITCHELL BAKER, MOZILLA CHAIRWOMAN: Actually we have another system, it's the web. And so we're not trying to create another new operating system. We're not trying to create the Mozilla Operating System or the Mozilla stack, what we're actually trying to do is integrate the mobile computing and the app world with the system we've all been using for the last decade, which is the web. And so we ship Firefox OS. We build it. It's our product. We hope people love it. It's an example of the web and of what returning -- integrating what's good with the web with what's good with apps.
LU STOUT: Who is your target market? I mean, is it the established market or the developing market?
BAKER: Well, our first market is the developing market. You know, ultimately we hope to bring this integration of the web and apps to everyone. And part of our mission, or the nonprofit organization. So part of our mission is to bring openness and innovation and competitiveness to everyone.
But the biggest unmet need right now is in the emerging market where millions or billions, potentially, of people will be coming to the internet from a future phone for the first time ever. And so when they come to the internet, we'd like that set of people to have a beautiful experience, elegant, affordable, and also have access to the content and the experiences over the last decade. Like how sad if you came to the internet or you came to the web and you were locked into what's been developed in the last two or three years and also couldn't integrate across devices and across platforms.
So that's where we'll start.
LU STOUT: You're going after the developing market first, but then you're going to also go after the established market, but there's a lot of players there. And even a company as big as Microsoft can't even get a significant slice of the mobile operating system market. So how are your going to succeed where as others like Microsoft are really struggling?
BAKER: Well, Microsoft is trying to build a third propriety stack, a Microsoft stack. So you would have a choice of Apple or Google or Microsoft. We don't really think anyone is going to succeed at that, not for the foreseeable future. And so we're trying to build access to the web, which is the greatest and largest platform we've ever known. You know, they're 8 million web developers, so maybe there's half a million if you're generous, or 400,000, you know, Apple developers, but millions of web developers. There's however many apps there are in the Apple App Store, but there's many, many, many times more web content.
So we're with you, like a third closed proprietary stack from anybody we think is very, very difficult.
But the third platform is already there. And billions of people are already using it and enjoying it.
So merging that with the convenience of apps and having an integrated experience we think is the only actual possibility of success. And we think that Mozilla is the right champion for that.
LU STOUT: You know, you want to bring in elegant, delightful, and technology wise a sophisticated smartphone experience to developing world at a very affordable price point. What kind of impact, social impact, do you think that's going to make?
BAKER: Oh, key impact.
So, first of all, when the developing world has access to the full power of the internet, then we have these 2 billion people who have some of the same benefits that we've experienced for the last decade. We know how transformative the web has been. So that's one aspect.
A second aspect is everything about the Firefox OS phone is open, everything. So anything that you want to improve from the network layer to the languages, to the customization -- so we see it as an empowerment tool for learning and education as well.
LU STOUT: That was Mitchell Baker of Mozilla there.
And phones with the Firefox Operating System will be available in nine countries starting in July. They are mostly in Latin America and Eastern Europe.
Now Alcatel, LG, and ZTE will manufacture the first devices with Huawei to follow later in the year. And Sony says it's engineers are working with the Firefox OS and exploring the development of a handset.
Now still to come right here on News Stream, much more on Pope Benedict's last day. We will take you to the country with the largest population of Catholics in Asia and hear what people there are looking for in a new pontiff.
LU STOUT: Now Benedict XVI has said farewell to each of his cardinals. But in the first time in nearly 600 years the leader of the Roman Catholic Church is stepping down from his role. In just a few hours from now he will lift off by helicopter from the Vatican to a life of solitude.
The Catholic faithful wait word of his successor. Now there are more than 1 billion Catholic followers worldwide. And according to a 2011 Pew survey Catholics make up half of the world's Christian population, but that population is shifting.
Now consider a map of the world where each continent's size reflects its Catholic population. This is how the world looked in 1950 with nearly half of all Catholics living in Europe. Now Latin America accounted for a third of the total, Africa and Asia not even 10 percent between them.
But look at this, just look at the difference in 2000. Europe's share has been almost cut in half. Latin America is now home to the lion's share. Africa is seen as proportioned growth fourfold. And Asia is up as well.
Now the Philippines has the biggest Catholic population in Asia. Many young people there are hoping that the next pope can bring the church in line with the times.
Anna Coren has more.
ANNA COREN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: For more than 150 years Ateneo de Manila University has been providing a Jesuit education, but students here think it's time for the Catholic church and its leader to embrace the modern life.
IAN AGATEP, UNIVERSITY STUDENT: I mean, we were all amazed when he had a Twitter account. I mean, you don't -- you don't see everyone -- oh look it's a priest, he's tweeting. That's a different life. I mean, it's really connecting with the youth. But not just that, how do you make faith interesting? How do you make faith something that you want to connect to?
COREN: As the conclave meets to select the next pope, these young Filipinos will be watching closely, hoping for someone they can engage with.
BERNADINE LANOT, UNIVERSITY STUDENT: We would need a pope who has charisma, who would be able to connect with the people of (inaudible).
COREN: The Philippines is home to 76 million Catholics, the largest population in Asia and its growing. At Christ the King Church in Manila, the priests hold 10 masses every Sunday to cater to the faithful.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: You know, this is the best time to give.
COREN: The parishioners all agree on one change they want to see from the papacy.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: In my opinion, it would be better if the next pope would be younger, younger so that he can serve longer and (inaudible) the Catholic faith longer.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I hope that the next pope will be a younger -- a younger pope.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: The next pope I guess should be younger.
COREN: They reminisce about the days of Pope John Paul II, a younger, more charismatic leader, who made visits to the Philippines.
In a country where nearly 80 percent are Catholic, religion reaches into nearly all elements of life.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: It will not be (inaudible) for the best interest of our nation.
COREN: Last December, lawmakers passed a reproductive health bill providing government funded contraception and sex education. Despite popular support, the church fiercely opposed the measure, a key reason why it stalled in congress for 14 years and it still remains a heavily divisive issue.
For the university students, it's not about changing church doctrine, it's about listening.
MARK ROBERT COPUYOC, UNIVERISTY STUDENT: More or less be more open to other ideas. And for example, some of us (inaudible) communities for the youth. There's always a paradigm shift in values. There's some (inaudible) that remain, but there's also a new more innovative, more liberal ideas that's being discussed. And I think the church needs a leader, specifically, who is open to discussion.
COREN: They believe the new pope could come from outside Europe, maybe even the Philippines. Manila archbishop Luis Antonio Cardinal Tagle is considered a contender for the papacy. He is also a graduate of their university.
Anna Coren, CNN, Hong Kong.
LU STOUT: Now the Catholic Church in the UK has had a more difficult time during Benedict's tenure as pope, scandal and suspicion have rocked the institution and the recent resignation of Britain's highest ranking Catholic, Cardinal Keith O'Brien, has only made matters worse.
And Charles Hodson joins us now live form London's Westminster Cathedral that is the most supported Catholic church in England and Wales. And Charles, what is the feeling there about the imminent departure of the pope?
CHARLES HODSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Well, I think that the pope will be -- his pontificate will be looked back on with admiration and gratitude. In many ways, he has been a very powerful spiritual leader. He's been a man who clearly understands the hierarchy very well. He's been a man who clearly is an immensely talented scholar in his own right, a theologian, a great thinker, somebody with immense experience of the church. And I think that is probably the view that will be broadly taken.
What I think people will register with great sadness is that abuse scandals have very much scarred his pontificate. You mentioned the resignation of Cardinal Keith O'Brien, I think that is only the latest in a series of really quite ugly chapters of discovery about sides of the church's life which is deeply distasteful I think not least to the pope himself.
But the fact is, it's dealing with those scandals which he tended to do instinctively behind doors rather than perhaps in a rather more open minded spirit. That is going to be his legacy in the minds of many -- Kristie.
LU STOUT: Even Benedict XVI seemed to hint towards that negative aspect of the legacy when he said that there were moments when he felt that, quote, "the lord seemed to be sleeping."
Now Charles, I wanted to ask you about the future. What is the latest thinking there about the future of the church and who would be best to lead it?
HODSON: I'm sorry, Kristie, I'm having real problems with sound here, could you repeat the question please?
LU STOUT: Sure. The latest thinking there about the future of the Catholic church and who should be its next leader.
HODSON: Well, I think that this is a very, very difficult race to call. I mean, others are experts on what is likely to come out of that conclave of cardinals. But I think what people would want is somebody who is strong, somebody who understands the church well, but who is a spiritual leader, doesn't necessarily need to be judged by the values of secular leadership, somebody who can be an inspiration, a pastor, perhaps a scholar as well. But I think somebody who is strong and well regarded by the hierarchy is going to be a very important person, that's going to be a very important criteria.
Because one of the things that the Vatican needs to grips with is the fact that it's seen as so opaque. People do not understand how it deals with things. Pope Benedict, as I mentioned, tended to deal with the abuse scandals behind closed door. That doesn't seem to be the 21st Century way. People want a lot more openness. If they can't have reform, at least they want to know what is happening within the church, Kristie.
LU STOUT: You know, it's been said and reported time and time again that the departure of the pope is such a historic event, that the last time a pope had resigned it was centuries and centuries ago. Is there any feeling that the pope's resignation could set a bad precedent for the church, that there could be perhaps forced resignations or direct challenges to future popes as a result of this?
HODSON: Well, I think that a lot of people are greatly surprised at the fact that the pope resigned in that way. But I think people have a lot of understanding for his reasonings. I think we're in an era of modern medicine. Pope's typically died much younger, died in office, and they died typically much younger than Pope Benedict, who let's remind ourselves, in his 86th year.
I don't think that there is a worry about a bad precedent, but I think that from a theological point of view, there are some interesting facts to this, some interesting aspects of this. The Roman Catholic Church is very much about tradition. For somebody to step down because they feel they're no longer up to the job in terms of their physical health may be regarded as a very noble thing to do in secular leadership.
But in spiritual leadership within the context of the Roman Catholic Church, which is so tied in with its tradition, it is a little bit odd. And people will always ask questions about this.
But I think that we have to take what Pope Benedict has said utterly at face value. He is a man who has had heart problems, who has got a pacemaker, and simply feels he can't do the job.
Probably looks back to the closing years of John Paul II's pontificate when he -- years -- as Cardinal Josef Ratzinger was very much at the heart -- had his hand -- the heart of what was going on at the Vatican. I think he felt that there was a slight implosion then, that there was not enough power being exercised in an institution which really needs leadership. And that may have been part of his thinking.
But I think bad precedent is probably not the right word, Kristie.
LU STOUT: Understood. Charles, thank you very much indeed for the added context there. Charles Hodson reporting live for us in London's Westminster Cathedral.
Now Benedict XVI is the first pope in six centuries to abdicate, but we found out about two of the previous cases.
Now in 1415, Pope Gregory XII resigned at the request of the council of constance to help end a split in the Catholic church called the Great Western Schism. It took some two years to elect a new pope.
And then in 1294, Celestine V freely resigned. He was a hermit who was elected at age 80. Overwhelmed by the office, he quit, and he was jailed by his successor, even worse, Dante damned him to hell in his famous Inferno.
Now it is a momentous day at the Vatican. And coming up we'll have more on Pope Benedict's final few hours as leader of the Catholic Church.
LU STOUT: I'm Kristie Lu Stout live at the Mobile World Congress here in Barcelona. You're watching News Stream. We'll have much more from here in Barcelona later in the program, but right now these are your world headlines.
Now Pope Benedict XVI is preparing to leave the Vatican. He will head around 25 kilometers south to Castel Gandolfo for a life of seclusion and prayer. It's the first time in six centuries that a pope has resigned.
Now U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry has just announced that Washington will give an additional $60 million in non-lethal help to the Syrian opposition. Now Kerry is among the world diplomats attending talks in Rome with Syrian opposition leaders. The new money and some $50 million in aid that the U.S. has already promised to the opposition.
Lawmakers in the UK say Britain's ministry of defense is wasting taxpayer money stockpiling goods it doesn't need. A report released by MPs on Thursday says that between 2009 and 2011 the ministry overspent by billions of dollars.
Now let's recap our top story this hour. Just five-and-a-half hours from now, Pope Benedict will step down as head of the Catholic Church. And the pontiff is enjoying lunch with his cardinals before departing for a life of seclusion and prayer. And the Swiss guards who by tradition protect the pope will bid him farewell as he leaves for the summer papal residence of Castel Gandolfo. And at 8:00 pm local time, the Catholic church will be without a leader. And the search for a successor will begin in earnest.
Now in his retirement, Pope Benedict will continue to live on Vatican ground in quarters that are being prepared for him now, but first he will spend some time at the papal retreat south of Rome. Ben Wedeman takes us on a tour of this historic property.
BEN WEDEMAN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: The massive doors of Castel Gandolfo have opened for popes since 1626. Pope Benedict once wrote only here could he escape the pressures of the job that was Pope Benedict XIV in the 1700s. Benedict XVI, as Pope Emeritus, will spend several months in this traditional summer residence of popes before returning to the Vatican to a live in a convent being specially prepared for his retirement.
Going back to Roman times these hills south of the city have been popular with the rich and powerful. It's a good place to go to escape the heat and humidity of the roman summer.
It's comprised of 55 hectares, almost 136 acres, of manicured gardens, olive groves, orchards and pastures, in the Alban hills, home to Frascati wine.
History runs deep here, with an ancient tunnel dating back to roman times.
From more recent times, you can still see the damage from allied bombing during WWII. The staff recount that thousands of local residents took refuge in Castel Gandolfo during the war, and the papal bedroom was converted into a delivery room, where as many as 50 babies were born.
Petrillo says he doesn't expect the 85-year-old former pontiff to spend much time outside. The Holy Father takes short strolls, he says. He isn't one to go on long walks like John Paul II. He is by nature a reserved man, a man of study, he doesn't like to stay out in the open.
He's more likely to pass his days in his private apartments, not shown to visiting journalists, or in the reception area, a relatively spartan set of rooms with little decoration but for a fairly vivid painting depicting the martyrdom of Vietnamese Christians in the 17th century.
The view, not surprisingly, is stunning. A residence, albeit temporary, fit for a newly retired pope.
Ben Wedeman, CNN, Castel Gandolfo, south of Rome.
LU STOUT: Now Castel Gandolfo is indeed picturesque. And CNN's Becky Anderson is there and joins us now live for more on the Pope's temporary home. And Becky, I mean, this is a historic lakeside retreat of the pope's. How has it been prepared for the arrival of Benedict XVI?
BECKY ANDERSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Yeah, well preparations have been underway for some time, but final preps, really happening now. This is a hive of activity in the square. Let's just open up to give you a sense of what's going on.
We've just been speaking to the local policeman here who says that the square holds about 10,000 people. There are about 7,000 or 8,000 people who are residents of this town that bears the name of Castel Gandolfo. And they will be allowed in first as will the nuns from the local area. Then you've got the media here, so pretty much we'll be in lockdown within a couple of hours because at 5:15 local time, and now it's just after 2:30, the pope will arrive by helicopter to Castel Gandolfo behind us. And he will appear at that window at around 5:15, 5:30.
We're not sure if he'll actually say anything, but certainly he'll give the sense of blessing to the crowd here. And then he'll disappear until the doors slam at 8:00 in the evening here.
The swiss guard who have been the papal bodyguards for centuries will abandon -- what's known as abandon Benedict XVI at that stage and you will not see him again.
Here we may not ever see him again.
There will be no camera on the helicopter we're told.
He does actually have a helicopter pilot's license himself, but he's not flying himself here today, but what he is doing is coming to start his retirement here. He'll be here for two months.
It is a beautiful setting, let me say. There can't be many better places in the world for peace and reflection and a sense of calm for a man who has decided to resign the papacy, the first to do so in nearly 600 years. It was 1415 when Gregory XII last abdicated.
So this is a man who is coming here for a couple of months to start his retirement and the rest of his life, effectively.
Two month's time the Vatican is hoping that his new apartment will be ready in what was a monastery. I'm told that the redecoration of that facility has been going on now since November, since who knows when people found out that he was actually going to resign, or indeed when he decided to do so. We of course only found out a couple of weeks ago in what was a sensational announcement from Vatican City.
So people gathering here, we've been here since about half past six this morning and it was quite empty at that stage, but we were under no illusions that this square here wouldn't be full as I say. And you can see now really absolute final preparations in tow. There will be the ringing of bells. There will be a torch procession here. And it's at 8:00 cutoff, that point at which that door will slam behind the pope and he will be there on what is the 135 acres of grounds, beautiful ornamental gardens, a small farm.
But we're told he's a very, very private man and he'll spend much of his time reading, perhaps possibly playing the piano. He's a classical musician, and reflecting on his life and the legacy that he has may have left, or has left for the Roman Catholic Church -- Kristie.
LU STOUT: Yeah, Becky, we're seeing this square starting to fill up behind you and the world is watching and waiting for that moment in a few hours time when Benedict XVI will make that appearance in that window right behind you.
Now you gave us a hint of what to expect in the months ahead of how he is going to be spending his time in retirement and time during this transition process, but we also know that once his resignation takes effect, Benedict XVI will lose his Swiss guards. So who will guard him, who will protect him as he stays there at Castel Gandolfo?
ANDERSON: One assumes it will be the local constabulary here. And that I would have to check on.
Certainly the Swiss guard as you correctly point out will leave this environment. It's fairly well protected, it's got to be said. And he will play no more role in the goings on at the Vatican even though he is moving back there as I suggested to what was formally a monastery.
So, the Catholic church, of course, will continue.
I'm also told he will play no role in the election process. He will only find out who the new pope is when we do. The rest of us watching around the world, looking for that white smoke as an indication that the ballots have been burned and that two-thirds plus one of the cardinals, the 115 cardinals who will be voting at conclave in mid-March. We'll all only find out then with Benedict XVI himself who will lead the church going forward.
They, of course, will have the security. They'll have the apartment - - the apartment at the Vatican, by the way, is being -- the door of which is being sealed tomorrow. And the only person who can unseal the pope's apartment will be the new leaders of the Catholic Church.
So one can only wonder what Benedict XVI is going through in what are these now final closing hours -- closing minutes of his papacy. Amazing times.
LU STOUT: All right. Yeah, amazing time, indeed. And you are there live on the scene at Castel Gandolfo for us. Becky Anderson, thank you so much.
And as the first pope to step down in 598 years, it is unclear what Benedict's exact role will be as pontiff emeritus and how big a part he will play in the church's affairs.
Now Senior International correspondent Jim Bittermann takes a look at some of the possible scenarios and their implications.
JIM BITTERMANN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: One day very soon a pope emeritus may be seen strolling the majestic Vatican gardens, living in a residents just a few hundred yards from St. Peters in the new pope's offices. It's hard to imagine that in a country measuring just two-tens of a square mile in area, with a population of about 800 people, that the old pope and the new pope, whoever he might be, would not eventually cross paths.
Already, people are starting to ask, is the Vatican big enough for two popes no matter how retiring one might be.
Benedict XVI himself in fact seems to be of two minds about exactly how much he'll stay in the background. When he handed in his letter of resignation he said he'd live out his life hidden from the world and, quote, "dedicate himself to a life of prayer." But at the same time, he told his fellow clergymen, "I will always be close to all of you. And I'm sure all of you will be close to me."
Still, Benedict, who once prayed at the tomb of a 13th Century pope who resigned and was jailed by his successor, has plenty of more realistic reasons to refrain from any further active role in church leadership.
For one thing, a pope who remained active could develop his own following, and that could lead to a split in the church. For another, the new pope, according to some, is going to have every interest in putting distance between himself and the leadership of Benedict XVI.
Even while the adulation and praise for the pope still echoed through St. Peter's Square, some Vatican observers were predicting that churchmen will soon prefer to forget the past eight years as a period when few of the church problems were resolved.
One of those experts is the author of a new book entitled "Crisis in the Vatican Empire," who says what's more that the pope's resignation has done irreparable harm to future churchmen and their institution.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: There has been in all these centuries a culture of the forever, which I think was badly hit by this move of the pope.
BITTERMANN: Frankel (ph) calls this papal transition very disorienting for senior clergy who he says now could be tempted to use the precedent of the pope's resignation to attempt to pressure future popes into stepping down.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: The collateral effects of these gesture of the pope are still to come. We are just at the beginning of a story. We don't understand even why actually the pope has resigned.
BITTERMANN: So even as the pope is helicoptering away to this splendid view form his temporary residents of Castel Gandolfo, he's leaving behind unresolved problems and unanswered questions, which may have lasting impact on his church.
Jim Bittermann, CNN, The Vatican.
LU STOUT: Now who will be the next pope? Now there's no list of candiadtes or public campaigning, but let's look at a few faces that could be in the running? Now first up, Cardinal Mark Ouellet who is from Canada. Now Pope Benedict chose him to head the Vatican's office for bishops. It's a major role within the church.
And one top contender is Nigerian cardinal Francis Arinze. The 80- year-old was a favorite for the role back in 2005 and is seen as a conservative on issues like birth control.
Another front runner is Cardinal Peter Turkson of Ghana. The 64 year old currently heads the pope's council for justice and peace and has experience working with young people of different faiths.
Now CNN's special coverage of the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI continues later today. We'll be live at the Vatican before the pope leaves for Castel Gandolfo. That's beginning at 3:00 in the afternoon in London, 4:00 pm here in Barcelona, all here on CNN.
Now News Stream is live from the Mobile World Congress. And coming up next, is it a phone? Is it a tablet? I hate to use the term phablet, but they are a big deal here in Barcelona. We look at these large devices next.
LU STOUT: Welcome back. You're watching News Stream live from the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, the mobile industry's biggest event of the year.
And we've had some time now to walk the floor and see what's big at the show. And in this case, I mean big. Now phones have been getting larger since 2011, some no longer fit in your pocket, but they've proven to be incredibly popular.
Now I looked at some of the latest oversized offerings with The Verge's senior editor Chris Ziegler.
LU STOUT: So this is a 6.1 inch phone from Huawei. Why do we need a phone this big?
CHRIS ZIEGLER, THE VERGE: I have no idea. I -- again I think it's the concept that you can blend a tablet and a phone into a single device. And so they're playing with these sizes between about 4.5 and 7 where they can try to make that happen.
But, again, it becomes a pocketability issue. How do you fit this in your pocket?
LU STOUT: With the rise of the so-called phablets, we're seeing this trend that phones are getting bigger and bigger where in the past the phones that were coveted were smaller and thinner. So what's going on here?
ZIEGLER: Yeah, I think that as phones become more and more powerful what people are realizing that the one thing that's lacking is the screen. In order to take advantage of that power you need to have a huge displace. So they keep getting it bigger and bigger, the resolutions are getting higher and higher. We're starting to see the introduction of 1080p phones, and it was only a couple of years ago that people started to get 1080p TVs in their house.
So it's an amazing time for technology, but it also means that we're struggling with how to put these things in our pocket, that's the big challenge.
LU STOUT: There are three main form factors in the mobile space. You've got phone, tablet, and something between called phablet. And the genesis of this idea, it came from Samsung, right?
ZIEGLER: Yes. The original Galaxy Note, which was a surprisingly popular device. I don't think anyone, myself included, thought that it was going to sell as many units as it did. And now we're seeing everybody do it.
LU STOUT: This right here is an example of a so-called phablet. The phone/tablet hybrid.
LU STOUT: I have an issue with the name. I mean, can we really use the name without snickering? Phablet.
ZIEGLER: I don't think we can. And frankly, that's the idea because you'll notice there's an earpiece at the top here. So I put this to my head, how can you not laugh at that.
LU STOUT: Yeah. Sorry about that.
So why did they develop this as a form factor?
ZIEGLER: I think that there was a desire -- at least Samsung perceived there to be this desire from consumers to have a device that replaces both the tablet and the smartphone, like so you don't have to carry two, or have one at home and one in your pocket. So they tried to fill this gap in the middle with these devices. And this is at the very top of the range.
The Galaxy Note II, which is their current most popular tablet, is 5.5. This is 8. So -- but the design is basically the same. It looks like a giant version of the Galaxy Note II. So are you going to put this thing in your pocket? I don't know. But you can try.
LU STOUT: This is the (inaudible) by Asus, tell me about it.
ZIEGLER: So, it's a 10.1 inch screen upfront, and then on the back you'll notice that there's a phone dock, which is very, very unusual. And he way this works is you just pop this out and then you have a phone that you can take with you.
All of the processing power for this device lies in here. There's an extra battery inside here so that when you dock the phone it can actually recharge it while you're using this as your tablet.
LU STOUT: But I mean, really, this is a 10 inch tablet that you can use to make phone calls. I mean, really. I mean, just how big is too big?
ZIEGLER: Well, the good news Asus is trying to thread the needle here a little bit. Instead of doing a phablet, they're saying, well, you know you do still want a big tablet like an iPad, right, and then when you go on the road you can take this with you.
Now granted, this is still a really big phone. This is five inches. It's only a little bit smaller than a Galaxy Note. But, you know, compared to this, it's better.
LU STOUT: Yeah. And from the three gadgets that we look at today, what can we anticipate? What's next in terms of mobile devices? Are they going to be bigger, smaller, or is it still be rectagular slabs of plastic? What's next?
ZIEGLER: I think that the next big thing for these guys is probably coming out of Samsung right now. The bendable displays, you're going to start to see those get integrated in the next few years. And that won't necessarily lead to a foldable phone at first, but what it is going to do is make the displays more durable. You'll be able to drop your phone and it's not going to crack as easily. And durability is a big issue for these things.
If I were to drop this right now I don't want to think about what would happen to it. So that's going to be a big trend.
And processors are just going to keep getting faster too. This is going to replace your entire PC.
LU STOUT: Speed and durability, big trends to watch.
Chris Zielger of The Verge, thank you.
ZIEGLER: Thank you.
LU STOUT: All right, Chris Ziegler of The Verge there. You saw Chris hold a few large phones to his face there, but let's look at another perspective. Now here is an example -- here is an Apple iPhone and it's next to one of Huawei's phablets. And that iPhone on the left, it measures 4.5 inches. The Huawei device, 6.1. So the difference is around 1.5 inches. But, as you can see, it is significant. This is proof that size matters.
Now this week we've talked to some top tech execs, but this show isn't just about the big guys. There are hundreds of smaller companies at the congress all trying to pitch their products. And many of them came directly to us.
Now here is three of the more unique ideas we've heard over the last few days.
ODED RAN, TOUCHNOTE: Hi. I'm here to talk about Touch Note. Touch Note is a free mobile app that lets you print and deliver all your photos from your iPhone or Android as real postcards and greeting cards anywhere in the world. You really simply select a photo from your iPhone or iPad or Android. I'll select here a photo of my dog. I'll add a quick message. Select who I want to send it to anywhere in the world. And my friend will receive the card within a couple of days as a real printed physical card straight from my iPhone or Android or tablet.
KENJI OKUMA, SENIOR RESEARCH ENGINEER, MORPHO: Hello, I'm Kenji Okuma. I'm a senior research engineer in a company called Morpho Inc, which is based in Tokyo, Japan. Today, I will introduce one of our latest products. It's called Morpho the focus. Let's take a look at it.
Now here there's no blur, but if you actually move this bar all the way to the right just like controlling this big lens on the digital camera, you can see that the background is blurry.
VLADISLAV MARTYNOV, CEO, YOTA DEVICES: Hi, I'm Vlad Martynov. CEO of Yota Devices. And today we introduced the Yota Phone, which is a dual screen phone which use LCD display and EPD display on the backside of the phone. An electronic paper display doesn't consume much power as the LCD display, so it's opened tremendous opportunity for all kind of user cases and scenarios.
For example, you have your boarding pass, but you're running out of battery. You can do just one simple gesture and you can move your boarding pass on the backside of the phone and it stays there even if the phone is completely off so you're good to go for the security.
We try to make phone a little more your life than the usual gadget so it has a kind of character. So when you activate the camera it gives this message to you.
LU STOUT: Three great pitches there.
So will any of those ideas become the next big thing? I'll leave that up to you to decide.
Now just ahead, we will hear what some tech titans are saying about the future of the mobile industry.
LU STOUT: Welcome back.
Now from new tablets from Samsung and Sony to software from BlackBerry and Mozilla, to a Huawei handset in a fishbowl. We have seen it all here in Barcelona. But the mobile industry is all about innovation, so what's next?
Now we've asked all our guests that question this week. And here's a sample of what they had to say.
STEPHEN ELOP, NOKIA CEO: The mobile phone is about moving around and being in different places. So anything you can do to help someone better experience the world around them, to understand who is around them, what's around them, what happened here in history, any of those things, those are opportunities for really valuable new experiences that I think will set devices apart.
GREG SULLIVAN, MICROSOFT SENIOR MARKETING MANAGER: The integration of mobile technology with other technologies in our life, how all of these things work together so that you don't have to become the systems integrator, the things -- the content you care about flows across the device. You tell it who you are and you sign in and authenticate. And then the stuff you want is where you want and when you want it.
BAKER: Empowering the developing world as the next 2 billion people come to the internet and move from no phones or feature phones into smartphones or true access to the internet.
DENNIS CROWLEY, FOURSQUARE CEO: Maps are super hot now. Everyone is trying to do maps. Everyone is trying to do location. But, you know, one of our big beliefs is that maps -- like I shouldn't be looking at the same map that you're looking at. It should all be different. One of the things Foursquare is really good at, one of the things we're talking to a lot of people here about, and I think two years from now we'll look back at the maps we're using today and think that they just look ancient.
DAVID MARCUS, PAYPAL PRESIDENT: New types of censors and new types of technologies are going to enable us to see the analogue world in a digital way and create amazing shopping experiences for consumers all around the world.
VIVEK BHARDWAJ, HEAD OF SOFTWARE PORTFOLIO, BLACKBERRY: Power now of the smartphone is that of what a computer is today. And we're going to leverage our platform that we built to really take mobile computing to a whole other level. You're going to see engagement with, you know, automotive and so many other areas of technology around where this really, truly does become the mobile computing in the palm of your hand.
MATIAS DUARTE, DIRECTOR, ANDROID USER EXPERIENCE: I think it's making things more real, more present in the real world. So you're not only looking at screens and pixels on screens, you're just touching everything around you.
LU STOUT: And that is it for News Stream. And that is all from us here at the Mobile World Congress. The show will officially close in just one hour from now. And it has been a great four days. We have spoken to everyone from CEOs to bloggers. We've seen everything from new handheld gaming system to a phone with two screens from Russia.
But whether it's been a logical evolution or an idea that just seems crazy, all of it has helped to give us an insight into what the future of mobile technology could be. And I hope we've been able to share that with you.
Now that is News Stream, but the news always continues at CNN. World Business Today is next.