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CONNECT THE WORLD
IPCC Releases Climate Change Report; Security Council Set To Vote On Syria Resolution; Coral Reefs in Danger
Aired September 27, 2013 - 15:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
MAX FOSTER, HOST: Tonight, moving towards a resolution as the UN security council prepares to meet just hours from now President Obama says an agreement on Syria's chemical weapons will be a potentially huge victory.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
BARACK OBAMA, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: Nevertheless, this represents potentially a significant step forward and I think...
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FOSTER: Tonight, why even with a resolution, chemical weapons inspectors still have a tough task ahead.
Also coming up, we speak to the head of Qatar's World Cup bid about claims that workers are being mistreated.
And a global warning, why experts say humans are putting wonders like this at risk.
ANNOUNCER: Live from CNN London, this is Connect the World.
FOSTER: We begin with several big developments on Syria tonight. First, the UN security council could be just hours away from passing its first resolution on Syria since the war began. The council is due to meet in around five hours to consider what one senior U.S. official calls a breakthrough compromise. The official says Russia has agreed to support a strong binding resolution that would enforce Syria's commitment to destroy its chemical weapons.
The U.S. President Barack Obama calls it a huge victory for the world. He says the resolution goes beyond what could be accomplished through military action, because it removes Syria's chemical arsenal.
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OBAMA: So, we are very hopeful about the prospects of what can be accomplished, but obviously there is a lot of work to be done. I think rightly, people have been concerned about whether Syria will follow through on the commitments that have been laid forth. And I think there are legitimate concerns as to how technically we are going to be getting those chemical weapons out while there's still fighting going on, on the ground.
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FOSTER: Also today, an international chemical weapons watchdog is expected to approve the U.S.-Russian plan for gathering and destroying Syria's chemical stockpile. Their inspectors could arrive in Syria by Monday.
UN inspectors are already on the ground. They're investigating three more reports of chemical weapons use that allegedly took place after the August 21 attack in Damascus.
Let's get an update now for the United Nations. Our Nick Paton Walsh joins us live. And it was the Syrians that actually asked for these -- or actually pointed out these extra cases, right?
NICK PATON WALSH, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: That's correct. I mean, these are three instances since August 21. I understand there was pointed out all by the regime. And of course the fact the inspectors are looking into them doesn't suggest they have already assessed there's some credibility. And they will leave on Monday to continue that report.
But you've heard earlier on to a senior U.S. official calling this resolution a breakthrough compromise. I think it's true it's a breakthrough in some ways, because they were deadlocked here for weeks. And it's certainly a compromise for the United States.
The Russians have pretty much got everything they want in this. It talks about western capitals as having binding and legally enforceable language in it, that's true, but it just binds Syria to the chemical weapons convention it already agreed to follow.
It speeds to time table up significantly. And it does delineate a little more clearly what would happen if there's said to be a violation on the ground. That gets referred to the UN security council. And then it also gives some language as to the kind of context any future measures might be voted upon.
That's the key point, there has to be another UN security council vote in order for there to be any measures against Syria. And of course Russia has a veto for that, Max.
FOSTER: So what's the process of events where you are tonight?
WALSH: Well, round about now, very soon in the next hour the OPCW in The Hague is supposed to put forward their technical document vote on that.
Then at 6:30, separately, but interlinked, the UN secretary-general will meet with the permanent five members of the security council and they'll discuss the Geneva II peace plan that's mentioned in the UN resolution, but not part of this disarmament deal.
And then 8:00 tonight, we will have the UN security council vote. That's expected to pass quite easily. And then the next stage is inspectors heading for Damascus on Monday, an advanced team of about six OPCW, that's the UN monitoring group behind the disarmament program, heading for Damascus to set up an advanced office, begin communications, logistics for a team to get on the ground.
I understand from an OPCW official, though, you know, we're looking really at a quick and dirty solution to getting rid of Syria's chemical weapons. Not the kind of decade long process of fully destroying them, just a way of, quote, rendering them beyond use. That's got to happen by the middle of next year to keep with the Geneva framework time table -- very, very fast time table established by John Kerry and Russia counterpart Sergei Lavrov, Max.
FOSTER: OK, Nick, thank you. Let's look at how other countries have got rid of chemical weapons stockpiles. The U.S. once had more than 28,000 metric tons. Since 1990, it spent $25 billion to destroy 90 percent of that. U.S. officials estimate it'll take another 10 years to destroy the rest.
Russia had a stockpile of 40,000 metric tons. It's destroyed 60 percent of those weapons over the past 11 years at a cost of $6 billion.
India and South Korea both had chemical stockpiles of around 2,000 metric tons. Over several years and in secret, both countries destroyed 100 percent of those weapons.
To help us analyze the challenges in ridding Syria of chemical weapons, we're joined by disarmament expert Paul Schulte. He's former director of proliferation and arms control for the UK ministry of defense. He's also a UN disarmament commissioner.
Thank you very much indeed for joining us.
This time table for Syria is quite extraordinary, isn't it?
PAUL SCHULTE, FRM. DIRECTOR OF PROLIFERATION/ARMS CONTROL, UK DEF. MINISTRY: Yes, it's going to be much the shortest, I think, of us the destruction of a substantial chemical program. But we don't know how big it actually is. It could be smaller than being estimated, which would make it easier.
And it seems to be largely with bulk chemicals, which haven't been mixed together. So that makes the destruction task easier than if it were mostly in warheads or shells.
FOSTER: You say we don't even know exactly what's there. But in the agreement we're talking about with Nick there, they called for an urgent funding to hire inspectors and technical experts to destroy what they think is 1,000 tons of chemical agents and precursor chemicals.
Where do you find those experts? And how many do you think you would need?
SCHULTE: It depends how it's going to be done. The OPCW have had people working and some have retired and could be brought back. There are still people who worked on the Iraqi disarmament. There are still people who actually developed chemical weapons. And they -- although getting old, they still have skills which could be used for their destruction.
How it will be done is the critical matter. And the OPCW is looking into that. And their technical judgments will be important.
There are two basic ways you can do it. You can incinerate the stuff, or you can hydrolyze it. You can use water and caustic soda and produce a kind of safer effluent which can be dropped off somewhere.
But burning produces some kind of toxic fume, some kind of problem environmentally afterward.
But that may be tolerable. If you do this in the middle of the desert, people may not care very much. But this is the kind of question that will be debated.
FOSTER: What's got all the Americans is the huge cost involved of all of this as well. If you do it properly and then clean up all the waste as well it costs billions, doesn't it, just for a small size?
SCHULTE: Much more to clean up than to create the weapons.
But the Americans are -- have built...
FOSTER: ...destroy them, I guess, when you make them.
SCHULTE: Well, probably not. Some countries don't.
But actually the World War II stocks had to be got rid of, because they were corroding. So there was evidence, which people were aware of that these things don't last forever and you have to have plans to get rid of them.
FOSTER: There's so much positively coming out from New York right now, but are you concerned that a couple of months down the line there may regret this time table they're enforcing here, because politically obviously it makes sense, but it's going to be very difficult to keep up with the time table and it could turn into a bit of a negative.
SCHULTE: I -- well, you say there's positively, and there is, but there are -- the other end of the spectrum, Senator McCain is saying this is something that makes him very sad, this is heading for a breakdown. So there are mixed reactions to this, the American ambassador has talked about a new norm, this is a breakthrough. Other people have said well we are defanged by this, it was only ever the threat of American military strikes which got the Syrians to cooperate. If you now take it another way as a likely threat and they have to worry about, can you be sure that they're going to cooperate? And that's what we'll have to discover in the coming weeks.
FOSTER: OK, Paul Schulte, thank you very much indeed for joining us.
Still to come tonight, a source tells CNN the terror group behind the deadly Kenyan mall attack had been plotting the operation for at least a year. We'll have a live report for you from Nairobi.
And there will be no room for weapons of mass destruction. We take a closer look at Iran's new pledge to the United Nations.
And the jury is still out in the Michael Jackson wrongful death trial. All that and much more when Connect the World continues.
FOSTER: You're watching CNN. This is Connect the World with me, Max Foster, welcome back to you.
Now the Iranian president is reiterating that his country will never develop nuclear weapons. Hassan Rouhani said to reporters at the end of a four day visit to New York, he stressed that he's ready for talks with major powers on his country's nuclear program and that he wants results in a short period of time.
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HASSAN ROUHANI, PRESIDENT OF IRAN (through translator): ...there will be a settlement on the nuclear file. And the issue, I believe, personally that in a not too distant future we'll be able to resolve and settle the nuclear issue step by step and to pave the way for Iran's better relations with the west, including the expansion of economic ties, the expansion of cultural ties and specifically the expansion of such relations between the western nations and Iran.
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FOSTER: CNN's Reza Sayah is in Tehran and sent us this update on how President Rouhani's visit is being perceived by people inside Iran.
REZA SAYAH, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPNDENT: President Rouhani holding his first ever news conference in New York, a press conference that capped off his visit to the UN general assembly, nothing new or groundbreaking coming from this press conference. President Rouhani essentially restating his position that Iran is prepared to negotiate and come to an agreement with Washington and western powers on its nuclear program. President Rouhani indicating that he believes that this could happen in as little as six months, although many are skeptical at that time table.
If President Rouhani's intention was to come to New York and impress and win over the world's media and world leaders, many will say he was successful. But lost in all that publicity is the fact that President Rouhani's position on the nuclear issue is the same position that the Islamic Republic has held for years. And that is they will not suspend uranium enrichment or end their nuclear program.
They are signaling that they're ready to make some concessions. Could they suspend uranium enrichment at 20 percent? Maybe. Could they open up some of their facilities to broader inspections? Perhaps. But what's clear is that if they make concessions, they want something substantial in return, they want to be recognized and treated as equals, they want their nuclear program to be recognized. They want to continue to enrich uranium. And they want an end to those economic sanctions.
Reza Sayah, CNN, Tehran.
FOSTER: A rescue effort is underway in Mumbai, India where dozens of people are believed to be trapped under the rubble. At least 13 people killed and 26 more injured when a residential building collapsed earlier this Monday -- this morning, rather. This is the second major building collapse in Mumbai this year.
Housing rights groups claim it's because older buildings in the city are neglected and rundown.
The two men accused in the brutal killing of a British soldier last May pledged not guilty at the old Daily criminal court in London today. Lee Rigby was attacked in broad daylight near the royal artillery barracks in the Woolwich area of South London. The trial is scheduled to start on November 18.
After her resounding election win over the weekend, Germany's Chancellor Angela Merkel is looking for a new coalition partner. The partnership most Germans want to see is with the Social Democrats in a grand coalition. And tonight, the center left party meets to decide if they will join with Merkel's Christian Democrat Party.
For more on this, we're joined by CNN's Frederik Pleitgen who is live in Berlin -- Fred.
FRED PLEITGEN, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Hi, Max.
Yeah, the Social Democrats are still somewhat I should say fearful of joining Angela Merkel in a coalition. That's why they have this party convention going on tonight where essentially the party leadership is going to announce whether or not they want to go into preliminary talks with Angela Merkel's Christian Democratic Union.
Now there's two sort of streams within the party. There's a very large part of the base of the party that really doesn't want to go into a grand coalition with Angela Merkel's Christian Democratic and that would really be very difficult for the Social Democrats, because as you said about 50 percent of Germans have said that is the kind of government they want for Germany.
The leadership of the Social Democrats have hinted that perhaps they are going to go into preliminary talks with Angela Merkel's party, but then also hold a referendum. So ask all the members of the party, some half a million here in Germany, whether or not they actually want this grand coalition.
We're waiting to hear from the party leadership at any moment at this point.
But if this coalition does not come together, it would be very, very difficult for Angela Merkel to form a coalition. And in the end, that could mean new elections here in Germany. We'll wait and see what happens. But it's all on the table right now, Max.
FOSTER: And what in terms of implications for policy are we looking at here for people outside Germany.
PLEITGEN: Well, the Social Democrats are a left of center party, but in the past couple of years similar, as you've seen in many other countries, the two have really come closer and closer together, the CDU and the SPD. Some of the things you'll see up for debate are tax increases, that's been the big word here in Berlin over the past couple of days really where the Social Democrats are saying we want higher taxes, we want more money for education, we want richer people to pay more taxes. Angela Merkel before the election said that is not going to happen with her as the Chancellor. But now it seems as though her Christian Democrats might be backing away from that in the hopes of getting this coalition together.
It really is unclear. Both sides are taking a lot of heat from their bases.
The other big issue here in Germany is a minimum wage. Germany, many people don't realize, does not have a government regulated minimum wage. So that's one of the things the Social Democrats want. It will be up for debate.
So those are the two really main issues, mostly economic and social issues where you could see Germany move further to the left of center, because of course, up until now, Max, Angela Merkel has been governing with the liberal party that, of course, was for more liberal policies here in this country.
FOSTER: OK, Fred in Berlin, thank you very much indeed.
Now a jury is deliberating for a second day in the Michael Jackson wrongful death trial. The closing arguments were delivered on Thursday bringing an end to almost five months of testimony. Jackson's family is accusing concern promoter AEG Live of negligence in the pop star's fatal drug overdose.
Live from London, this is Connect the World. A new report reveals that climate change is no myth. The world is getting hotter and humans are most likely to blame.
As many coral reefs struggle to survive, a new initiative allows you to take a dive from the comfort of your own home.
FOSTER: You're watching Connect the World live from London. Welcome back. I'm Max Foster.
Now from rising sea temperatures to melting ice caps and deadly droughts to severe floods. We hear about extreme weather events almost all the time.
The first part of a long awaited report by the intergovernmental panel on climate change came out today. The UN backed study has taken four years to put together and is the work of more than 200 leading authors from 39 countries. And the report itself is damning. It says humans are responsible for at least half of all climate change in the last 50 years. What's more, that people are behind -- the people behind the report say that they are 95 percent certain of this.
Now this year's report strengthens the already strong suspicions of climate change scientists.
Speaking earlier to CNN, IPCC chairman Rajendra Pachauri warned that people would be seeing the effects of climate change much sooner than they expected.
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DR. RAJENDRA PACHAURI, IPCC CHAIRMAN: A lot of people don't really understand the implications of climate change. And these impacts seem far away and into the future. And I think what this report, and the other reports that we are bringing out as part of the fifth assessment, will certainly create an understanding of why we need to act and what are the directions in which we need to act.
Let me also emphasize the fact that there's an enormous inertia in the system, you know, not excluding the inertia of human thinking. We are so set in our ways, it takes awhile for us to bring about change in the direction and you know for the gravity of the situation to sink in.
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FOSTER: For more on this report, we're joined by CNN meteorologist Jenny Harrison. Jenny, run us through some of the details here, because it's obviously a huge report, but very important.
JENNY HARRISON, CNN WEATHER CORRESPONDENT: It is a huge report. And just to start out with, Max, let me just summarize again just some of the points you were just making.
Yes, they're now saying 95 percent extremely likely now we're saying we're the cause. Of course, this is already going back since 1950. And in particular, I want to talk about the level -- the rise in the sea level which they're saying now by the year 2100 it could be as high as 1 meter. That is a huge amount, but 1 meter.
And also the rising temperature by the same year could be as much as 4 degrees. And of course, all this is happening faster than it was just left to natural causes, which is why we're saying we, humans, are actually really are to blame for all of this.
But when it comes to the rising sea level, what does that really mean? Well, look at first of all the coast that this really means. Back in 2005, per city -- per city, it was $6 billion. They're estimating by the year 2050, it is not that far away, $52 billion per city. So overall, globally, by that same year, it is estimated to be costing $1 trillion.
Many reasons for this. Of course population, that is continuing to increase. T he assets involved, storm frequency, and also of course the strength of these storms that we're now talking about. The rise in the sea level of course. And the defenses. Many, many places just do not have the defenses in place to cope with what could be such a huge rise in the seal levels.
In particular some of these cities.
Now this list of cities actually comes from the World Bank. They put this report out just back in August. And in fact, on the list, cites number two and three are Miami and New York. But we've taken them off this list for the simple reason it's a cost measure as a percentage of GDP. Now cities like Miami and New York, of course, they're generally wealthy cities. They have the means, the wherewithal to actually begin, if they want to, to actually put some measures in place.
But just look at these cities on this list. We've got cities in China. We've got cities in Vietnam, Ivory Coast, cities in India, cities in Sumatra, cities also in Bangladesh.
So very, very vulnerable cities with huge populations, but which really do not have in place the measures to deal with this.
Now if we began right now to really do something about this we are saying that by that same year, 2100, we could perhaps stem the rise and it could only be still high, but only be as much as perhaps half a meter, .6. If we do nothing, well, then as we know they're estimating it could go as high as 1 meter.
So this is why obviously now there are concerns about this.
Already, we've talked about this, certainly in our department. To you, we've been talking about already the strong evidence, the heat waves, coastal flooding. We just talked about this. Heavy rain events and drought.
Still, there's limited evidence about the increase in hurricanes, and of course the strength of those and also tornadoes, which are spawned by severe thunderstorms.
The next report will be due out in 2019. So we'll see if by then there's actually more evidence on that.
The other thing, Max, I believe you want to talk about the skeptics they're talking about, the warming, the temperature, the global surface temperature. Well, you can see here this straight line since 1950. There's a little bit of talk about the skeptics the last 12 years, how it really hasn't risen as much. But in actual fact, that's just a 12 year span. So when you actually put all of that together and look at it over the entire years, you can see again there's a number of decades where we've had similar lack, if you like, of rise, but overall there is the rise in temperature.
And just for those skeptics out there, Max, have a look at this last image. I just want to show you this, 1960, the Matterhorn, look at the snow that was on there in August. Look at it in 2005. That was what it looked like back in 1960. Look at it against in 2005. Hardly any snow at all -- Max.
FOSTER: OK, Jenny, thank you very much indeed.
Those who watch the seas for signs of climate change say the shallow waters of the world's reefs are the first to be affected by rising temperatures. Take a look at an effort now underway to make the planet's reefs a mere mouse click away.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: There are many people that still don't understand the seriousness of climate change. As sea temperatures continue to increase, what we'll see is a continued downturn in the amount of coral on these magnificent systems.
Global Reef Record is essentially a databank that we are creating that will be accessible to anybody or any organization that's interested in the issue of coral reefs worldwide.
The ability for people to go virtually diving, to actually experience these reefs firsthand and to understand the problem.
We've got these SD2 cameras, which look a little like a military torpedo with this strange three eyed component on the end of them. And of course, it's got three cameras that are triggered to take high definition pictures all at once. And the great advantage of that is that you can then sit it into a 360 degree image, a bit like street view as you see on Google.
So it's really underwater street view.
Well, we started with the Great Barrier Reef in 2012. And basically went to over 30 sites, recorded 150,000 images.
This is all about getting that global snapshot that we need for this important ecosystem as we go forward in time, because as we know as sea temps increase, we're going to see more coral bleaching, mortality, there's more stresses from non-climate sources. So it's all about getting that snapshot that we need to understand change. Without it, we're lost.
One of the first things to realize about reefs if that they actually occupy a tiny part of the Earth's surface, yet 25 percent of all marine species live in and around coral reefs. So they're these sort of magnets for biodiversity.
No, I remember first time I went and saw you know these fish that were the most multi-colored -- you know, there's no artist on the planet who could dream these things up, because it is really one of the most magical places on the planet: clear water, sharks, turtles. So consequently it's a real concern that they're in steep decline.
If we continue along that pathway where, you know, we continue to pump CO2 into the atmosphere, we continue to have heating of the world's oceans, every year will be too warm for corals. And of course what will happen then is that our current slide, the loss of 50 percent of those corals after last 30 years will continue until we have very, very low amounts of coral on reefs.
What we will see is that many parts of the world, if we continue on this journey, will become increasingly vulnerable to insecurity in their food supply, to crowding along coastlines over the last resources left there.
You know, they estimate around 300 to 500 million people get their daily food and livelihood from coral reefs alone.
For many reasons, reefs are a bit of a -- they're a storyline about climate and about what we're doing to the oceans and in many ways the signal to say we've got to do things differently.
FOSTER: The latest world news headlines just ahead.
Plus, some surprising new details in the investigation into the deadly mall siege in Kenya and a chilly warning from the terror group behind the attack.
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UNIDENTIFIED MALE: So I describe it as a slave state. All I can say it simply outrageous.
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FOSTER: We hear from the head of Qatar's 2022 World Cup organizing committee about recent allegations of labor abuse inside the country.
FOSTER: This is CONNECT THE WORLD, the top stories this hour. The UN Security Council will meet about four and a half hours from now to discuss Syria. The talks follow a deal on a draft solution -- resolution concerning the eradication of Syria's chemical weapons.
Syrian activists say a car bombing in the town of Rankous in Damascus province has killed dozens of people. It has been the scene of frequent fighting between rebel and regime forces.
Iranian president Hassan Rouhani has said the timetable was too short to arrange substantive direct talks with US president Barack Obama this week in New York, that is why they didn't meet face-to-face, but Rouhani did express optimism about the potential for direct talks in the future.
The US Senate has approved a stop-gap spending bill to keep the government running, but it includes funding for the health care program known as Obamacare. The US House already passed a bill that removed funding for the president's health care law, so it now must consider the Senate version.
More information is emerging about the devastating attack on Kenya's Westgate Mall. A CNN source has revealed that al-Shabaab terrorists or their associates rented a store in the complex a year before the attack. The senior Kenyan official involved in the investigation also disclosed that three more people have been arrested near the border with Uganda in connection to the siege.
It comes as a Twitter account believed to be run by the Somali terror organization has promised more attack to come. For more, let's bring in CNN's David McKenzie, who joins us now, live from Nairobi. And some question about the government's handling of the response here?
DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: I think there are some serious questions, Max, being asked by many people about the way the Kenyan government has handled this attack.
Initially, those questions should be around the actual handling of the attack itself. The indication's now that on -- as early as Saturday evening, just hours after the attack commenced, there could have been a moment to end the siege. Talking to security officials and witnesses, we've learned that, in fact, they'd cornered those attackers in one small part of the mall.
And then, when the Kenyan military came in, the Kenyan defense forces, that confusion might have reigned, and because of the in-fighting between different agencies and different groups here within Kenya, that might have at least led in part to the continued siege for several days.
We don't know, in the end, what the death toll will be in this terrible attack. It stands now at 67, but many people are still missing, and forensic experts are now combing through the evidence and the debris, both to find out who might have died there and also the identity of the attackers.
And that disturbing new report you mentioned, Max, that Kenyan intelligence officials telling CNN that the attackers or their associates might have rented a small shop, a cell phone shop, we believe, inside the Westgate Mall for at least a year so they could plan this attack and potentially store weapons inside the mall.
Certainly very disturbing when you consider that very little actionable intelligence came out to the public, at least, before this attack happened.
FOSTER: But they're now monitoring this Twitter account as well, so are we sure that the treats being made from there are worth worrying about?
MCKENZIE: I think that threats are always worth worrying about. It's kind of a situation, if you don't --
FOSTER: OK, we've lost David, there, but we'll come back to him when we can. Investigators still aren't sure how many died in the terrorist attack, as David was saying, in that mall in Kenya. As many as 61 people are still missing. Some of the survivors have shared their stories with us.
ALEEM MANJI, WESTGATE MALL ATTACK SURVIVOR: We heard a series of gunshots. We called everyone to the corner, all the kids and the mums and the parents and everyone, and we said, "Get down! Get down! Get down on the floor!" And just as we did that, the gunmen tossed a grenade to where we were.
TEXT: Saturday, September 21
Shots and explosions were heard coming from the busy Westgate Shopping Mall in Nairobi.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I was sitting with my daughter. My wife was doing some shopping upstairs. She had left us just a couple minutes before, and heard a loud explosion or blast, followed by some gunshots. All of a sudden, a wave of people started running back away from the parking lot, so I just sort of turned and ran back.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: There are shots upstairs.
BENDITA MALAKIA, WESTGATE MALL ATTACK SURVIVOR: Then we heard machine gun, and then we started to run, and there was a second explosion, which knocked us on the ground.
KAMAL KAUR, WESTGATE MALL ATTACK SURVIVOR: The sound was loud, and children -- I believe they've never heard something that loud, so they started screaming. And at the same time, the shots started coming in, and I just watched, because we were right near the wall.
I saw something whiz by my son's head, just like that. And it bounced from the wall and hit the little boy over here, who was standing next to him. I tried to put my hand there to stop bleeding. I don't know what I was doing. I don't know what I was doing, but I couldn't save him.
MALAKIA: You could hear while we were back there them methodically going from store to store, talking to people, asking questions, shooting, screams, and then it would stop for a while, and then they would go to another store.
MANJI: A guy with a white shirt spoke first, and he said, "We're from Somali, and we don't normally kill women and children. But then again, you've killed our women and children." His colleague next to him --
SEEMA MANJI, WESTGATE MALL ATTACK SURVIVOR: Thin, tall, skinny face, black, scar --
A. MANJI: -- he just opened fire.
S. MANJI: -- fire.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I would say the scariest moment was when some people started to leave about maybe an hour and a half into our time there, and then I made it about halfway across the room. All of a sudden, a wave of people came -- came running back.
At that point, I had no idea if we'd been discovered, if somebody knew where we were and was coming after us. So, that was -- that was definitely the most terrifying moment of those three hours when we were in that room.
SHIRYE GUDKA, WESTGATE MALL ATTACK SURVIVOR: We were helping everyone who got shot or something, because they were all bleeding. So, we had our aprons, so we had to give it to them so they would stop bleeding.
UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: You can't sleep. It's -- you just remember things, and at least there was one point I just thought I had lost her.
SAMUEL, FATHER KILLED IN MALL MASSACRE: We have been trying to look for our dad since Saturday, and today we found him, although he was dead. Can't say anything because we have nothing to do. Let's forgive those guys who do that and God do his work.
FOSTER: Do join us for a CNN special this weekend, a deeper look into the Westgate tragedy. That's Saturday, 10:30 AM in London, 1:30 PM in Abu Dhabi.
Live from London, you're watching CONNECT THE WORLD. Up next, we ask the man leading Qatar 2022 World Cup committee about moving the World Cup to winter.
FOSTER: Qatar is facing increased international pressure after a report in "The Guardian" reported that dozens of Nepalese migrant workers died over the summer. The International Trade Union Confederation claims hundreds are dying every year, and thousands more could be killed before a ball is kicked in 2022.
ITUC secretary-general Sharan Burrow spoke to my colleague Monita Rajpal a little earlier, and here's what she had to say.
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SHARAN BURROW, GENERAL SECRETARY, INTERNATIONAL TRADE UNION CONFEDERATION: You're talking about a slave state. That's an extreme statement, I know, in the 21st century, but what else can you call an environment where workers are totally controlled by an employer, they're forced to live in squalor, they are, indeed, pushed to work in extreme heat, often left without enough water for very long hours.
And then they go home to cook food in unhygienic conditions, live 8, 10, 12, to a room, and even if they want to leave, if they've just had enough, they can't go because the employer has to sign an exit visa or sign their papers to allow them to work for a better employer.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
FOSTER: Well, CNN sports correspondent Alex Thomas spoke to the chief executive of Qatar 2022, Hassan al-Thawadi, a short while ago, and he joins me live on set. What did he have to say in response?
ALEX THOMAS, CNN SPORTS CORRESPONDENT: Well, essentially we heard that International Trade Union Confederation calling Qatar a slave state, and the implication from the reports this week is that the authorities are somehow been turning a blind eye to the abuses of workers in the country, and that's something that Mr. al-Thawadi completely rejects.
HASSAN AL-THAWADI, CHIEF EXECUTIVE, QATAR 2022: If you look at the history of the state of Qatar and you look at the initiative that the state has done, I think -- the policies that were put in place show that there's a determination and there's a serious concern and care about workers' welfare in general.
As well as putting in some of the systems in place that have been put in over the last few years since 1995, effectively, showcase that there's a determination towards addressing workers' situations. So to describe it as a slave state, all I can say is it's simply outrageous.
THOMAS: The general secretary of the International Trade Union Confederation was reacting when questioned by CNN to reports in a British newspaper this week, and they were outlining claims that said workers were going without food, without water, they'd had passports confiscated, they were forced to live in cramped conditions and work for many more hours during the day than you'd think would be normal.
As someone who's overseeing the construction work, amongst your many other duties for the 2022 World Cup, would you be worried if workers working on your projects were subject to those sorts of conditions?
AL-THAWADI: Alex, I think it's very important to point out, myself as a Qatari, as a Qatari citizen, as a person responsible for the World Cup, I'd be worried and concerned and appalled and disgusted at any individual working on any project -- not just related to the World Cup, but any project out there -- that suffers such circumstances.
And definitely the stories that have been reported recently are being investigated currently, the government's taking a look at them --
FOSTER: We're going to bring in President Obama, who's speaking in Washington. He has -- I should just confirm that he had direct talks across a telephone line with his Iranian counterpart, so let's hear what he's saying following that.
BARACK OBAMA, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: -- can accomplish a major diplomatic breakthrough on Syria, as the United Nations Security Council will vote on a resolution that would require the Assad regime to put its chemical weapons under international control so they can ultimately be destroyed.
This binding resolution will ensure that the Assad regime must keep its commitments or face consequences. We'll have to be vigilant about following through, but this could be a significant victory for the international community and demonstrate how strong diplomacy can allow us to secure our country and pursue a better world.
Now, America's security and leadership don't just depend on our military strength or our alliances or our diplomacy. First and foremost, America's strength depends on a strong economy, where our middle class is growing and everyone who works hard has a chance to get ahead.
So, let me say a few words about the situation that's developed over the past few weeks on Capitol Hill. Here at home, the United States Congress has two pressing responsibilities: pass a budget on time and pay our bills on time.
If Congress chooses not to pass a budget by Monday, the end of the fiscal year, they will shut down the government, along with many vital services that the American people depend on.
The good news is, within the past couple of hours, the United States Senate, Democrats and Republicans, acted responsibly by voting to keep our government open and delivering the services the American people expect.
Now, it's up to the Republicans in the House of Representatives to do the same. I say that because, obviously, Democrats have a great interest in making sure that these vital services continue to help the American people. And so far, the Republicans in the House of Representatives have refused to move forward.
And here's the thing: unlike the last time they threatened this course of action, this debate isn't really about deficits. In fact, our deficits are falling at the fastest pace that they have in 60 years. By the end of this year, we will have cut our deficits by more than half since I took office.
So, that's not what this is about. And in fact, if you've been following the discussion, the Republicans in the House don't even make a pretense that that's what this is about. Instead, the House Republicans are so concerned with appeasing the Tea Party that they've threatened a government shutdown, or worse, unless I gut or repeal the Affordable Care Act.
I said this yesterday, let me repeat it: that's not going to happen. More than 100 million Americans currently already have new benefits and protections under the law. On Tuesday, about 40 million more Americans will be able to finally buy quality, affordable health care, just like anybody else.
Those marketplaces will be open for businesses on Tuesday no matter what, even if there's a government shutdown. That's a done deal.
As I said before, if Republicans have specific ideas on how to genuinely improve the law, rather than gut it, rather than delay it, rather than repeal it, I'm happy to work with them on that, through the normal democratic processes. But that will not happen under the threat of a shutdown.
So, over the next three days, House Republicans will have to decide whether to join the Senate and keep the government open, or shut it down, because they can't get their way on an issue that has nothing to do with the deficit.
I realize that a lot of what's taking place right now is political grandstanding, but this grandstanding has real effects on real people. If the government shuts down on Tuesday, military personnel, including those risking their lives overseas for us right now, will not get paid on time.
Federal loans for rural communities, small business owners, families buying a home will be frozen. I'm already starting to get letters from people worried that this will have an impact --
FOSTER: President Obama, currently holding a press conference. A significant comment he made is that he has had direct talks -- an historic moment, really -- with his Iranian counterpart. It was on the phone. President Obama said he believed a comprehensive agreement was possible regarding Iran's nuclear ambitions.
He said the test will be meaningful, transparent, and verifiable action, and would also ease international sanctions in place against Iran. But a significant moment. And also, Iranian president confirmed that phone call as well on his Twitter account. And there it is.
So, we'll get more details on this from Washington and the UN in New York, but very interesting, the two sides have had those direct talks.
Do stay with CONNECT THE WORLD. We'll have more in just a moment.
FOSTER: Let's have a look at what's happening in the world of entertainment. Here's Becky.
BECKY ANDERSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): On this edition of CNN Preview, on stage with Metallica.
A Bollywood star's shameless secret.
And a decade after her farewell tour, Cher is at it again.
(VIDEO CLIP - "METALLICA: THROUGH THE NEVER")
ANDERSON: While Metallica's notorious documentary "Some Kind of Monster" gave fans an up-close and personal view of a band teetering on the verge of implosion, "Through the Never" avoids the personal, but gets closer than ever before to the action on the stage.
It's a concert movie interlaced with a strange, dramatic narrative, featuring a young member of the band's road crew sent on an urgent errand in a strange cityscape beset by rioters and weirdos. The 3D movie comes equipped with even more cameras than guitar riffs to record the band's spectacular performance of its impressive back catalog.
LARS ULRICH, METALLICA: I wouldn't trade any of what I'm living now for 20 years ago when I never slowed down long enough to even take any of it in, you know what I mean? And so, the aging process, the maturing process, I welcome all of it. I'm not -- I'm not regretting any of it.
And ultimately, I think Metallica's just a more human -- endeavor these days. We don't sit and argue and yell like we -- "You screwed up that part, and what were you thinking there? And you let the team down!" And all those military precision crap from 20 years ago. Now it's just, we go up on stage every night, we do the best we can, and it is what it is.
(VIDEO CLIP - "BESHARAM")
ANDERSON: Ranbir Kapoor is adored by millions of movie fans as the golden boy of Indian cinema. But his latest character is much more difficult to like. He plays a self-obsessed guy who's in love with himself as much as the women in his life.
RANBIR KAPOOR, ACTOR: I play -- his name is Babli, and it's the first time I'm playing a bit larger-than-life, over-the-top, vulgar, repulsive kind of a guy. It was really interesting. It was a departure from the other kind of roles I've done in my career.
You should loathe him, and then like him through the course of the film. When you start watching him, we did want the audience to feel a little repulsed, like, what is he doing? Why is he behaving -- why is he so uncouth and all of that?
But I think the heart of him is actually "besharam," which means shameless. It's not actually his demeanor, or not trying to embarrass anyone. He's just shamelessly honest with his heart.
ANDERSON: It's more than a decade since Cher announced her farewell tour, which took her around the world for three years.
(MUSIC - "WOMAN'S WORLD" BY CHER)
ANDERSON: But time is a great healer, and the singer is heading back on the road again next year in support of her new album, "Closer to the Truth."
CHER, SINGER: If I don't do it now, I know I won't do it. I'm like, when Tina came back and did a tour at 70, that's not going to be me. She's got a lot more life force. The reason I decided to do it is because it was now do it or never do it, and I wasn't sure that I would be happy in five years or how many years and look back and thought, I could have done it, and I know I can't do it now.
(MUSIC - "WOMAN'S WORLD" BY CHER)
ANDERSON: She'll be performing in North American from March until July, with the rest of the world surely to follow.
(MUSIC - "HOME AGAIN" BY ELTON JOHN)
ANDERSON: But we end this edition of CNN Preview with an iconic pop star who's had hit records in each of the last five decades. Elton John's 31st studio album, "The Diving Board," debuted at number three in the UK album charts, his highest position for 12 years.
(MUSIC - "HOME AGAIN" BY ELTON JOHN)
ANDERSON: I'm Becky Anderson, see you next time.
FOSTER: A truly historic moment in the past half hour in the United States as President Obama confirmed that he spoke by phone with the Iranian president. Now, these are the first direct communications between an Iranian and US president since 1979. Interesting conversation had as well. We'll have more details on that at the top of the hour.