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IPCC Releases Climate Change Report; Security Council Set To Vote On Syria Resolution; Hardliners Threaten Violence Ahead of Miss World Beauty Pageant; Philippines Military Announces End To 19 Day Standoff With Militants
Aired September 27, 2013 - 08:00 ET
THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.
MONITA RAJPAL, HOST: Hello, I'm Monita Rajpal in Hong Kong. Welcome to News Stream where news and technology meet.
An unprecedented step forward at the UN. The security council looks set to vote today on a draft resolution to strip Syria of chemical weapons.
Plus, dozens of people are feared trapped under this collapsed building in Mumbai, India. Sadly, the city is all too familiar with this type of disaster.
And rising temperatures, rising sea levels: scientists come together with new evidence that humans are to blame for global warming.
Diplomats have been haggling over a resolution on Syria's chemical weapons for weeks. And now there appears to be an agreement. We're told there could be a vote in the UN security council as earlier as today.
Here's what we know about the wording on this draft resolution. It imposes legally binding obligations on the Syrian government to get rid of its chemical weapons. But it does not authorize automatic military enforcement in the event Syria fails to comply. Instead, the security council would have to reconvene and rediscuss.
CNN's senior international correspondent Nick Paton Walsh is following the developments for us from the United Nations. He joins us now live with more on that.
This is pretty big news there, Nick. I mean, just 24 hours ago, there was talk that from the Russians you were saying it was wishful thinking that there would be some sort of a resolution, or even agreement.
NICK PATON WALSH, CNN INTERNAITONAL CORRESPONDENT: That was last minute standard bluster from the Russians who clearly wanted something else to be tweaked in the language. We knew this was in the pipeline about 48 hours ago, but there are many concessions in it.
There is an expedited time table, certainly. But bear in mind, Syria's already agreed legally to give up its chemical weapons by joining the chemical weapons convention. What this does is speed up the timetable for it.
There's some language in there, which if there is a violation or proven to be a violation, could be used against Syria in the future. But any future measures will have to be brought again to the UN security council for another vote where Russia will have a veto.
And there are some issues that don't really quite get clarified by the text too. While we know that it definitely doesn't automatically authorize force or any sanctions against Syria in the event that they don't comply with the disarmament regime, there's the question of who decides about non- compliance. Who decides if there's been a violation? That's not specific in the text. The text says that the OPCW, that's the UN linked monitoring group that will actually enforce the inspections regime, they would have to refer instances of non-compliance to the UN security council to take a look at them.
So there's a little bit of ambiguity there. And frankly in diplomacy, if something is clear in the minds of negotiating, it's clear in the language. If it's not clear in the language, it's because everybody wanted to fudge it.
So I think we're going to see as this inspections regime begins to go into play that issue will be outstanding, because there had been a hope that the inspectors in the OPCW can say, look, there's been a violation here and then the UNSC, security council would have to act. It seems like they'll be now referring problems they have to the UN security council where, again, Russia will have a veto.
So this is symbolic, certainly, in many ways. And we did here from the U.S. ambassador to the UN who said exactly how they characterized this text.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
SAMANTHA POWER, U.S. AMBASSADOR TO THE UN: Two weeks ago, tonight's outcome seemed utterly unimaginable. Two weeks, the Syria regime had not even acknowledged the existence of its chemical weapons stockpiles. But tonight we have a shared draft resolution that is the outcome of intense diplomacy and negotiations.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
WALSH: But cast your mind back to four weeks ago where this place, this current situation was equally unimaginable in many ways. The U.S. policy on this has done a complete about turn. They can surely be happy where they are right now, because technically they have a document, which says Syria will give up its chemical weapons. And there is some potential for teeth in there, but again to enforce the measures, they'll be beholden to the Russians.
But the issue really has always been how lengthily do you exhaust the process in this building? I think now the U.S. have a reasonable case they've taken that to its bitter end -- Monita.
RAJPAL: So, Nick, what kind of activity can we see on the ground and how soon -- I guess in terms of a time line, what can we expect?
WALSH: Well, I understand from an OPCW official that as early as Monday a team of about six OPCW inspectors are what political and technical experts really will leave for Damascus to begin the process of verification inspection.
Their job, really, is to go there to set up a base for communications, to get the logistics rolling for a lengthier mission.
But it's moving fast already. So we'll see at about 4:00 New York time, that's 10:00 local time in The Hague, a meeting of the OPCW's body. The OPCW, the UN group, will do the disarming to push through their actual plan and vote on it. And then come Monday we'll see those people actually on the ground potentially Tuesday, potentially actually inside Syria.
The issue is who will pay for this? I understand that there's plenty of contributions for that.
And then there's the question of how fast can they actually do this?
Destroying chemical weapons is potentially a decade long process.
Now what I understand from this OPCW official they're not actually going to be destroying them, necessarily, because that would take too long under the expedited framework that was agreed in Geneva between John Kerry and his Russia counterpart Sergei Lavrov. What they're going to do instead is render them beyond use, which effectively is, as described to me, a quick and dirty solution where you basically take them and put them in some, I don't know, bury them or do something to them that makes it impossible for them to be used militarily in the future.
That's not the perfect destruction that you'd have to do under the chemical weapons convention, but it's enough to get that done by the middle of next year, which is that really fast time table agreed in Geneva, Monita.
RAJPAL: All right, Nick, thank you. Nick Paton Walsh there live for us from the UN.
In Kenya, a painstaking process is underway as the investigation continues into the Westgate mall terror attack.
International law enforcement officials are helping Kenyan authorities. Here you see forensic experts at the Nairobi city morgue where they have been gathering evidence from victims' bodies.
But as authorities piece together the clues, U.S. officials say there are growing concerns that some of the attackers got away as the siege unfolded.
67 people are confirmed have died from the attack. And that toll could rise as more bodies are recovered from the scene.
The host of a popular radio show was among the victims. She was six months pregnant. Her funeral was held on Thursday. David McKenzie spoke exclusively to her family.
DAVID MCKENZIE, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Shouldering an awful burden that no family should have to bear. A young life tragically cut short by terror.
Ruhila Adatia Sood was a popular radio host and media personality here in Kenya, known and loved by many, but missed most by her sisters. They're still trying to comprehend their loss in a deep state of shock.
PINKY ADATIA ARNAUD, RUHILA'S SISTER: She was everything for us. She -- she's the glue that held us together.
KOMAL SOOD BLOUNT, RUHILA'S SISTER-IN-LAW: She was the light in our family. She had only been with us a short time, but we feel like she was with us forever.
MCKENZIE: They say Ruhila's infectious enthusiasm inspired them and attracted others.
ARNAUD: If they knew she was going to be somewhere, they would come out just to see her, just see what she was like. She loved kids, kids loved her.
MCKENZIE: On the day of the attack, the children flocked to see her at Westgate mall. She was hosting a young chef competition, excitedly posting pictures on social media. They would be the last ones she sent.
When the attackers stormed the mall, they killed scores of families, children, and they shot Ruhila. She made one last call to her husband to say she was dying. She was six months pregnant.
(on camera): Ruhila's friends tell me that she was full of life, joy, and boundless energy and her tragic killing and the killing of her unborn child has left an irreparable hole in this tightly knit community.
(voice-over): A community and a family shattered by their loss.
ARNAUD: She was the most wonderful, absolutely most amazing person. I met so many people today who knew her and it was so overwhelming, so touching, people had so much to say about her, just wonderful things about her. It made me feel like, you know, she was loved by the whole world.
MCKENZIE: David McKenzie, CNN, Nairobi.
RAJPAL: A document found on the body of an al Qaeda operative in East Africa two years ago revealed plans to carry out bold terrorist attacks in the UK.
For more on this, let's go to our senior international correspondent Nic Robertson who joins us now live from London with that -- Nic.
NIC ROBERTSON, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Monita, what's striking about this is the similarity between the attack carried out at the Westgate mall and the attacks being described in this document.
The document was found on the body of a senior al Qaeda operative, the head of al Qaeda operations in East Africa when he was trying to run a government checkpoint was killed. This came at a time when there was a division between, or increasing tensions, rather, at the leadership of al Shabaab. How much they should follow the al Qaeda role model.
These documents providing now some concern for security services in the light of the Westgate attack.
ROBERTSON: Terrorists training for an attack on an al Qaeda video. This clip and others and a trove of documents detailing planned attacks, were found on the body of this man, Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, an al Qaeda leader in Somalia killed by government forces in Mogadishu two years ago. Toronto Star journalist Michelle Shepherd was the first reporter to get access to the material that intelligence agencies view as credible.
RICHARD BARRETT, FRM. HEAD MI6 COUNTERTERRORISM: A warning shot that al Qaeda in East Africa, you know, could still come up and bite us, and indeed maybe in Westgate mall we saw that happening.
ROBERTSON: Mohammed was wanted for his role in the 1998 bombings of the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The documents found on him revealed new plans for more western targets, this time in London.
(on camera): The plans were bold and utterly ruthless and strikingly similar to the Westgate mall attack in Nairobi. They were to be low cost, use submachine guns, pistols and homemade bombs. And would have caused, quote, "a heavy blow against the hierarchy and Jewish communities."
Details included a plot to attack this hotel, the Dorchester, or the nearby Ritz saying they would check in, in advance, bring plenty of petrol, set fire to the lower floors, then wait by the exits and gun everyone down as they fled the building.
(voice-over): There were similar plans to attack Britain's most famous school, Eton, where future kings and prime ministers are educated, saying they would do it on open day for maximum casualties.
Also plans to attack Jewish community targets on a religious holiday, plans that were never executed.
But as the Westgate mall attack shows, al Shabaab is morphing its Somalia war into a regional one. And as it forges closer ties to al Qaeda, the documents offer a worrying insight of intent, if not capability.
BARRETT: To the extent that al Shabaab is now very, very much more closely allied with al Qaeda, I think we'll see more of that sort of thing. I think they'll have the operatives, they'll have the capability, and they'll do further planning.
MCKENZIE: Much will depend on the power struggle within al Shabaab. How will the Westgate attack play out? Al Qaeda leaders like Aymin al Zawahiri will cheer them on, but will the complex Somali clans that are al Shabaab's base sign up for more Westgate style barbarity?
MCKENZIE: Counterterrorism officials stress is it's one thing for al Qaeda or al Shabaab to have plans printed out in detail like that to that extent, a number of targets, there's another thing for them to be able to actually execute it. But again, for counterterrorism officials, the troubling thing is they can really see perhaps into the minds of what al Qaeda, al Shabaab would like to do and are increasingly, it seems in Westgate at least, trying to do, Monita.
RAJPAL: Nic, thank you. Nic Robertson there live for us from London.
And join us for a CNN special this weekend, a deeper look into the Westgate mall tragedy, that's Saturday at 5:30 pm here in Hong Kong, 1:30 pm for you in Abu Dhabi.
Still to come here on News Stream this hour, after nearly three weeks, is the hostage standoff in the Philippines really over? We'll tell you what the army is saying about the fight against rebels.
And another building collapses in Mumbai, dozens are trapped. We'll bring you the latest on that.
Plus, a new UN report on the link between humans and climate change is out. And the findings are very disturbing. Stay with us for that.
RAJPAL: In India's financial capital Mumbai a five story building collapsed early today. And crews are scouring the rubble in a desperate search for survivors. Several people have been pulled out and are being treated for their injuries. It is feared dozens, however, are trapped and the death toll stands at five.
Let's get to the latest now from CNN's Sumnima Udas. She's following the story closely from our bureau in New Delhi -- Sumnima.
SUMNIMA UDAS, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Monita, rescue operations are still very much underway. Rescue workers are combing through that rubble using only hand drills and hand saws at the moment. They're not bringing in the heavy-duty equipment yet, because they fear many more may still be trapped underneath that rubble.
Right now they're saying they've pulled out 21 survivors so far, six have died. But 21 families were living in that apartment complex. So one rescue officer told us that he fears maybe at least 100 people may be trapped underneath that rubble -- Monita.
RAJPAL: The interesting thing about this kind of a story is that whether it's an old building, or a new building, it doesn't seem to matter, because buildings collapsing in India, whichever part of the country it is, seems to become more and more of a familiar story.
UDAS: That's right. This is certainly not the first time, even in Mumbai, which is really the financial hub of India. Five buildings have collapsed just this year. In April, 70 people died of a building collapse. It was an illegal construction.
So unfortunately it is very common. And that's perhaps why we're also just not seeing that much outrage right around that building, because perhaps it's so common and people are not that surprised.
Now why this happened, well, there's a huge influx of people coming into cities like Mumbai, like Delhi, there's not much space to expand because, of course, Mumbai is surrounded by this sea. So new constructions are built very quickly, many of them are built illegally, many of them are built using substandard materials. So unfortunately this is very common. And authorities say at least 1,000 buildings in the city of Mumbai are deemed too dangerous for people to live in.
This was, of course, one of them, the Bombay municipal corporation had told residents of that building that this was unsafe and to vacate that building this April, but people continued to live there, of course, because they presumably had nowhere else to go -- Monita.
RAJPAL: I mean, it's all well and good, Sumnima, for a corporation or an authority to advise residents to leave a building once they've moved into it, deeming it unsafe, but the fact that these buildings are built in the first place is the bigger question here and it seems as though that there is no one really in control over the regulations right now. And it seems as though that buildings are built under corrupt standards.
UDAS: That's certainly the case, especially for new developments or new buildings. And there are many of those buildings coming up in cities like Mumbai and Delhi.
This particular building was an old building, though. It was in the southeastern part of Mumbai. It was built maybe 30 to 40 years ago. It was already in a dilapidated condition according to the authorities. And that's why they had issued that notice asking residents to leave, that already underdone some repairs in that building back in April, and more construction was actually underway when that building collapsed today, Monita.
RAJPAL: All right. Sumnima, thank you very much. Sumnima Udas there reporting to us from New Delhi.
Well, in neighboring Pakistan, it is a staggering number, 100,000 people in the southwest are now homeless after a powerful earthquake shook Belochistan Province on Tuesday, making matters worse temperatures are soaring. There is growing anger over the Pakistani government's earthquake response. Many say aid has been slow to arrive. 359 people died in the 7.7 magnitude quake. And entire villages have been destroyed.
Prayers have begun for the hundreds who have lost their lives, funerals for the dead are beginning in villages hit by the quake.
You are watching New Stream. Later in the program, the glittering Miss World contest is underway in Indonesia, sparking fierce protests on the streets. We'll tell you what's sparking that controversy.
RAJPAL: 19 days after a standoff started between separatist rebels and soldiers in the southern Philippines, an army spokesman tells CNN the last six hostages have been freed. He say on Thursday night, government forces killed 15 fighters in the city of Zamboanga and captured 45 others as they tried to flee. The spokesman says there has been no fighting since early Friday morning.
The army is now clearing the area.
We want to get you the latest now on the situation in Zamboanga from that spokesperson. His name is Lieutenant Colonel Ramon Zagala. He joins us now on the phone.
Sir, thank you very much for being with us.
How confident are you that the army has this under control?
LT. COL. RAMON ZAGALA, SPOKESMAN FOR ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES: Well, right now Monita, we have killed over 166 of the enemy, captures 186 and a total of 52 surrender. This already a force that this no longer a threat. We are currently now clearing the area for the remaining (inaudible) so that we can pave the way for the return of residents in the area as soon as we clear.
RAJPAL: So do you believe there's still some that are in hiding right now? This is an urban area. Do you believe there are those that could be hiding in some apartments, some buildings right now? Because you're still saying that you're still working to clear that area.
ZAGALA: Yes, we believe that there are still some who may be hiding not just in the buildings, but the rubble itself. A lot of the community has been burned and there's a lot of rubble that they can hide in.
Also, we also think (inaudible) that some of them may be fleeing already. Like that's what happened early this morning where we were able to engage 15 more of them as they were trying to flee.
So the clearing really is we have to do this meticulously. And this is really critical, because removing the threat is a clear way for us to let civilians come (inaudible).
RAJPAL: This is a standoff that took 19 days, we were in 19 days for it to come to this point right now, did you underestimate the power that this group had or its ability, I should say, to take this part of the southern Philippines, take control of it, and the soldiers, the military not being able to bring it under control sooner?
ZAGALA: Well, we have to understand first the complexities of the situation. First, they first arrived here (inaudible). And when they took hostages we started to contain them. And that became very difficult, because the priority was really to save many lives. When the president gave the order that he wants all the hostages to be rescued, it became paramount that we have to ask deliberately in the way we are to conduct our operation.
That (inaudible) really. (inaudible) killing or hurting any of the hostages. And for that, we attribute the prolonged operation. But it paid off, because we were able to rescue 195 hostages and those trapped in the area. So in that aspect, we believe we were successful.
Although it did drag for 19 days, what's important really to us right now is that the very core of the mission was to save lives.
RAJPAL: All right, Lieutenant Colonel Ramon Zagala, thank you so much for your time.
In Thailand, flooding which began back in July is still affecting much of the country. Flood waters have risen this week in provinces in Thaliand's south. And in some areas, the water is one-and-a-half meters high.
The Thai government says 13 people have died in the last three months.
Well, Thailand's prime minister will visit flood victims this weekend in 2011. Hundreds of people were killed in record flooding. The government was criticized for its response.
Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra says lessons have been learned since then. She's told CNN her country is now more prepared.
(BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)
YINGLUCK SHINAWATRA, THAI PRIME MINISTER: I think we going -- getting prepared, and I think will be the long-term plan. After the finish, or the long-term under (inaudible) of the water management. So I think we will be well prepared.
But the experience on the year 2011, that will be the (inaudible) enough for Thailand that we want -- let this disaster happen to Thai people.
(END VIDEO CLIP)
RAJPAL: The Thai prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra there.
She says he government is building better infrastructure to withstand floods. 600,000 families have been affected by flooding since July.
You are watching News Stream. Coming up, a long awaited report on climate change is out today and has some very worrying findings. We'll hear from the chairman of the intragovernmental panel on climate change and show you how the changing climate and extreme weather patterns are already affecting our lives.
RAJPAL: I'm Monita Rajpal in Hong Kong. You're watching News Stream. And these are the headlines.
UN diplomats have been haggling over a resolution on Syria's chemical weapons for weeks and now it appears the security council could vote as early as today. If approved, the resolution would impose legally binding obligations on Syria to get rid of its chemical arsenal. The news comes as the organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons has announced plans to send an advanced team of inspectors to Damascus on Monday.
In Mumbai and India, rescue crews are combing through the rubble of a collapsed apartment building. At least five people died when the five story building tumbled to the ground. It is feared that dozens of people are trapped in the debris.
An explosion has torn apart a bus in northwest Pakistan, killing at least 17 people and wounding more than 30 others. Local officials say the bus was carrying government employees. According to police, the explosives were hidden in a tin can and were detonated by a remote control device. No one has clamed responsibility.
And the Argentine footballer Lionel Messi and his father are at a Spanish court to face tax fraud charges. They are accused of evading more than $5 million of tax relating to earnings from Messi's image rights. Both men deny the charges.
This long awaited report by a group of leading climate change scientists says it's extremely likely that humans are causing global warming. In fact, they are 95 percent certain that mankind accounts for at least half of global warming since the 1950s.
The benchmark study comes out every six years. It's put together by the UN-backed intergovernmental panel on climate change, or IPCC.
And we'll speak to the IPCC chairman in just a moment, but let's learn more about what this all means. Michael Mann is a leading climate scientist and author of the "Hockey Stick in the Climate Wars." He's also director of the Earth Systems Science Center at Penn State University.
Thank you very much for being with us, Mr. Mann.
So we have this report, we have its findings, what needs to happen now?
MICHAEL MANN, EARTH SCIENCE SYSTEMS PENN STATE UNIVERSITY: Well, you know, the report tells us what we more or less already knew, that global warming is real, is caused by us, and it represents a threat. We have to do something about it, or we will face potentially dangerous and irreversible changes in our climate in the years ahead.
So this report really puts an exclamation mark on that conclusion.
As you said, scientists are even more confident than we were six years ago that most of the warming that we've seen is due to human activity, burning fossil fuels, increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, and we are seeing the impacts of that in the form of rising sea level, melting ice, more extreme weather events of various types.
RAJPAL: The effects of increased production in a world that's becoming more and more industrialized and urban, as you have been saying, and the effects aren't new. And are you seeing any progress, whether in the public or private sector to address it?
MANN: Well, we are seeing some progress being made. Here in the U.S., President Obama took executive actions to limit the carbon emissions by coal fired power plants. That was an important first step.
Now what we really need in the U.S. and indeed at the international level is a comprehensive energy and carbon policy. Here in the U.S. right now, it's very difficult to get a plan like that through congress, because unfortunately those in control of our House of Representatives don't even accept that the problem exists.
We need to get past that bad faith debate that we continue to have in our politics here in the U.S. about whether the problem exists and on to the worthy debate about what to do about it.
RAJPAL: The debate would consist of many questions, many issues, but what do you believe is the number one question facing climate scientists today? If we are sure that global warming is real and we are primarily the cause, what's the biggest question left to answer?
MANN: That's a great question. There's a lot that we do know, and we know enough to act, because we know enough to see that the impacts of climate change are going to be extremely detrimental to us if we don't do something about it.
On the other hand, there are uncertainties. The models that we use to project future climate change have uncertainties in them, there are certain processes that need to be represented and there are uncertainties about precisely how to best represent those processes -- for example, how clouds respond in a warming world. And different climate modeling groups come to slightly different conclusions about what the impacts, for example, if clouds are likely to be. And that means there's some spread in how much warming is projected in business as usual, if we continue with business as usual with our fossil fuel emissions over the next century, we will likely see somewhere between 4 and 5 degrees Celsius additional warming, 7 to 9 degrees Fahrenheit warming relative to preindustrial time.
So there's some spread, there's some uncertainty. But uncertainty is not a cause for complacency, because what uncertainty tells us is that the impacts could actually be larger than those that the models are currently predicting. The effects could actually be worse than what the climate models are predicting. And because of that, we should take great precaution in what we're doing. It's a reason to act even faster to reduce our carbon emissions.
RAJPAL: All right, Michael Mann, thank you so much for your time.
Well, let's get more now on this report. And we're joined by the IPCC chairman Rajendra Pechauri. He's in Stockholm, Sweden.
Sir, thank you very much for being with us.
So we went from 50 percent in 1995, 66 percent certainty in 2001, 90 percent certainty in 2007, and now 95 percent certainty today. For some, the stats in 1995 would have been convincing enough. We're looking at over 50 percent.
What do you believe it's going to take for there to be some real, drastic change?
DR. RAJENDRA PACHAURI, IPCC CHAIRMAN: Well, I think awareness on the subject will make an enormous difference. And I think we need to look at all the dimensions of climate change. What are the impacts of climate change. We have extreme events. We've got sea level rise. We've got melting of the Arctic ice, melting of the glaciers across the globe. And you have extreme events like extreme precipitation events, that means heavy rainfall or heavy snowfall in a short period of time, more heavy waves.
So I think once we realize all the dimensions of climate change, and we understand what it might do to our lives and is doing to our lives, as well as the lives of our children and grandchildren, then clearly we would adopt a risk averse approach. And we would make sure that we start taking steps by which we stabilize the Earth's atmosphere.
RAJPAL: But sir, with all due respect, those are all the things that we've all been hearing about for many decades now. I mean, what we're looking at the statistic we just talked about before, this more 20 years worth of information and evidence that's been out there, and that's just a little bit. 20 percent, sorry 20 years of information, are you saying that the general population, most of us are not aware of climate change and global warming?
PACHAURI: Well, I think a large number of people, fortunately, are aware and that's largely because of the work of the IPCC. But a lot of people don't really understand the implications of climate change. And these impacts seem far away and into the future. And I think what this report, and the other reports that we are bringing out as part of the fifth assessment, will certainly create an understanding of why we need to act and what are the directions in which we need to act.
Let me also emphasize the fact that there's an enormous inertia in the system, you know, not excluding the inertia of human thinking. We are so set in our ways, it takes awhile for us to bring about change in the direction and you know for the gravity of the situation to sink in.
And I hope the set of reports that we're now bringing out, combined with the level of awareness that already exists, will bring about a shift in attitudes and actions.
In any case, our job as a scientific body is to...
RAJPAL: I'm sorry to interrupt you there, if there was more heated debate this week over specific issues in the approval process of the summary for policy makers then say in year's past, if so, what issues do you believe cause the most debate?
PACHAURI: Well, I think everything causes a lot of debate, because you know we have the scientists over there who have worked very hard to come up with a scientific assessment, but this is a summary for policymakers, which essentially policymakers should be able to read and understand. And that's why we have all the governments of the world going through the report word by word. And they keep telling us all along that you know the language has to be such that we get rid of technical jargon. And I think that's one of the sort of cleansing processes, if I may call it that, which occurs ins a plenary session of the IPCC.
And I think overall this really adds to the quality and the usefulness of the report.
So, you know, everything is questioned. And there are a whole lot of authors sitting over there who have to justify they've made a particular statement. And they quote chapter and verse.
We have actually in this report cited 9,200 publications. And you know that's a huge amount of knowledge that's been mined, that's been assessed. And all of this is put forward. And the governments say, yes, that's right. But why don't you sort of say it in so and so words?
And in the process, there is a -- there's a sort of an amalgam of knowledge and insights that leads to the language of the report.
RAJPAL: All right, Rajendra Pachauri, the IPCC chairman, thank you so much for your time.
So, how has climate change affected our daily lives? Mari Ramos is at the world weather center with more on that -- Mari.
MARI RAMOS, CNN WEATHER CORRESPONDENT: You know, that report is so interesting. It has so much information, Monita, I think that's what makes it complicated for people.
One of the good points that we just heard there is that this is -- report is intended for policy makers so that they can come and determine where or how their own individual countries are going to act when it comes to climate change. But I want to talk to you about some of the things that are kind of happening now, things that are not way off in the future, some of the things that we have to do or some of the things that we're already experiencing when it comes to climate change.
Let's go ahead and start, this is from kind of a -- some of the general knowledge, and weather and climate and how these things change.
Well, we're going to have limited evidence and very strong evidence. So there's a lot of evidence that would point out that things like heat waves, for example, coastal flooding, these extreme rain events that we see over and over, that some of those things are linked to climate change. And we are experiencing those kinds of things -- the drought in Texas, the drought in Australia, for example, the drought in the Midwestern U.S., the drought in northern Mexico, you know, goes on and on -- the droughts in Africa. All of these things could be related to climate change. And there's a lot of evidence that that is the case, for example.
And then, of course, we continue farther down. And there's limited evidence that climate change will cause more tornadoes, for example, or an increased number of hurricanes. But there's a lot of different reports and a lot of information.
One of the things that has been said over and over is that the more vulnerable countries are the poor countries, the developing countries, the countries that are along the equatorial belt. We look at Africa, for example, and this is from a different report from the World Bank. They're saying that annual precipitation will decrease up to 30 percent in some of these cases, especially in those areas already struggling with their food supply in west, central Africa and even parts of southern African could really see some harsh conditions. Agriculture will be down by 40 percent. They wouldn't be able to grow maize, for example. And total crop production could be reduced maybe up to 10 percent.
So there's a lot of different things.
And by 2050, undernourishment would grow.
So these are things that are not far away in the future and these are areas that already seen a lot of problems.
South Asia, for example, the monsoon, vital to the situation here, to the livelihoods of people, to the lives of people every single year. More variability, more wet monsoons, for example, could be more likely. And then when you do have a dry monsoon, you would have a more extreme dryness. Tropical cyclones, maybe less tropical cyclones, more intense and that's what makes some of these areas even more vulnerable.
And then lastly, precipitation. On average, dry seasons would be drier, more floods, more droughts, wet seasons would be wetter.
And then last but not least, Southeast Asia, also very vulnerable. Sea level rise, that's something that is addressed in the IPCC report and has been addressed frequently. That would be a huge concern for these coastal areas, in particular.
Heat waves, 60 to 70 percent of the land area could see unusual summer heat extremes.
And last but not least, our food supply. This is huge. Much lower cash for the potential for fisheries in places like Vietnam and the Philippines, of course essential to their survival.
Back to you.
RAJPAL: Mari, great stuff there. Thank you very much for that.
And we have complete coverage of the climate change report on our website. Just log on to CNN.com.
An historic meeting between the U.S. and Iran, the first such high level talks in more than 30 years. What was accomplished? We'll bring you details after the break.
RAJPAL: Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has called for an end to nuclear weapons and says his country would be willing to live under the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards. Iran resumes negotiations with the agency today.
Well, that follows the highest level talks between Iran and the United States. It happened on Thursday when U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry met with his Iranian counterpart, foreign minister Mohammed Javad Zarif in New York. Both sides called the meeting constructive.
Reza Sayah reports now from Tehran.
REZA SAYAH, CNN INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT: Here in Tehran, Iranians remain optimistic after this historic meeting in New York on Thursday night where on one side you had representatives of the P5+1, the world powers. On the other side, you had representatives of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Obviously, no significant agreements came out of this meeting on Thursday night, and nobody really expected it, but by all accounts this was a positive start to these negotiations, lots of smiles and handshakes, also history made on Thursday night, the first time in more than a generation where you had foreign ministers of Iran and the U.S. sitting next to one another. In this case, it was Mohammed Javad Zarif sitting next to U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry. Those two men also met individually, another event that made history.
The only agreement that came out of this meeting was that all sides decided to meet once again on October 15 in Geneva. That's when presumably we'll start to see some of the more difficult and intense negotiations, the haggling and the bargaining.
What's sparked some optimism is that Iranian leaders have signaled that they are prepared to make some concessions. It's not clear what they will be. Are they prepared to suspend uranium enrichment at 20 percent? Are they prepared to open up to broader inspections? It's not clear.
What is clear is that they do not want to be viewed as backing down and appeasing Washington, that's why they want something substantial in return. History has shown that they've had at least three demands, that they want to be respected and treated as equals, they want Washington and western powers to recognize their right to enrich uranium in a peaceful nuclear program. And finally, they want some of these crippling economic sanctions eased.
Will these two sides get together and hammer out a deal? The drama continues October 15 in Geneva.
Reza Sayah, CNN, Tehran.
RAJPAL: You're watching News Stream here on CNN. We'll be right back.
RAJPAL: Beauty contestants from around the world are in Indonesia for the annual Miss World pageant. But the threat of violence is hanging over the competition as Muslim hardliners protest the beauty contest. Anna Coren brings us details.
ANNA COREN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): It's an event that's been running for more than six decades. But this year the Miss World pageant was met with threats of violence. Indonesia, the world's most populace Muslim nation, was selected to host the three-week event in its capital Jakarta. But angry protests by radical Islamic groups saw the government switch venues at the very last minutes, forcing organizers to relocate to the Hindu resort island of Bali.
UNIDENTIFIED MALE: This sends a message to the world that we are not strong enough as a country.
COREN: Protesters have denounced the pageant as pornography and a whore contest, insisting it's an offense to all Muslims.
ISMAIL YUSANTA, HIZBUT TAHRIR: We considered it as (inaudible) which exploits a woman.
COREN: In an attempt to appease religious concerns, the pageant scrapped the swimsuit competition, replacing it with beachwear. But it would appear not all such contests are so vehemently opposed. Just a few weeks ago, Indonesia hosted its third Muslimah contest, crowning Miss Nigeria with the award.
EKA SHANTY, FOUNDER OF WORLD MUSLIMAH: The difference of this event to another pageant, obviously this is not the pageant. This is the international awarding event to appreciate the young and talented Muslim woman.
COREN (on camera): While Indonesia tries to project an image of openness and tolerance, the influence of Islamic hardliners is growing in this country and critics say the government is only fueling the problem, caving in to this small but very vocal minority of ultraconservative Muslims.
(voice-over): This is not the first time the government has given in. Lady Gaga's concert was canceled last year after hardliners threatened violence, while J.Lo was told to cover up during her Indonesian performance.
MARI ELKA PANGESTU, TOURISM & CREATIVE ECONOMY MINISTER: We are a complex country, so we always have to do the - we have to balance concerns domestically with our ability to host international events. But in general, as you know, Indonesia is very open.
COREN: Threats against the pageant are being taken very seriously. The U.S., British and Australian embassies have all issued warnings with the Bali bombings of 2002 and 2005 still at the forefront of people's minds. While Bali is already under tight security with the island hosting the Apex Summit early next month, authorities say they're not taking any chances. Seven hundred police will be on duty Saturday when Miss World is crowned.
Anna Coren, CNN, Jakarta, Indonesia.
RAJPAL: Jury deliberations are underway in the Michael Jackson wrongful death trial. Jackson's family is accusing concert promoter AEG Live of negligence in the pop star's death.
Casey Wian has more now on that.
CASEY WIAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): Michael Jackson never got the chance to perform what was supposed to be his ultimate comeback tour in 2009. He died of an overdose of the powerful anesthetic, propofol, administered by Dr. Conrad Murray. In 2011, Murray was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and sentenced to four years in prison.
Now, a different jury is deciding if concert promoter, AEG Live, must pay potentially billions of dollars to Jackson's heirs because they claim the company negligently hired Murray.
BRIAN PANISH, JACKSON FAMILY ATTORNEY: Michael Jackson died because a physician who had agreed to accept $150,000 a month, violated his ultimate Hippocratic oath and he was placed in that conflict of interest by AEG and there's no question about that in this case.
WIAN: AEG Live says Murray was never its employee and that he was entirely controlled by Jackson.
MARVIN PUTNAM, AEG LIVE ATTORNEY: The people in Michael's life were worried about his propofol use as early as late 1980s, early 1990s. That he was, by the 1990s, using it to sleep at night in hotels. This is in complete contradiction for plaintiffs have claimed which is this idea that, oh, this was a sudden new thing in Michael's life that happened for the first time with Dr. Conrad Murray.
WIAN: For five months, the jury heard testimony from Jackson's 83- year-old mother, Katherine, his ex-wife, Debbie Rowe, and by videotape, two of his three children. Fifteen-year-old Paris Jackson survived a suicide attempt during the trial. Other dramatic moments included the playing of Jackson family home movies never before seen publicly and the testimony of a Harvard doctor who said a physically deteriorating Jackson did not get REM sleep for 60 straight days while receiving propofol from Dr. Murray.
Casey Wian, CNN, Los Angeles.
RAJPAL: And that is News Stream for this Friday. I'm Monita Rajpal. The news continues here on CNN. World Business Today is next.