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STUDENT NEWS

Meeting in Switzerland to Discuss Iran`s Nuclear Program; Medal of Freedom Honorees

Aired November 21, 2013 - 04:00   ET

THIS IS A RUSH TRANSCRIPT. THIS COPY MAY NOT BE IN ITS FINAL FORM AND MAY BE UPDATED.


CARL AZUZ, CNN ANCHOR: Meeting in Switzerland to discuss a nuclear program in Iran - that`s where we start today on CNN STUDENT NEWS. Western countries like the U.S. are worried that Iran could use its nuclear program to make nuclear weapons. Iran`s government insists its nuclear program is only for peaceful purposes. The United Nations has used sanctions, the kind of punishment to pressure Iran into negotiations. The latest talks are happening this week.

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REZA SEYAH, CNN CORRESPONDENT, TEHRAN, IRAN: Even a preliminary deal happens, it could mean the beginning of a shift in geopolitical alliances and the geopolitical landscape in this region. What adds to the drama is that many groups and factions want this to happen, there is other groups and factions and governments who do not want this to happen.

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AZUZ: That plan could mean the sanctions against Iran ease up. U.S. national security advisor Susan Rice says a deal would benefit the global community. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is against the deal. He says the pressure, the sanctions should be increased because, he says, they are finally working.

A baseball player, country singer, astronaut, media mogul and former president they are among the newest presidential Medal of Freedom honorees. Yesterday, President Obama awarded 16 people who, in his words, dedicated their own lives to enriching ours. Including baseball hall of famer Ernie Banks who played 19 years with the Chicago cubs. Loretta Lynn, one of the first successful female country music artists. Sally Ride, whom you are about to see in this YouTube clip, and the first American woman in space, was honored posthumously. Oprah Winfrey hosted America`s highest rated talk show or 25 years. And Bill Clinton is the seventh former president to get the Medal of Freedom.

One former president who earned the Medal of Freedom established the award 50 years ago. President John F. Kennedy. After yesterday`s Medal of Freedom ceremony Presidents Obama and Clinton along with first lady Michelle Obama and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited Arlington National Cemetery. They placed a wreath at the eternal flame that marks President Kennedy`s graveside. They also met with members of the Kennedy family. Tomorrow marks the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy`s assassination. We`re going to have special coverage of that event in tomorrow show. So, please be sure to watch.

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UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Five, four, three, two, one. Main engine start, ignition and liftoff of the Atlas 5 with MAVEN looking for clues about the evolution of Mars through its atmosphere.

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AZUZ: MAVEN, the Mars atmosphere and volatile evolution spacecraft. It won`t set down on the red planet. MAVEN`s designed to orbit Mars between 90 and 3700 miles above the surface. It will have some company. When MAVEN arrives, NASA will have a half-dozen Mars missions running.

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CHAD MYERS, CNN METEOROLOGIST: For scientists or space enthusiasts alike Mars continues to amaze. It`s no surprise the red planet is currently the subject to five active NASA missions: three in orbit and two on the surface.

And liftoff of the Atlas 5 with Curiosity so you conclude for the planetary puzzle about life on Mars.

You`ve probably heard of Curiosity. NASA`s rover, studying the geology and climate on the ground. Now, NASA seeks (ph) the mission, MAVEN is hoping to study Mars from above. And as 4 billion year old question, what made the fourth planet from the Sun turn red and barren?

JIM GARVIN, CHIEF SCIENTIST, NASA: It`s gone from that polar starel (ph) desert, geological world, kind of boring rocks to this exciting blooming world with a history that does include warm wet times, climate change, dynamic atmospheres, landslides, ice sheets, buried (ph) ice, unbelievable.

MYERS: Scientists believe that Mars may have looked a lot like Earth, with blue skies and warm temperatures.

MYERS (on camera) : We do believe that Mars at one point had liquid water, correct?

GARVIN: Absolutely. Evidence in the rocks from Curiosity is literally unassailable. And we see the record even in the frozen materials in the soils today.

MYERS (voice over): Collecting new measurements of the planet`s upper atmosphere will get those analyzing the data a better understanding of the climate change over the red planet`s history.

GARVIN: We expect to learn how the modern Mars works. Really, in detail. To see its climate states, to understand how the atmosphere is lost to space, how Mars may have lost a magnetic field. To take that information and map it back in time.

MYERS: The journey will be long. Maybe it will have to travel ten months and millions of miles before reaching Mars`s orbit.

But NASA says the journey and MAVEN $671 million price tag are worth it. Especially, if MAVEN can help unlock the big question - did life ever exist on Mars? Chad Myers, CNN, Atlanta.

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AZUZ: Well, back on Earth, there are concerns about concussions. These brain injuries are usually caused by hit to the head, especially in contact sports like football or hockey. The symptoms of a concussion might not show up immediately, but some researchers are working on technology that could detect these injuries as they happen.

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ERIK SWEENEY, YOUTH FOOTBALL PLAYER: The quarterback ran and I tackled him. We just both hit the ground ...

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: 13-year old Erik Sweeney is describing a concussion he suffered a few weeks ago.

ERIK SWEENEY: It didn`t hurt or anything, it just shocked like - it felt all fuzzy in the back of my head.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: On his team sideline, no one saw the play and despite that fuzzy feeling, Erik was (inaudible) to go.

SEAN SWEENEY, ERIK SWEENEY`S FATHER: He came out after that play and he was ready to go back in.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: But he was stopped short by this. It`s a sensor worn under the helmet. It is supposed to flash yellow after a moderate impact of the head and read after a severe one. When Erik came off the field, his light was flashing yellow.

SEAN SWEENEY: He said I want to play, and then he began to get dizzy. Then he began to get the headache. And then it became evident that something was not right.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Fortunately, the impact indicator flashed red and he was removed from the game.

Concussion helmet sensors. They are beginning to pop up on all sorts of playing fields.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: So, I want you to try that on.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: They are marketed as being able to measure whether a hit is too hard. And as in Erik Sweeney`s case, an extra set of eyes on the field. But how well do they really work? That is what scientists at this bioengineering lab are trying to find out.

STEPHAN DUMA, VA TECH PROF. OF BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING: Everything is green, nothing`s - and that`s what we would - that`s what we would expect.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: A low level impact and the products being tested all have green lights glowing. But when the helmet drops from higher up ...

DUMA: Six inches, five feet, this is probably going to be over 100 GEs (inaudible). Three, two, one. Well, it is surprising. So, nothing went off there. That`s well in the range of concussion. You would definitely want to alert that 110 gs.

You can see the six different accelerometers in there.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Stephan Duma, a biomedical engineer who leads the testing at Virginia Tech, decides to drop from six feet.

DUMA: They should be pretty concerned if this does not trigger one of those. Three, two, one.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: That impact, 130 Gs is like running full speed into a brick wall. One device did trigger, the other did not.

DUMA: That`s ready. For 150 G impact.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: At an even higher drop, one product flashes green, the other red.

DUMA: So this really kind of underscores that we need to do testing. We need to understand what we are measuring, when they trigger, when they don`t.

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AZUZ: CNN heroes, ordinary people finding ways to make a difference in their communities. There are the top ten heroes of 2013. They were honored for their efforts at an award show this week. Chad Pregracke, his help to remove 17 million pounds of trash from the Mississippi River and other U.S. waterways. Pregracke is getting $250,000 to continue that work because he is the CNN hero of the year. (BEGIN VIDEO CLIP)

CHAD PREGRACKE, 2013 CNN HERO OF THE YEAR: You know I`ve met so many great people today, the other heroes and like I`m really moved by all their stories. And all the things they do around the world. And like the 250 Grand - I`m just going to give 10 Grand to each of them because they are awesome. So, yeah.

(APPLAUSE)

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AZUZ: You can catch the full "CNN Heroes All Star Tribute" when it airs on December 1 at 8 P.M. Eastern on CNN.

From the West Coast to the East with a Lone Start stop in between. It`s time for the "Roll Call." Out in Irvine, California, the Mackedos (ph) put urban high school on our map. We`re bullish on the Toros (ph) from A.J. Briesemeister Middle In Sagine (ph) Texas and we have our first Iguanas - the Oasis Iguanas in Cape Coral, Florida. Thanks to all of you for watching.

You`ve heard of how fireworks can shoot across the sky. But dolphins in the sky? You`ve got to see it to believe it. This YouTube clip might look magical, but the mystery is mostly made of mirrors, or at least reflections. The water these dolphins are in is so clear that it`s reflecting the clouds, and that`s why it looks like the dolphins are moving through the air rather than under the waves. So it might be a little misleading, but it was recorded that way on purpose. We`re out of time for today, but we`ll flip around and meet you back here tomorrow to finish up the week.

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