Football's goal-line controversies

Updated 1503 GMT (2303 HKT) March 10, 2014
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Deciding whether or not a shot has crossed the line has long been an issue in football. Arguably the most famous incident was in the 1966 World Cup final, when England's Geoff Hurst saw his shot in extra-time bounce down off the underside of the West Germany crossbar. A goal was awarded, giving England a 3-2 lead, with the hosts going on to win the match 4-2. Getty Images
Hurst's goal was awarded after referee Gottfried Dienst consulted Azerbaijan linesman Tofik Bakhramov who judged the ball had bounced beyond the line. Azerbaijan's national stadium is named after folk hero Bakhramov, who even had a statue modelled in his honour. Bongarts/Getty Images
England have been at the center of some of the most famous goal-line controversies. At the 2010 World Cup, England and Germany met again in the round of 16. With Germany leading 2-1, England's Frank Lampard hit a shot which struck the bar and landed well over the goal line, but no goal was awarded, and Germany won 4-1. Getty Images
At the Euro 2012 tournament, England were involved in controversy for a third time. Co-hosts Ukraine needed to beat England to advance from the group stage, but fell behind to a Wayne Rooney header. Artim Milevskiy thought his shot had crossed the line before John Terry was able to hook it clear, but once again no goal was given and Ukraine crashed out. Getty Images
Two months earlier Terry had been involved in another goal-line incident, this time for club team Chelsea. In an FA Cup semifinal with Tottenham Hotspur, Chelsea's Juan Mata hit a shot which was inadvertently blocked by Terry, but a goal was given and Chelsea won 5-1. Getty Images
Hawkeye ball-tracking technology was first used in tennis in 2006, with players able to challenge calls by umpires and line judges. Each player is allowed three challenges in each set, but they do not lose a challenge if it the technology shows the umpire or line judge made the wrong call. Getty Images
Other sports have embraced video technology. Cricket uses the Decision Referral System (DRS) to rule on leg before wicket (lbw) calls. Hawkeye ball-tracking software is used to see whether a delivery was in line to strike the stumps before hitting the batsman's leg. Getty Images
Both rugby codes -- league and union -- use a video referee to rule on whether a try should be awarded. The video referee was first introduced at the rugby league Super League World Nines tournament in 1996 and the "Television Match Official" is widely used in possible point-scoring situations. Getty Images