Tibet Fast Facts

Tibetan monks dressed as demons attend the Beating Ghost festival at the Yonghe Temple, also known as the Lama Temple, in Beijing on March 19, 2015. The Beating Ghost festival, or Da Gui festival in Chinese, is an important ritual of Tibetan Buddhism and is believed to expel evil spirits and shake off troubles. (Photo credit WANG ZHAO/AFP/Getty Images)

(CNN)Here's a look at Tibet, which is often called "the roof of the world."

About Tibet:
(from National Bureau of Statistics of China)
Area: 1.22 million sq km (approximately 474,000 sq miles)
Capital: Lhasa
    Population: 3,310,000 (2016)
    Language: Tibetan
    Government (China): Governed by the Chinese Communist Party; the head of state is President Xi Jinping.
    Government (Exiled): Centered in Dharamsala, India, includes a popularly elected assembly of deputies, ministers, a cabinet chairman (similar to a prime minister).
    Facts:
    Tibet is an internationally recognized autonomous region within the People's Republic of China, though many Tibetans dispute the legitimacy of China's rule.
    Tibet is officially called the Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region (TAR).
    The Tibet Autonomous Region lies in the Plateau of Tibet, also called the Tibetan Highlands, which also includes portions of China's Qinghai and Sichuan provinces and the Uygur Autonomous Region Xinjiang. A little more than half of the Plateau of Tibet lies outside of the TAR.
    Mount Everest, the highest point on earth, lies on the border between Tibet and neighboring Nepal.
    Timeline:
    1640 - Güüshi Khan invades Tibet and defeats a regional king.
    1642 - Khan enthrones the Dalai Lama as ruler of Tibet. Dalai Lama is the title of the head of the Dge-lugs-pa, or Yellow Hat, order of Tibetan Buddhists.
    1792 - Tibet closes itself off to foreign visitors.
    1904 - Tibet and Great Britain sign a treaty in Lhasa, ending a brief period of military aggression during which the Dalai Lama flees to China. Great Britain's interest is in securing trade rights and it overcomes Tibetan resistance with force. China is not involved in the treaty negotiation.
    April 27, 1906 - Great Britain and China sign a treaty recognizing China's dominion of Tibet; the treaty is negotiated without any Tibetan participation.
    1910 - China attempts to gain physical control of Tibet; the Dalai Lama flees and takes refuge in India.
    1912 - China becomes a republic; Tibet declares its independence and expels the Chinese.
    July 6, 1935 - Lhamo Dhondup, the future Dalai Lama, is born to a farming family in Taktser, Amdo Province, Tibet.
    1938 - Dhondup is removed from his family and taken to the Kumbum monastery after a delegation of monks looking for the new Dalai Lama finds him.
    February 22, 1940 - Enthronement ceremony for the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, takes place in Lhasa, Tibet.
    November 8, 1950 - Chinese soldiers of the People's Liberation Army invade Tibet at Lhasa.
    November 17, 1950 - The Dalai Lama assumes full political power as Tibetan Head of State and Government ahead of schedule. Investiture is moved up from his 18th birthday as a result of China's invasion of Tibet.
    May 23, 1951 - A Tibetan delegation signs a treaty with China, renouncing independence in return for religious and cultural autonomy.
    March 1959 - The Dalai Lama, his government, and approximately 80,000 Tibetans flee to India.
    1960 - Dharamsala, India, becomes home to the Dalai Lama and headquarters of the government-in-exile of Tibet.
    1963 - The Dalai Lama enacts a new Tibetan democratic constitution based on Buddhist principles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
    1965 - China establishes the Tibetan Autonomous Region.
    1966 - The Cultural Revolution in China begins, resulting in the closure of many monasteries and the secularization of Tibetan society.
    May 1977 - The Chinese government makes the Dalai Lama a conditional offer, the opportunity to return to Tibet in return for acceptance of Chinese rule over Tibet. The offer is rejected.
    July 1979 - China again invites the Dalai Lama to return on the condition that he recognize Chinese sovereignty over Tibet. The Dalai Lama rejects this offer too.
    1980 - China begins a series of reforms in Tibet, encouraging economic development, reserving a majority of government posts for Tibetans, and requiring Chinese workers in Tibet to learn the Tibetan language.
    March 1989 - A march to demand Tibetan independence mushrooms into a two-day riot, resulting in the Chinese government's declaration of martial law. The official death toll is 16, though the actual death toll is reported to be as high as 256.
    April 30, 1990 - The Chinese government lifts martial law.
    1993 - Representatives of the Dalai Lama begin a decade of on-and-off talks with the Chinese government concerning autonomy in Tibet.
    July 1, 2006 - The China-Tibet railway begins regular service; the rail line terminates in Lhasa. Critics condemn the railway as a tool for diluting Tibetan culture.
    March 10, 2008 - Buddhist monks stage the first of four days of protest marches in Lhasa to commemorate the failed 1959 uprising against the Chinese government.
    March 14, 2008 - Four days of protest marches end in bloodshed. Tibetans say the situation escalated to violence when Chinese police beat monks who had been protesting peacefully; Chinese authorities claim Tibetans launched attacks on Chinese businesses. Officially the death toll is under 20; Tibetans in exile say the death toll is near 150.
    March 15, 2008 - China closes Tibet off to foreigners. The closure effectively ends the climbing season on the Tibetan side of Mount Everest; the climbing season spans April, May and the beginning of June, with the primary window of opportunity taking place in mid-May.
    March 18, 2008 - The Dalai Lama says in an interview that he would step down as leader of Tibetan exiles if violence in Tibet were to get out of control.
    April 2008 - Summer Olympic torch relay rallies in London, Paris and San Francisco are interrupted by demonstrations protes