Coupled with Manchester City's failure to win at Everton, the result means Jose Mourinho's side are now two points clear in first position having been tied level with City at the beginning of the day.
Yet although the London club were ultimately triumphant, they didn't have it all their own way at Stamford Bridge.
Newcastle had the best of the first half chances, with Remy Cabella being denied by a fine Petr Cech save and Moussa Sissoko striking a post for the visitors.
But it was Chelsea who went into the break 1-0 up thanks to Oscar's strike 43rd minute strike.
Quick thinking by Willian picked out Branislav Ivanovic at a corner and the Serbian passed on to Oscar to open the scoring.
The Brazilian then turned provider on the hour mark, setting up Diego Costa as the Blues took command of the game. It was a control Chelsea would not relinquish against one of only two sides to beat them season.
Costa, Eden Hazard and Loic Remy all went close to adding to the margin of victory before referee Roger East called time.
"In the first half, (Newcastle) had some moments when they caused us some problems," Chelsea assistant boss Steve Holland told Sky Sports after the match. "But a much improved performance in the second half (meant) we were good value for the 2-0 win."
If Chelsea were eventually comfortable, City were frustrated at Goodison Park -- a venue they have seldom enjoyed visiting in recent years.
Star strikers Sergio Aguero and Edin Dzeko returned to the City squad after injury, however, it was Montenegro international Stevan Jovetic who started up front for the Sky Blues.
With the game finely balanced at 0-0, Argentine international Aguero replaced Jovetic just after the hour mark -- and City were soon in the lead.
Brazilian midfielder Fernandinho latched on to David Silva's shot-cum-cross to push the ball beyond Everton goalkeeper Joel Robles.
But Manuel Pellegrini's men weren't celebrating for long as Scotland striker Steven Naismith leveled for the home side just three minutes later.
City brought on Frank Lampard for the remainder of the match but were unable to find the killer goal that would have kept them level with Chelsea.
"We missed chances in the first half and we didn't make the goalkeeper work which is a bit frustrating, " said Manchester City goalkeeper Joe Hart to Sky Sports after the match.
"(But) it's a difficult place historically for us to come ... we're going to take the point and move on."
Premier League roundup
Elsewhere in the Premier League Saturday, there was victory for Tony Pulis in his first official game in charge of West Bromwich Albion. The Baggies defeated Hull City 1-0 thanks to a second half strike from 21-year-old England striker Saido Berahino.
Aston Villa's struggles in front of goal continued in the Midlands derby with Leicester City. Paul Konchesky scored the only goal of the game to give bottom of the table Leicester the win.
Andy Carroll gave West Ham an early lead away to Swansea City, however, a second half equalizer from Bafetimbi Gomis ensured the game ended 1-1.
Meanwhile, Burnley continued their fine run of form by defeating Queens Park Rangers 2-1 at Turf Moor thanks to first half goals from Scott Arfield and Danny Ings.
In the day's early game, a solitary goal from Lazar Markovic was enough to give Champions League chasing Liverpool a welcome three points at 10-man Sunderland.
The 20-year-old Serb's early strike was his first league goal for Liverpool since moving from Benfica last year.