Singapore's condensed, hot and heavily populated landscape is challenging for urban living but the city-state continues to have a high liveability factor due to well-planned and population-focused urban design.
One key aspect of Singapore's infrastructure is the decentralization of commercial hubs, which has reduced congestion and commuting time to improving liveability and ensure combined working and leisure spaces within the restricted land space. Pictured, the Mass Rapid Transit, considered to be among the best public transport systems in the world.
To overcome challenges with land availability, developers have moved away from skyrises and moved towards going underground -- deep underground. Pictured, the first of the Jurong rock caverns that opened this year and will be used to for oil storage, enabling 60 hectares of land to be cleared at ground level.
Singapore has slowly been increasing its land mass using marine sand to extend its territory. Today, the city's extensive waste is incinerated and the resulting ash is used within a boundary of marine sand to extend Singapore's land mass.
Pictured, sand being sprayed into the sea during land reclamation.
Teams at the Future Cities Laboratory at ETH Zurich are exploring other uses for city waste as materials for construction. Pictured here, a pavilion built for the Ideas City Festival 2015 in New York, USA. Similar concepts are being explored for Singapore.
Singapore's climate is hot and humid resulting in large amounts of electricity -- and space -- consumed by air cooling units and dehumidifiers. The Future Cities Laboratory are piloting a project in which air external to a building is dehumidified and used to cool the façade of a building through units integrated into its walls.