The remote Kalaupapa peninsula on the Hawaiian island of Molokai housed a settlement for Leprosy patients from 1866 to 1969. When it was closed, many residents chose to remain.
Over the years, more than 8,000 leprosy patients lived on the settlement. It gradually developed into a small town, with shops, churches, and police enforcement. Paschoal Hall is the community social hall and theater.
Many Kalaupapa residents lived in individual cottages, with gardens. Children and less healthy adults generally lived in communal homes.
Joseph Dutton worked as a missionary at Kalaupapa in the 19th century, and is pictured with patients. Until 1969, Hawaiian law allowed people with leprosy to be forcibly taken to the settlement.
Nancy Brede (bottom left), pictured with her husband Jimmy (bottom right), was taken from her family and sent to Kalaupapa in 1936, when she was just 13. She spent her life there. Now aged 92, Nancy and her husband recently moved to a hospital in Honolulu.
The harsh cliffs and rough tides surrounding Kalaupapa allow only one window of time per year in which a barge can bring supplies of gasoline, large goods and canned foods. Cargo planes bring fresh produce three to four times per week.
In the early 20th century, a steamer regularly traveled to Kalaupapa from other Hawaiian islands. People and goods were brought ashore in rowboats, some of which capsized in rough waters.
The "dispensary" where patients were once treated.
Pictured, graves at Kalaupapa. Many patients died there during its years as a leprosy settlement.