Doping in sport: The human cost

By Amit Nathwani

Updated 1751 GMT (0151 HKT) November 13, 2015
 Ines Geipel doping during the Cold War. Ines Geipel doping during the Cold War.
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Ines Geipel was a victim of state-sponsored doping in the former East Germany during the 1970s and 1980s. Geipel is now president of a victim support group and says as many as 70% of her fellow East German athletes suffer from psychological problems. JOHN MACDOUGALL/AFP/AFP/Getty Images
In 1984, 24-year-old Geipel, along with her teammates, broke the world record for the women's 4×100 meter relay, clocking-up a time of 42.2 seconds. Ines Geipel
"It's not easy to come forward," Geipel told CNN. "You build your whole life on a lie and, if you end this, you're left with nothing." ODD ANDERSEN/AFP/AFP/Getty Images
Andreas Krieger competed for East Germany in the shot put as Heidi Krieger and was systematically doped with steroids from the age of 16 onwards. The 49-year-old underwent gender transformation partly as a consequence of the physical side effects of the drugs. AFP/AFP/AFP/Getty Images
German professor Werner Franke (pictured) and his wife Brigitte Berendonk, a former West German Olympic discus thrower, managed to uncover the systematic doping in East Germany. "It was a time when the shredding machines were going crazy," says Franke, referring to how evidence was destroyed. THOMAS LOHNES/DDP/AFP/Getty Images
Former World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) president Dick Pound led an independent commission which examined allegations of doping, coverups, and extortion in Russian athletics. The report claimed it had uncovered a "deeply-rooted culture of cheating at all levels" but it was dismissed by Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) director Nikita Kamaev as "unprofessional, illogical and declarative." Russian President Vladimir Putin said the country will conduct its own investigation while cooperating with global sporting bodies. FABRICE COFFRINI/AFP/AFP/Getty Images
British runner Jenny Meadows estimates proven cheats have cost her six or seven medals at major championships and a loss of around $200,000 in earnings. Ian Walton/Getty Images Europe/Getty Images
Fellow Briton Hannah England, a silver medalist in the 1,500 meters at the 2011 world championships, says she has no concept of how many times she might have been cheated. She has set her sights on retiring only when she knows she has competed in a clean race at a major competition. Ian Walton/Getty Images AsiaPac/Getty Images
WADA president Craig Reedie admits the battle against doping is a fight that can never entirely be won and acknowledges the revelations from Russia are all too familiar. ALEXANDER JOE/AFP/AFP/Getty Images