- Europe's largest mammal the auroch is being re-created through selective breeding
- Fourth generation herds in pilot projects around Europe
- Keystone herbivore could restore failing ecosystems and save other species
The earliest cows were mighty beasts that stood almost as tall as elephants, with lean, powerful frames and fearsome horns that would make a hunter think twice.
For thousands of years the aurochs were the largest land mammals in Europe, until the rise of human civilization decimated their numbers, and the last of the species died in Poland in 1627 -- one of the first recorded cases of extinction.
Conservationists now believe the loss of the keystone herbivore was tragic for biodiversity in Europe, arguing that the aurochs' huge appetite for grazing provided a natural "gardening service" that maintained landscapes and created the conditions for other species to thrive.
The theory is now being put to the test, as a "near 100% substitute" of the beast is returned to the forests.
Ecologist Ronald Goderie launched the Tauros programme
in 2008, seeking to address failing ecosystems. The most powerful herbivore in European history seemed to offer a solution.
"We thought we needed a grazer that is fully self-sufficient in case of big predators...and could do the job of grazing big wild areas," says Goderie. "We reasoned that this animal would have to resemble an auroch."
Rather than attempt the type of gene editing or high-tech de-extinction approaches being employed for species from woolly mammoths
to passenger pigeons
, Goderie chose a method known as back-breeding to create a substitute bovine he named