Chien-Shiung Wu – Chinese-American physicist Chien-Shiung Wu (1912-1997) focused her research predominantly on the techniques of experimental physics and radioactivity. She was known for her work on the Manhattan Project, which produced the first nuclear weapon during World War II. Her nicknames included the "First Lady of Physics", "Chinese Marie Curie" and "Madame Wu".
Marie Curie – Polish-born French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934) discovered polonium and radium. Her work led to the creation of X-rays -- a crucial component of modern-day medicine. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only woman to win this award in two categories: Physics and Chemistry.