New Delhi (CNN)The appointment of a polarizing Hindu religious leader as the next chief minister of an Indian state with almost 40 million Muslims has raised concerns about the country's direction under Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
India: Priest-turned-politician-turned-state leader raises concerns in Uttar Pradesh
After BJP swept Uttar Pradesh elections in a landslide last week, taking 75% of available seats, Yogi Adityanath became head of the state's government.
Adityanath is known for his provocative rhetoric against Muslims, including once vowing in a speech about inter-faith marriage that "If the Muslims take away a Hindu girl, we will take away 100 Muslim girls."
Uttar Pradesh is India's most populous state with 204 million people -- nearly a fifth of which are Muslim.
Adityanath, 44, is head priest of a Hindu temple in Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh's northeast, and five-time member of parliament for the district.
While he is popular with many Hindus, his appointment caught many by surprise, said Shekhar Gupta, a veteran political journalist and former editor of the Indian Express newspaper who currently hosts "Walk the Talk", a political interview talk show on NDTV24x7.
"There was a great degree of polarization in this election," Gupta said. "The Hindu vote is divided on the basis of caste, and the challenge (for BJP) was to try and use faith to reunite what caste has divided."
BJP has defended Adityanath's appointment, with BJP minister and spokesman Venkaiah Naidu saying in a statement that the new chief minister "is a strong politician and committed to (helping) the downtrodden."
Since coming to power in 2014, Modi and the BJP have focused on fiscal growth and development.
In the run-up to its record-breaking win in Uttar Pradesh this month, the BJP campaigned on a promise of "sabka saath, sabka vikas," which loosely translates to "unity together, development together."
But for some, Modi's backing of Adityanath raises the specter of Hindutva, an ideology which considers India a Hindu nation. The Indian constitution established the country as a secular republic.
"The BJP campaigned on several issues and 'development' was only one of them," said Firat Unlu, lead India analyst with the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).
"The choice of Adityanath makes sense as it will help solidify the BJP's gains among the Hindu population and the Hindutva plank was arguably more important than the 'development' agenda in UP."
Multiple BJP figures have said Muslim support for the party was key to their victory in the state. However, concerns have been raised over how willing Adityanath's government will be to reach out to Muslim residents. In recent years, there have been numerous religious and communal clashes in the state. According to an investigation by the Hindustan Times, of the 11,000 incidents of communal violence in Uttar Pradesh since 2012, around 23% were sparked by "religious intolerance."