Tourists, students flee as protests spread in India's Darjeeling tea lands

Indian police personnel stop Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) supporters following a raid at the GJM office in Darjeeling on June 15, 2017.

Story highlights

  • Nepali-speaking Gorkhas are demanding a state within India
  • Three people have been killed and up to 60 injured
  • Region-wide strike has left tourism and tea industries in ruins

New Delhi (CNN)The sleepy hills of India's northeast have erupted into violence, as calls for a separate state for the area's Nepali-speaking Gorkhas gain traction.

The protest movement -- now entering into its ninth day and showing no signs of resolution -- is centered around the tea producing region of Darjeeling, in West Bengal, home to the country's largest concentration of ethnic Gorkhas.
    As many as three people have been killed and up to 60 injured, in ongoing clashes between protestors and local paramilitary forces. Earlier this week, military troops were drafted into the region in a bid to help quell tensions, which have hurt the region's tea and tourist industries.
      The protests are part of a wider regional strike as called for by the Gorkha Janamukti Morcha (GJM) -- an ethno-nationalist political party spearheading the statehood movement -- that has seen the local economy paralyzed, as workers abandon their posts and take to the streets in their thousands.

      Crisis deepens

      Darjeeling, a popular tourist destination in India, is best known for its sprawling tea gardens, lush green hills and panoramic views of snow-clad mountain ranges. Hundreds of Indian and foreign tourists have fled the area since the unrest began.
        Who are the Indian Gorkhas?

        In 1816, the Treaty of Sugauli was signed between the government of Nepal and the British East India Company following the Anglo-Nepal war, in which Nepal ceded some of its territories, including Darjeeling, to the British.

        After Indian Independence, the ceded territories continued to be a part of present-day India; the Nepali-speaking majority in Darjeeling and adjoining areas, also called Gorkhas, became a part of West Bengal -- a state of Bengali speakers.

        The creation of modern day West Bengal became the springboard for an ethnically-driven battle for a separate state of Gorkhaland.

        In the 1980s, under the leadership of Subash Ghising, the movement's separatist demands intensified, leading to the death of over 1200 people.

        The bloodshed was finally brought to an end with the creation of Gorkha autonomous council, and the introduction of self rule in Darjeeling.

        Ethnic gorkhas, from Nepal and India, were part of the British Army for nearly 200 years.

        On Friday protestors offered a 12-hour window for more than 7,000 boarding school students to safely evacuate the hills -- home to some of the best boarding schools in India. Father Divya Annandam, Vice Principal at St Josephs School, told CNN some school dormitories are already facing food shortages.
        The crisis started in mid-May when the government of West Bengal, the Eastern Indian state of which Darjeeling is a part, made Bengali language courses compulsory in schools across the state.
        The government's decision was viewed with hostility among the area's Nepali-speaking community.
        "We are very different from the rest of the state of West Bengal. Our language, our tradition, our culture, our heritage, our geographical condition, it doesn't match with rest of the state, with the whole other population of West Bengal," Roshan Giri, Secretary General of GJM told CNN.
        "For Gujratis, they have Gujrat, for Biharis, they have Bihar, for Punjabis, they have Punjab...why not Gorkhaland for Gorkhas?" Giri questioned.
        Indian supporters of the separatist Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (GJM) group shout slogans while demonstrating during an indefinite strike called in Darjeeling on June 19, 2017.

        Gorkhaland demands

        But what started as an agitation against a change in the school curriculum quickly escalated into a revival of a century-old demand for a separate state for the Indian Gorkhas, the original inhabitants of the area.
        Activists claim as many as three protestors died in "indiscriminate police firing" on Gorkhaland supporters on Saturday, a claim that the police have denied.
        Indian Home Minister Rajnath Singh on Sunday appealed "to the people living in Darjeeling and nearby areas to remain calm and peaceful." He urged the protestors to not resort to violence and resolve the issue through mutual dialogue.
        Indian army personnel patrol amid clashes between security personnel and protesters, June 16, 2017.