Information overload is driving us crazy -- and the media can help

Updated 1249 GMT (2049 HKT) December 1, 2017

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Victoria D. Baranetsky is a free speech attorney and currently works as General Counsel at The Center for Investigative Reporting. She is also an affiliate at Harvard's Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society and a fellow at the Tow Center for Digital Journalism at Columbia University. The views expressed in this commentary are her own. This is the next installment in the CNN Opinion series on the challenges facing the media, under attack from critics, governments and changing technology.

(CNN)In a famous 1927 concurrence, Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis distinguished the purpose of free speech as helping humans to develop and nurture their capabilities to have meaningful discourse. Brandeis wrote: "The greatest menace to freedom is an inert people; that public discussion is a political duty, and that this should be a fundamental principle of the American government."

His worry was prescient. The news business has never been easy, but today the competition for an engaged audience is more difficult than ever before due to an unexpected rival: too much information.
In 2013, more data had been created in the previous two years than in the entire previous history of the human race, according to SINTEF, a leading Norwegian research center. Since then, this number has exponentially increased, further diverting our attention and further underscoring the importance of the press, the gatekeepers of the First Amendment.

The problem: Information overload and technology

Every day the world creates 2.5 quintillion bytes of data -- much of which is created passively through technology like medical and home devices, web crawling, surveillance cameras and apps that track your movement. In addition, these new tools help us not only to create data, but access it. We can view terabytes of information from any place at any time. According to one study, smartphones, which now outnumber people on Earth, are carried 22 hours a day by most people who own them.
Researchers have learned that this access to swells of information comes at a cost. Every time we click on a link, check a tweet or write a post, we give away some of our finite attention. In fact, the mere presence of a smartphone resting silently in a pocket or on a desk within view may impair our ability to think and reason. Put simply, our attention is spread too thin.

The solution of silence

In this noisy economy of clickbait and misinformation, it is imperative to ask how we can encourage the informed and engaged citizenry that Brandeis imagined.
    The panacea may be simpler than it seems: silence. As philosopher Thomas Carlyle famously once said, while speech is silver, silence is gold.
    Carlyle wrote in Sartor Resartus in 1836, "Silence is the element in which great things fashion themselves together." Carlyle argued that too much speech, and by extension the noise of information overload, can suppress focused, productive thought.
    To bring Carlyle's analysis into the present, silence, especially in today's oversaturated market, can help create an engaged citizenry. But silence is not relegated to individuals sitting down for 20-minute meditation sessions. It also occurs in the types of information we ingest.
    For instance, trained journalists encourage silence through publishing carefully curated pieces. By making redactions, edits and cuts, journalists' curation removes noisy edges, distractions and unnecessary clutter. Thoughtful journalistic work instills more space to think, or, at the very least, eliminates some of the distractions.

    History of silence

    However acute it may be in our environment of listicles and fake news, our silence deficit is not an entirely new phenomenon.
    In 1995, French philosopher Gilles Deleuze wrote in his work "Negotiations," "we're riddled with pointless talk, insane quantities of words and images."
    Nearly twenty years later, amid the rise of the Silicon Valley giants, Columbia Law School professor Tim Wu reintroduced the problem in his book "Attention Merchants." Wu writes about the modern-day internet as "thoroughly overrun by commercial junk," and de