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Seasonal flu: What you need to know
01:46 - Source: CNN

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A woman's immune system may be stronger than a man's, research says

Other scientists argue there's too little evidence to say man flu exists

CNN  — 

Don’t doubt it: “Man flu” is real, or so says one Canadian researcher who was “tired of being accused of overreacting.”

With many respiratory diseases, a man is more susceptible to complications than a woman, plus his immune system may be naturally weaker, according to research published Monday in the BMJ medical journal.

“Man flu” is a term used to chide men who are suspected of exaggerating their symptoms when sick from a cold or other minor illness.

“It’s a frequently heard stereotype,” said Dr. Kyle Sue, author of the study and an assistant professor of family medicine at Memorial University of Newfoundland in Canada.

When he was asked to give an “interesting” two-minute presentation to a group of people from various career backgrounds, he knew that proving that men were not exaggerating “could provide evidence for men around the world to defend themselves.”

Sue began with a simple search for relevant studies to see whether men experience worse symptoms than women. He suspected this gender difference might even have an evolutionary basis.

What he found was a good deal of evidence that is “suggestive of an immunity gap,” though it’s “certainly not definitive,” he said.

Other scientists argue there’s too little evidence to say man flu exists.

Exploring the ‘immunity gap’

Sue said, to begin with, women have a different response to vaccines that protect against the flu.

“There are a couple of studies that show women having more local and systemic reactions to the flu shot than men,” he said. He added the evidence suggests that, overall, women may be “more responsive to vaccinations than men.”

Other clues indicated that man flu is not an overreaction.

Epidemiologic data from Hong Kong showed that adult men had a higher risk of hospital admission for flu,” Sue said. An American study revealed that men died more often from flu compared with same-age women, regardless of underlying heart disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and kidney diseases.

“However, neither study differentiated men and women based on other differences, like smoking and drinking rates (and) willingness to seek medical help,” he said, and these unknowns might have influenced the results.

Still, Sue found support for the idea that men suffer more from viral respiratory illnesses than women because they have less-robust immune systems.

This “immunity gap” may be modulated by hormonal differences, in which the masculine hormone testosterone suppresses the immune system while the feminine hormone estradiol protects it.

“It is not commonly known that testosterone is immunosuppressive,” Sue said, though “one study found that men with higher testosterone levels had less of an antibody response to vaccination.”

If an immunity gap between the sexes is real, the evolutionary reasons why remain unclear, he noted. One theory is that testosterone boosts aggressive behavior and the development of secondary sexual characteristics and so allows men to win at competitions – overriding the cost of the hormone’s immune system suppressing effects.

Across species, the masculine strategy of “live hard, die young” means men are more likely to die from trauma than an infection, according to another theory.

One other evolutionary theory Sue noted is that worse symptoms would lead a man to conserve his energy by lying on the couch, which helps him avoid a predator (his boss), and voila: His chances of survival are immediately improved.

The importance of age

Though he intended the article simply as light fare for holiday readers, Sue’s research is described as “just so” by Sabra L. Klein, associate professor at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.