For some Indian farmers, pangolin poaching is too lucrative to resist

Hunters in India can feed their families for a year with the proceeds of a single poached pangolin.

New Delhi (CNN)An increasing demand for the scales and meat of the endangered pangolin in China and Vietnam is pushing impoverished farmers in India's north-east into the illegal trade, a new report has found.

Pangolins are often recognized as the world's most highly-trafficked mammal and their body parts can fetch large sums of money -- the poorest hunters in India's Assam state can earn a full year's salary for a single pangolin, researchers from World Animal Protection (WAP) and the University of Oxford said Monday, following a two-year investigation.
Of 141 people interviewed in 31 villages over a period of 10 months, "all but two of the hunters confirmed hunting pangolins for both personal and commercial use," the report said.
    "Scales from just one pangolin can offer a life-changing sum of money for people in these communities. But it's in no way sustainable and the numbers of pangolins in the wild are beginning to plummet," David Macdonald, professor of wildlife conservation at Oxford University, said in a press release.
    The report documents the cruelty pangolins suffer as they are hunted from their burrows or smoked out of the trees and beaten repeatedly on the head.
    Disturbing footage obtained by WAP appears to show poachers bludgeoning a pangolin with a machete and boiling it before removing its scales.
    "Suffocated with smoke, beaten and boiled alive -- this is a terrifying ordeal and pangolins clearly suffer immensely," Neil D'Cruze, global wildlife adviser at World Animal Protection and lead researcher, said in the statement. "Not only is this a major conservation issue -- it's a devastating animal welfare concern."
    Pangolin scales are widely used in Asian medicine to treat impotence and infertility.

    A lucrative trade

    In India, selling pangolins for commercial gain is illegal under the Wildlife Protection Act and poaching is punishable with imprisonment of between one and six years, plus a fine.
    A global ban on commercial trade in pangolins was issued in 2016 by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
    Despite this, rising demand is pushing people in poor rural communities in Assam to hunt pangolins and sell them to urban middlemen, who then sell them on to buyers in China and Vietnam, where their scales are highly sought after for their supposed healing properties, researchers found.
    Around 5,772 pangolins were seized in India between 2009 and 2017, according to TRAFFIC, an NGO working on wildlife trade.