An artists's conception shows planet LP 791-18d. The volcanically active planet, which is a similar size to Earth, was discovered by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.
Chris Smith (KRBwyle)/NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
This artist's illustration depicts the rocky exoplanet GJ 486 b, which orbits a red dwarf star located 26 light-years away from Earth. Astronomers have detected hints of water vapor in the system, but they can't be sure if it signifies a planetary atmosphere or if it's part of the star.
NASA, ESA, CSA, Joseph Olmsted (STScI)
This illustration shows an Earth-size exoplanet called TOI 700 e, discovered orbiting the small, cool M dwarf star TOI 700, which is located 100 light-years away. Its other Earth-size sibling, TOI 700 d, can be seen in the distance.
TOI 700 d is the first potentially habitable Earth-size planet spotted by NASA's planet-hunting TESS mission.
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center
Artist's impression of the exoplanet WASP-121 b. It belongs to the class of hot Jupiters. Due to its proximity to the central star, the planet's rotation is tidally locked to its orbit around it. As a result, one of WASP-121 b's hemispheres always faces the star, heating it to temperatures of up to 3000 degrees Celsius. The night side is always oriented towards cold space, which is why it is 1500 degrees Celsius cooler there.
This artist's impression shows a close-up view of Proxima d, a planet candidate recently found orbiting the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Solar System. The planet is believed to be rocky and to have a mass about a quarter that of Earth. Two other planets known to orbit Proxima Centauri are visible in the image too: Proxima b, a planet with about the same mass as Earth that orbits the star every 11 days and is within the habitable zone, and candidate Proxima c, which is on a longer five-year orbit around the star.
The discovery of a second exomoon candidate hints at the possibility that exomoons may be as common as exoplanets.
Helena Valenzuela Widerström
This artist's impression shows the football-shaped planet WASP-103b (left) closely orbiting its host star.
European Space Agency
This image shows double-star system b Centauri and its giant planet b Centauri b. The star pair is the bright object at top left. The planet is visible as a bright dot in the lower right. The other bright dot (top right) is a background star.
Janson et al./ESO
This artist's rendering shows a Jupiter-like planet orbiting a dead white dwarf star 6,500 light-years away from Earth. The planet survived the violent phases of stellar evolution leading to the star's death.
Adam Makarenko/W. M. Keck Observatory
This artist's illustration shows the night-side view of the exoplanet WASP-76b, where iron rains down from the sky.
Astronomers have identified a new class of habitable planets, which they call Hycean planets. These are hot, ocean-covered planets with hydrogen-rich atmospheres.
Amanda Smith/University of Cambridge
This artist's illustration shows L 98-59b, one of the planets in a planetary system 35 light-years away from Earth. This planet has half the mass of Venus.
In this artist's illustration, two gaseous exoplanets can be seen orbiting the bright sun-like star HD 152843.
An artist's rendering of TOI-1231 b, a Neptune-like planet about 90 light years away from Earth.
This artist's conception depicts a violent flare erupting on the star Proxima Centauri as seen from the viewpoint of a planet orbiting the star called Proxima Centauri b.
From NRAO/S. Dagnello
After losing its gaseous envelope, the Earth-size core of an exoplanet formed a second atmosphere. It's a toxic blend of hydrogen, methane, and hydrogen cyanide that is likely fueled by volcanic activity occurring beneath a thin crust, leading to its cracked appearance.