Chadians feel 'anger, revolt' as they struggle without internet for one year

(CNN)How do you run a digital business when your country's president has shut down the internet?

Salim Azim Assani, who lives in Chad, is finding out the hard way after living under internet censorship for more than 365 days and counting.
Assani, 33, runs WenakLabs, a digital co-working space in the Chadian capital of N'Djamena and has resorted to using expensive Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to circumvent the shutdown.
    "It's absolutely necessary to use VPN and very often we find ourselves abroad using it and only realize that we don't need it elsewhere," Assani said.
    Salim Azim Assani, 33, runs WenakLabs, a digital co-working space in Chad's capital N'Djamena.
    A VPN acts as a secure tunnel between devices and the internet; it protects users from snooping and censorship and allows them to mask their location on the internet.
    The social media blackout began in March 2018 after recommended reforms to the constitution that would allow President Idriss Deby to stay in power until 2033, when he will be 81.
    Deby has been at the helm since 1990 and had previously pledged to restore term limits before the country's 2016 elections.
    The country's internet services was shutdown almost immediately after the planned reforms were announced.
    Julie Owono, the Executive Director at Internet Without Borders (IWB), a Paris-based non-profit organization advocating for freedom of expression on the internet told CNN, "Last year on March 28, we received various reports from our resources on the ground that access to WhatsApp was very difficult or just impossible in some places."
    Owono believes the shutdown was introduced because videos of violent clashes among the Zaghawa tribe in northern Chad were being shared on WhatsApp, and the government took advantage of that to repress discontent among citizens.
    Communal clashes are rife in Chad, a landlocked country in central Africa that is roughly the size of Texas. It's had a turbulent history of religious and ethnic conflict and intermittent civil war since it gained independence in 1960 from France.
    Since March 2018, people in Chad have been unable to access sites such as WhatsApp, Viber, Facebook, and Twitter. It's not the first time in Chad either: a shutdown of the internet lasted for eight months in 2016 following a disputed presidential vote that secured a fifth term in office for Deby.
    Internet shutdowns are frequently used by governments across Africa.
    In 2019 alone, Sudan, Zimbabwe, and the Democratic Republic of Congo have all enforced a shutdown for various reasons.

    The economics of censorship

    Protests in the internet age often begin or become amplified on social media. Autocratic regimes in Africa shut down the internet to repress free speech and freedom of association during uprising