The legislation applies to all face-covering clothing on public transport and in schools, hospitals and government buildings, according to a police statement. However, it does not apply to public streets.
It covers the burqa and the niqab, as well as motor helmets and ski masks, with offenders subject to a 150 euro ($166) fine. But it does not include headscarves, as the face is still visible.
Police guidance says that staff at government institutions or on public transport are responsible for addressing those who flout the ban and requesting they remove the face covering, or leave the premises.
However spokespeople for the affected sectors have said they will not take responsibility.