The Dutch youngster, fresh off his seventh grand prix win last weekend in Germany, narrowly edged out Mercedes pair Valtteri Bottas and Lewis Hamilton, in second and third.
It was a landmark achievement in the sport as Verstappen becomes the 100th different driver to secure a pole position in Formula One.
"It's incredible," the 21-year-old told Sky Sports. "This one was still missing, and the car felt good all weekend. Of course, you know, it's always going to be hard in qualifying. ... A big thank you to the team -- the car was flying out there in qualifying, it was incredible.