Known as "Okhotnik" in Russian, the 20-ton heavy unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) performed its first test flight at a military airfield on Saturday, according to Russian news agency TASS.
Drones have become an integral part of modern warfare, carrying out both surveillance and attack missions, but Russia's program has traditionally lagged behind the US and other nations.
The drone features stealth technology and a jet engine that can propel it to a top speed of around 620 miles per hour, according to TASS.
It boasts an anti-radar coating and surveillance equipment, Russia's defense ministry told TASS.
In video footage posted on YouTube, the drone, covered in gray stealth paint, can be seen taking off, maneuvering in the air, and landing.
The whole flight lasted around 20 minutes.
There will be further test flights this year, with plans to develop the drone's autonomous flight capabilities, reports TASS.