The 56-year-old teacher was taken to hospital with a "small non-life-threatening wound to the back of her shoulder," according to a statement from Queensland Police.
Shortly before midday local time, police were called to a school in Heatley following reports that a student had stabbed a teacher.
Officers used a stun gun on the child during the incident, police said.
"Police located a 11-year-old girl inside the school grounds armed with a knife," said the statement.
Officers gave her "multiple verbal commands" before "deploying a conductive energy device," police said.
The pupil was arrested and later charged with one count each of wounding, possession of a knife in a public place or a school and threatening violence.
The girl will appear in children's court at a later date, police said.
The teacher has since been discharged from hospital, CNN affiliate 9News reported.
Senior Sergeant Scot Warrick told 9News he could not say what led to the incident.