Being born royal no longer guarantees a job-free life.

Many European monarchies have “downsized” significantly in recent decades – meaning that dozens of royals are expected to find gainful employment and pay their own way.

Of the 10 main royal families in Europe, nine still receive public funding for carrying out their duties – the only exception being the Princely House of Liechtenstein, which doesn’t get any taxpayer money to cover its expenses.

How much money each family receives depends on local laws and traditions. Some countries give their royals one large lump sum. In others, the funding comes from a variety of sources, making a direct comparison difficult.

And just who gets to be a “full-time” royal, meaning that all they do is to represent the crown, also varies from place to place. In some countries, being the monarch’s cousin is enough to qualify as a full-timer.

Elsewhere, even the brothers and sisters of the king or queen are expected to find a job.

Scroll through the images below to reveal full-time royals in each country.

United Kingdom

Members of the British Royal Family appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace in London during the Trooping of the Colour ceremony in June 2019.
Chris Jackson/Getty Images

The British royal family is among the largest and richest in Europe – most of Queen Elizabeth II’s immediate family, including several of her cousins, are full-time royals.

According to the monarchy’s official website, 16 adults and three children are currently considered full-time members. Five are missing from the photo above: the Queen’s husband Prince Philip; Sophie, Countess of Wessex, who is the Queen’s daughter-in-law; two of the Queen’s cousins, Princess Alexandra and Prince Edward; and Edward’s wife Katharine, the Duchess of Kent.

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    The Queen’s activities and her family are largely funded through the Sovereign Grant, which amounted to £82.2 million (about $103 million) in 2018-19. That’s a large amount of money, but it also has to cover the renovation of Buckingham Palace, a major 10-year undertaking.

    Still, the “firm” – as the family is known in the UK – is getting smaller.

    The Queen’s second son, Prince Andrew, the Duke of York, stepped away from public duties in November 2019 over his relationship with convicted pedophile Jeffrey Epstein.

    Another bombshell came in January, when Harry and Meghan, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, decided to quit and work towards financial independence. They attended their last public engagements earlier this week.

    Their departure means the number of adult working royals has been cut to 14.

    Harry and Meghan will join many of the Queen’s other grandchildren who work outside the royal family: Prince Andrew’s eldest daughter Princess Beatrice works at the software company Afiniti, while her sister, Princess Eugenie, is a director at the Hauser & Wirth art gallery. Zara Tindall, Princess Anne’s daughter, is a successful equestrian. Her brother Peter Phillips has worked in sports management.


    Monaco’s royal family attends National Day Celebrations at the Prince’s Palace of Monaco in November 2016.
    Pascal Le Segretain/Getty Images

    Monaco’s royal family has four adult members who work as full-time royals – Prince Albert II, his wife Princess Charlene and his sisters Princess Caroline and Princess Stephanie.

    Albert II and Charlene have two young children – twins Princess Gabriella and Prince Jacques. Gabriella was born two minutes earlier than Jacques, but he will one day take over the monarchy. As a man, he will take precedence over his older sister. Albert II has two older children, who were born out of wedlock and as such are not considered royal.

    The royal house received $54.4 million in 2020, according to the principality’s official budget. Of that, $14.6 million goes to the Prince, while the rest covers the administration, staff and palace maintenance costs.

    The Netherlands

    King Willem-Alexander, right, pictured with members of the Dutch royal family during their annual winter sports photo session in Lech, Austria, in February 2019.
    Handout/Patrick van Katwijk

    The Dutch royal family includes seven adults and three children who are considered full-time royals.

    These are King Willem-Alexander, his wife Queen Máxima and their three daughters, the Princess of Orange Catharina-Amalia, Princess Alexia and Princess Ariane.

    The King’s mother, the former Queen Beatrix, abdicated in favor of Willem-Alexander in 2013.

    The King’s brother, Prince Constantijn and his wife Princess Laurentien, are also full-time royals, as are the King’s aunt, Princess Margriet and her husband Pieter van Vollenhoven, who are missing from the photo above. Beatrix’s other son, Prince Friso, died in 2013.

    The monarchy received €44.4 million ($49.2 million) in funding for 2020, according to its official website. Of that, the King gets €5.9 million ($6.5 million).


    The Norwegian royal family is headed by King Harald V, center.
    Handout/Lise Åserud/NTB scanpix

    Seven members of the Norwegian royal family, including two children, are considered full-time royals, according to the monarchy’s official website.

    They are King Harald V and his wife Queen Sonja, their son Crown Prince Haakon and his family, and the King’s sister Princess Astrid.

    Princess Astrid, who is missing from the photograph above, receives an honorary pension in recognition of her past work. After the death of her mother, Crown Princess Märtha in 1954, Astrid acted as the First Lady of the country for 14 years, until her brother, the future king, married.

    According to official budget documents, the monarchy received 433.9 million Norwegian crowns ($48.7 million) in funding in 2019. Of that, $1.4 million went to the King and Queen and $1.1 million to the Crown Prince and Princess.

    Princess Martha Louise, Haakon’s sister, carries out some official duties, but also works on her own projects outside the royal family. She has written several books and has a YouTube channel about horses; she is also an alternative medicine therapist. After criticism last year, Martha Louise announced she would stop using her royal title in her private life.


    King Philippe, back row, center, attends a Christmas Concert with other members of Belgium’s royal family at the Royal Palace in Brussels, in December 2019.
    Olivier Matthys/Getty Images

    The Belgian royal family received $14.6 million in public money in 2018, according to its official website.

    The biggest chunk of that – $12.9 million – was used to cover the costs related to King Philippe’s official duties. Those include staff, the maintenance costs of running the Royal Palace in Brussels (the King’s workplace), and the Castle of Laeken, the family’s official residence. Expenses such as utility bills, cars and all costs related to official activities are also paid out of this pot.