(CNN)Juan Elias, a father of two in Oakland, California, has been experiencing a feeling that is deeply familiar to most moms since he became the primary caregiver of his two sons during the pandemic.
Fatherhood and the pandemic: How men are stepping up with child care
"I'm suffering from guilt. It's a new feeling, and I have it all the time," Elias said about the pressure to make sure his sons, 4 and 7, are being adequately stimulated during the day. "It's hard. My brain is split, my attention is going in so many directions at once."
For many dads, this Father's Day will be different. Sure, they've always loved their kids and valued being a parent. But never before have so many fathers spent so much time deep in the parenting trenches.
With the pandemic came more time at home for everyone. And with that, came more time with our kids, making lunches, managing schedules, negotiating television and video game time and tending to tantrums and sibling spats.
Moms, early research has shown, have taken on more of this work. That's partially because they're less likely to be employed outside the home or have flexible jobs, and partially because old habits die hard. It's predicted that mothers will bear most of the burden of the pandemic, professionally and financially in the long run.
Before the pandemic, women were already, on average, making less than men and doing more unpaid household labor — even when both parents had full-time jobs.
But — and here's the good news — the shelter-in-place laws have led to dads doing more than ever around the house. Some experts believe this could be a watershed moment for gender equality in the home.
Over the past 50 years, fathers have, bit by bit, become more engaged parents.
Today's dads do roughly three times as much child care, and more than two times as much housework as fathers did in 1965. Also, the majority of dads say they value gender equality in the home and want to spend more time with their kids.
Still, we're far from equity around the house, and women suffer for it. Mothers are penalized at work thanks to the assumption that they, and not their male partners if they have one, will be sidetracked by domestic responsibilities.
Also, paternity leave, paid or unpaid, remains rare, and even when fathers are offered it they don't take it. This is despite evidence that paternity leave leads to dads being more involved fathers in the long run, and more equitably dividing chores with their partners.
This is as cultural as it is structural, and those two pieces are chicken and the egg. We lack policies — at least in the United States — that allow parents to share work more equitably because the people don't demand them, and people can't embrace more equitable sharing because the policies don't allow them.
"Men are torn between the breadwinning role and parenting," said Daniel L. Carlson, assistant professor of family and consumer studies at the University of Utah.
"We know that most women say they won't marry a man who won't be a breadwinner. But then the men also want to be involved dads. Then at the workplace, they're expected to be only the breadwinner with no other responsibilities and, when push comes to shove, work wins."
Sometimes, big shifts require an external tipping point, and Carlson and other experts believed Covid-19 might provide just that when it comes to men reconciling their work and family lives.
A recent survey conducted by Carlson and colleagues found that, according to both men and women, men are doing more child care and housework during the pandemic than they did before.
This research is consistent with findings from Harvard University as well as internatinal studies from Canada, Turkey, the Netherlands and elsewhere. According to the Harvard study, 68% of dads said they report feeling closer or much closer to their children since the pandemic, and 57% percent said they are appreciating their children more.
Also, a recent study from New America based on data collected before the pandemic found that fathers today want to be emotionally connected to their children. In the survey, more fathers rated "showing love and affection" and "teaching the child about life" as "very important" rather than being the breadwinner.
"The hope is that even when we go back to a pre-pandemic situation, men will continue doing more around the house. We know this is the case when men take parental leave and are home when their babies are born. They maintain high levels of involvement [with their families] when they go back to work," Carlson said.
For many dads, the pandemic has given them a chance to think more deeply about how they engage with their children, and ways in which they might do it better.
"These days I find that I am constantly in conversation with myself, thinking more about how to care for my son. I'm thinking more about how to handle my frustration with my 4-year-old," said Shiv Gupta, a father of one in Berkeley, California, who has done more caregiving since the pandemic started on account of his wife being a doctor.
Gupta's son has Down syndrome, and, until recently, his wife has led the effort to make sure their son is developing as best as he can through educational exercises and therapies. But now, Gupta is taking more of that on, through research and engagement with his son.
"Am I doing enough? Am I doing it on par with my wife? I don't think so, but I am trying. I have a long way to go."
Titan Alon, assistant professor of economics at University of California, San Diego, said that the pandemic will also likely lead to structural changes at work that will make dads' deeper engagement with family life possible.
"What we expect culturally, and what the economics of the day require, are linked," Alon said. "The old norms and models [of work] don't work in the modern economic environment."