Houllier coached the French national team between 1992 and 1993, as well as leading club sides Paris Saint-Germain and Lyon to French league titles.
In his six-year stint at the helm of Liverpool, Houllier won the FA Cup, UEFA Cup and the League Cup twice.
He decided to step down as manager of English side Aston Villa in 2011 after he suffered a dissection of the descending aorta.
While Liverpool manager, Houllier underwent 11 hours of open-heart surgery after a tear was discovered in his aortic valve, according to the Liverpool Echo.
The French Football Federation said it sends its "most sincere condolences to the family and relatives" of Houllier.
One of the players who Houllier said he was most "proud" of coaching while he was Liverpool, Jamie Carragher,