The case is part of a lawsuit launched two years ago and the hearing will start Thursday, a judicial source confirmed to CNN.
"Great day for #climate justice," tweeted Greenpeace France, one of the plaintiffs in the case.
The lawsuit was launched by four NGOs, including Greenpeace France and Oxfam France, following an online petition that gathered 2.3 million signatures -- the largest in French history, according to the organizers.
Climate activists took to the streets near the Paris administrative tribunal Thursday morning. Images provided by the NGOs showed a giant banner which read: "We are 2.3 million."
The signatories hope the court will "compel the State to take all necessary measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions" to meet the 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) target set by the Paris Agreement, says the online petition.
The Paris Agreement, a pact signed into effect in 2016 by almost all the world's countries, seeks to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) and pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit).
Currently, the world is set to warm by 2.7 degrees Celsius (4.86 degrees Fahrenheit) by the end of the century, according to the Climate Action Tracker (CAT) -- a non-profit analysis group which tracks government climate action. This will bring more extreme storms, heatwaves, greater sea level rise, and, for many parts of the world, worse droughts and rainfall extremes.
French campaigners also want recognition of "the State's climate inaction, that is to say the non-compliance by France of its commitments."