(CNN)Younger and middle-age Americans have been dying at higher rates over the past three decades, marking what is becoming a public health crisis across the US workforce.
Among the causes of death increasingly striking working-age Americans between 1990 and 2017 are drug overdose, alcohol use and suicides, according to a new report published Tuesday by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Cardiometabolic conditions, which include diabetes and heart diseases, are another major driver toward the trend that Americans are more likely to die before age 65 than those who live in other rich nations.
Young adults between ages 25 and 44 have grown up amid an obesity epidemic, often with unhealthy diets and a lack of safe, open space for exercise, the authors of the report point out.
"We're losing more and more Americans in the prime of their lives, in their most productive years and in their parenting years," said Kathleen Mullan Harris, a professor of sociology at the University of North Carolina. She chairs the Committee on Rising Midlife Mortality Rates and Socio-Economic Disparities, which authored the report.
Declines in life expectancy over decades
The committee, which included researchers from universities around the country, was convened to help explain why US life expectancy had plateaued, and then declined in recent years.
"Beginning in 2010, progress in life expectancy stalled in the United States. Then between 2014 and 2017, life expectancy fell for three years in a row," Harris said in a news conference on Tuesday.
The three-year slide was the largest sustained decline in life expectancy since the 1918 flu pandemic.
The commitee did not examine data from the past year, but its final report comes after the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that overall US life expectancy had dropped a full year in the first half of 2020, during the Covid-19 pandemic.
The current pandemic has only exacerbated the underlying trends driving down life expectancy in working age Americans, particularly in how disparities in health affect working class communities avnd people of color.
Higher death rates since 1990 among Black Americans can be traced to inequalities in socioeconomic status, health care, housing and education -- all driven by historic systemic racism, the report noted.
During the 27-year period highlighted in the report, fatal drug overdoses rose sharply particularly in Appalachia, New England and the industrial Midwest, as the market was flooded with highly addictive prescr