In India, as elephants lose their forest habitats they are increasingly coming face to face with humans. Each year, around 100 elephants are killed by human-related activity in India -- some from being run over by trains, others in retaliation for damage to crops and property. Scroll through the gallery to see more examples of human-wildlife conflict.
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One of the last strongholds of the Bengal tiger is a huge mangrove forest called the Sundarbans, which crosses India and Bangladesh. As rising sea levels shrink their habitat, Bengal tigers are venturing closer to human settlements. According to a 2013 study, at least three tigers and 20-30 humans are killed each year as a result of human-tiger conflict. Conservation groups in the area have introduced a tiger telephone hotline and other measures to help prevent attacks.
Threatened grizzly bear populations on the US-Canada border have a long history of conflict with humans. Researchers have managed to reduce the problem by educating the public about bears, providing homes with bear-resistant garbage bins, and patrolling bear habitat in areas where they have important food sources, to reduce the need for them to go into towns to feed.
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In the US, mountain lions are increasingly coming in contact with humans. In an effort to understand the causes, a 2020 study found that trophy hunting, which is legal in most western states, is making the problem worse. This is partly because if a mature male is killed, it leaves behind younger cats that have not yet learned how to hunt proficiently and sometimes mistake humans for food.
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In Chobe, in northern Botswana, the encroachment of people in and around wildlife pathways drives human-wildlife conflict. Research has shown that creating urban wildlife corridors make it easier for elephants to pass through towns without causing harm to local communities.