Taipei port, Taiwan CNN  — 

In simulated scenes, a hostile enemy attempts to seize control of a key waterway close to the Taiwanese capital. Attacking from sea and air, the invading forces target the mouth of the Tamsui River on the island’s northern coast – a strategic estuary that provides direct access to the center of Taipei.

In response, Taiwan’s military scrambles Indigenous Defense Fighter (IDF) jets and tanks, while ground troops detonate explosives to stop the advancement.

The scenes are part of the week-long Han Kuang exercises held across Taiwan and its outlying islands until Friday. The annual event has been running since 1984 and involves all branches of Taiwan’s military – including its reserve forces – in an effort to boost overall defense capabilities.

This year, the drills have taken on a greater significance amid growing concerns over China’s intentions towards Taiwan – a self-governing island that Beijing’s ruling Communist Party claims as its own.

Those concerns have been sharpened by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Beijing has not ruled out the use of force to take control of Taiwan and has been putting growing military pressure on the island by sending aircraft into its self-declared air defense identification zone.

Beijing has also reacted sternly to reports that US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi is considering a trip to Taipei, warning that China’s military would “resolutely defend national sovereignty” if faced with “external forces” encouraging Taiwanese independence.

“China demands the US take concrete actions to fulfill its commitment not to support ‘Taiwan independence’ and not to arrange for Pelosi to visit Taiwan,” China’s Ministry of Defense spokesperson Tan Kefei said Tuesday in response to questions over Pelosi’s reported trip to Taipei.

“If the US insists on taking its own course, the Chinese military will never sit idly by, and it will definitely take strong actions to thwart any external force’s interference and separatist’s schemes for ‘Taiwan independence,’ and resolutely defend national sovereignty and territorial integrity,” Tan added.

A week-long military exercise

The Han Kuang exercises are the biggest annual live-fire drills of their type held each year in Taiwan, a democratically-ruled island of 24 million.

On Tuesday, with Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen watching on, the island’s military simulated an attack on the Su’ao Naval Base, a major military port in northeastern Taiwan, with its forces playing the roles of both aggressor and defender.

For two hours, Mirage 2000 and F-16 jets scrambled to intercept war planes invading from the east; helicopters played cat and mouse with submarines; and guided-missile destroyers fired cannon, missiles and torpedoes at an imagined armada bearing down on the shore.

The drills demonstrate “the ability and determination of our military in defending our country,” Tsai told the troops afterward.

It’s likely the Chinese military will be among those taking the keenest interest in how the drills play out.

A helicopter and a submarine take part in Taiwan's live-fire military drills on July 26.

On Monday, a Chinese combat and reconnaissance drone flew through Japan’s Miyako Strait, before loitering in the airspace off Taiwan’s eastern coast, according to a flight path released by the Japanese Defense Ministry.

The drills are also designed to teach residents how to respond if Taiwan were to come under attack.

For 30 minutes on Monday afternoon, traffic in Taipei was halted and residents took shelter as air raid sirens blared out across the city. Similar exercises are being held throughout Taiwan for the rest of the week.

The Taipei City government said the purpose of the air raid drills was to teach the public the location of bomb shelters “in the event of war.”

Empty streets during an air defense drill in Taipei on July 25.