An illustration of a suited Artemis astronaut looking out of a Moon lander hatch across the lunar surface, the Lunar Terrain Vehicle and other surface elements.
Here's how NASA wants to send humans back to the moon
04:10 - Source: CNN Business

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Artemis I will carry an unconventional crew when it’s expected to lift off Wednesday on a journey around the moon.

Rather than astronauts, a mannequin named Commander Moonikin Campos will helm the Orion spacecraft, with two mannequin torsos called Helga and Zohar along for the ride.

The Artemis program aims to land the first woman and the first person of color on the moon and eventually deliver astronauts to Mars.

The inaugural mission will test out the new Space Launch System rocket, Orion spacecraft and multiple components designed to make deep space travel safer for humans.

Commander Moonikin Campos (left) and twin torsos Helga and Zohar will be the crew for Artemis I.

Mannequins in a spacecraft with enviable views of the moon may sound like some sort of joke, but these three passengers will serve as canaries in the coal mine of space.

Orion will travel 40,000 miles (64,373 kilometers) beyond the moon, breaking the record set by Apollo 13, to go farther than any spacecraft intended to carry humans.

This is far from low-Earth orbit, where the International Space Station circles the Earth. Orion’s future crews will be exposed to deep space radiation – especially once they venture for longer stays on the moon and set off for Mars.

Moonikin’s mission

Commander Moonikin Campos’ name, picked via a public contest, is a nod to Arturo Campos, a NASA electrical power subsystem manager who aided in the troubled Apollo 13’s safe return to Earth. The mannequin, sporting the Orion Crew Survival System suit, can collect data on what future human crews might experience.

Commander Moonikin Campos will test out a flight suit intended for future astronauts.

The suit has been designed for Artemis astronauts to wear during launch and reentry, and it is outfitted with two radiation sensors.

It can sustain a crew member for up to six days in the event of an in-space emergency, something that has never been attempted before, said Dustin Gohmert, Orion Crew Survival Systems project manager at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.

“You can almost think of it as a personalized spacecraft – a secondary but much more personalized spacecraft that protects the crew member, provides them pressure, oxygen, cooling and any other life-sustaining functions that are needed,” Gohmert said.

Dummies were in place for drop tests in new seats to simulate the Orion spacecraft's environment.

With new safety features, Commander Moonikin Campos’ seat resembles that of a race car’s, with a cocoon forming around its occupant, he said. The seat has shock absorbers in case of landing in rough seas or other scenarios.

Phantom twins

Twin mannequins Helga and Zohar have a separate mission. The two torsos are based on phantoms, used for radiation treatment planning in hospitals, said Thomas Berger, Helga and Zohar principal investigator at the German Aerospace Center.

The phantoms Helga and Zohar will experience deep space radiation inside Orion.

Both phantoms are made of materials that mimic the soft tissue, organs and bones of a woman. Their epoxy resin forms even resemble human lung and brain tissue to test how radiation passes through the human body.

The torsos have more than 5,600 sensors and 34 radiation detectors to measure how much radiation exposure occurs within different organs during the mission.

The mannequins are part of the Matroshka AstroRad Radiation Experiment, or MARE, a collaboration between the German Aerospace Center, the Israel Space Agency, NASA and institutions across multiple countries.

Zohar will wear AstroRad, a radiation protection vest, to test how effective it could be if future crews encounter a solar storm, while Helga will be unprotected.

The AstroRad vest was tested on the International Space Station in January 2020.